Your search found 160 Results

  1. 1
    375880

    Strengthening health systems to respond to women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence: a manual for health managers.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 172 p.

    This manual is intended for health managers at all levels of the health systems. The manual is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines, 2013. Those guidelines inform this manual and its companion clinical handbook for healthcare providers, Health care for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence, 2014. The manual draws on the WHO health systems building blocks as outlined in Everybody’s business: strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action..
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  2. 2
    375853

    Cervical cancer screening and management of cervical pre-cancers. Trainees' handbook and facilitators' guide - Programme managers' manual.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for South-East Asia

    New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2017. 145 p.

    The training manual for programme managers is designed to build the capacity of professionals in managerial positions to develop cervical cancer screening programmes, plan implementation strategies and effectively manage the programme at the national or sub national levels. The guidelines and information included in the manual are intended to be used both by trainees and facilitators while participating in the structured training programme for programme managers. The manual contains different modules to assist trainees to be acquainted with different aspects of planning, implementing and monitoring of cervical cancer screening services. Considering the fact that programme managers need to understand cervical cancer screening in the broader perspective of the national cancer control programme (NCCP), modules describing the planning and implementation of NCCP are also included in the manual. The modules include relevant case studies from real screening programmes in different countries. The manual includes notes to facilitators on how to conduct the various training sessions as per the session plan. The detailed methodology of conducting trainee evaluation is also part of this manual.
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  3. 3
    323933

    Monitoring human rights in contraceptive services and programmes.

    Gruskin S; Kumar S; Nicholson A; Ali M; Khosla R

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 73 p.

    This tool for Monitoring human rights in contraceptive services and programmes contributes to the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) ongoing work on rights-based contraceptive programmes. This work builds directly on WHO’s 2014 Ensuring human rights within contraceptive programmes: a human rights analysis of existing quantitative indicators and the 2015 publication Ensuring human rights within contraceptive service delivery implementation guide by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and WHO. This tool is intended for use by countries to assist them in strengthening their human rights efforts in contraceptive programming. The tool uses existing commonly-used indicators to highlight areas where human rights have been promoted, neglected or violated in contraceptive programming; gaps in programming and in data collection; and opportunities for action within the health sector and beyond, including opportunities for partnership initiatives.
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  4. 4
    375529

    Normative work in nutrition at WHO: Priority setting for guideline development.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, 2017 May. [28] p.

    Nutrition is a direct contributor and target to Sustainable Development Goal 2 (“End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”), a foundation and pre-requisite to Sustainable Development Goal 3 (“Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”), and a decisive enabler to the remaining goals of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports all Member States to achieve “a world free of all forms of malnutrition where all people achieve health and well-being”, a vision supported by our work with Member States and their partners to ensure universal access to effective nutrition actions and to healthy and sustainable diets1, in the context of the overall effort to ensure universal health coverage2. To do this, WHO uses its convening power to help facilitate and align priority setting to mainstream nutrition in the health and development agenda; develop evidence-informed guidance supported by the highest quality science and ethical frameworks; support the adoption of guidance, its implementation and the integration of effective actions into existing or new delivery platforms in the health systems. WHO guidelines are documents developed by WHO containing recommendations for clinical practice or public health policy and programmes. A recommendation tells the intended end-user of the guideline what he or she can or should do in specific situations to achieve the best health and nutrition outcomes possible, individually or at the population level. It offers a choice among different interventions or measures having an anticipated positive impact on health and nutrition, and implications for the use of resources.3 The WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD) develops guidelines in accordance with the procedures established in the WHO Handbook for Guideline Development.2 The WHO guideline development process ensures that WHO guidelines are of high methodological quality and are developed through an independent, transparent, evidence-informed, consensual decision-making process. Though the process with which WHO develops guidelines is highly structured, systematic and transparent, the process for priority setting (i.e. prioritizing topics4 for guideline development) has been a dynamic one, in order to accommodate new and renewed high-level commitments from the WHO Secretariat as well as emerging issues arising from discussions among Member States in the Governing Body fora, such as the World Health Assembly (WHA). The priority issues are determined by their importance (i.e. magnitude, prevalence and distribution of disease or nutrition problems), or the existence of preventable or modifiable biological, behavioural and contextual determinants (risk factors). Updating guidelines is challenging if evidence has to be retrieved to support an increasing number of recommendations. In this situation it is important to give priority to assuring the principle of “primum non nocere” (first do no harm), to address controversial areas, and to set a position on areas in which new evidence has emerged and requires prompt action. Ensuring a well-understood and efficiently communicated prioritization process is therefore crucial as external partners and stakeholders play an important role in the WHO guideline implementation process. Independence and transparency of the prioritization process gives the Organization a means of providing assurance that the process is free of any undue influence that may affect the reputation and objectivity of WHO. Therefore, in an effort to maintain transparency in the normative work of WHO and to enhance the understanding of the process used to prioritize topics for guideline development among Member States and stakeholders, the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD) is leading the work on making the prioritization process more accessible and has developed an online tool to further facilitate the participation of Member States and their stakeholders in the guideline prioritization process. This process aims to complement the decisions of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the decision-making body of WHO. (Excerpts
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  5. 5
    340366

    Guidelines for integrating gender into an M&E framework and system assessment.

    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Carolina Population Center. MEASURE Evaluation

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2016 May. [37] p. (TR-16-128; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This document offers concrete guidance on how organizations can comprehensively and explicitly integrate gender in their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems. It describes how to make each component of a functioning M&E system gender-sensitive and provides guidance on how to assess an M&E system to ensure that gender is fully integrated throughout the system for appropriate collection, compilation, analysis, dissemination, and use of gender data for decision making. This document outlines why it is important to apply a gender lens to M&E processes and structures and contextualizes gender in an M&E system. It then walks you through how to think about gender and address it in each of the components of an M&E system. This guide includes examples of gender-specific assessment questions that can be integrated in an M&E system assessment and provides guidance on how to plan and conduct an M&E system assessment. This guidance document is intended for national health program and M&E managers, subnational health program staff with M&E responsibilities, M&E officers from different agencies or organizations, and development partners who provide M&E support to national and subnational M&E systems.
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  6. 6
    334776
    Peer Reviewed

    World Health Organization guideline development: an evaluation.

    Sinclair D; Isba R; Kredo T; Zani B; Smith H; Garner P

    PLoS ONE. 2013 May; 8(5):e63715.

    Background: Research in 2007 showed that World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations were largely based on expert opinion, rarely used systematic evidence-based methods, and did not follow the organization’s own “Guidelines for Guidelines”. In response, the WHO established a “Guidelines Review Committee” (GRC) to implement and oversee internationally recognized standards. We examined the impact of these changes on WHO guideline documents and explored senior staff’s perceptions of the new procedures. Methods and Findings: We used the AGREE II guideline appraisal tool to appraise ten GRC-approved guidelines from nine WHO departments, and ten pre-GRC guidelines matched by department and topic. We interviewed 20 senior staff across 16 departments and analyzed the transcripts using the framework approach. Average AGREE II scores for GRC-approved guidelines were higher across all six AGREE domains compared with pre-GRC guidelines. The biggest changes were noted for “Rigour of Development” (up 37.6%, from 30.7% to 68.3%) and “Editorial Independence” (up 52.7%, from 20.9% to 73.6%). Four main themes emerged from the interviews: (1) high standards were widely recognized as essential for WHO credibility, particularly with regard to conflicts of interest; (2) views were mixed on whether WHO needed a single quality assurance mechanism, with some departments purposefully bypassing the procedures; (3) staff expressed some uncertainties in applying the GRADE approach, with departmental staff concentrating on technicalities while the GRC remained concerned the underlying principles were not fully institutionalized; (4) the capacity to implement the new standards varied widely, with many departments looking to an overstretched GRC for technical support. Conclusions: Since 2007, WHO guideline development methods have become more systematic and transparent. However, some departments are bypassing the procedures, and as yet neither the GRC, nor the quality assurance standards they have set, are fully embedded within the organization.
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  7. 7
    328537

    Procuring Single-Use Injection Equipment and Safety Boxes: A Practical Guide for Pharmacists, Physicians, Procurement Staff and Programme Managers

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals, Department of Blood Safety and Clinical Technology

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003 May 5. (WHO/BCT/03.04)

    The objective of this guide is to accompany pharmacists, physicians, procurement staff and programme managers through the process of procuring single-use injection equipment and safety boxes of assured quality, on a national or international market, at reasonable prices. International organizations have established standardized procurement procedures for medicines and medical devices. This guide describes how these procedures can be used to ensure the procurement of injection equipment and safety boxes. Institutions procuring injection equipment need to develop a list of manufacturers that are prequalified on the basis of certain criteria which include international quality standards. This guide provides steps and tools for procurement, including a pre-qualification procedure of injection equipment for purchase. Developing a monitoring system for supplier performance will improve and safeguard the quality of injection equipment selected and prevent or eliminate unreliable suppliers.
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  8. 8
    328498
    Peer Reviewed

    Community participation: lessons for maternal, newborn, and child health.

    Rosato M; Laverack G; Grabman LH; Tripathy P; Nair N; Mwansambo C; Azad K; Morrison J; Bhutta Z; Perry H; Rifkin S; Costello A

    Lancet. 2008 Sep 13; 372(9642):962-71.

    Primary health care was ratified as the health policy of WHO member states in 1978.(1) Participation in health care was a key principle in the Alma-Ata Declaration. In developing countries, antenatal, delivery, and postnatal experiences for women usually take place in communities rather than health facilities. Strategies to improve maternal and child health should therefore involve the community as a complement to any facility-based component. The fourth article of the Declaration stated that, "people have the right and duty to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of their health care", and the seventh article stated that primary health care "requires and promotes maximum community and individual self-reliance and participation in the planning, organization, operation and control of primary health care". But is community participation an essential prerequisite for better health outcomes or simply a useful but non-essential companion to the delivery of treatments and preventive health education? Might it be essential only as a transitional strategy: crucial for the poorest and most deprived populations but largely irrelevant once health care systems are established? Or is the failure to incorporate community participation into large-scale primary health care programmes a major reason for why we are failing to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 for reduction of maternal and child mortality?
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  9. 9
    326019

    Prioritizing second-line antiretroviral drugs for adults and adolescents: a public health approach. Report of a WHO working group meeting, World Health Organization, HIV Department, Geneva, Switzerland, 21-22 May 2007.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. HIV Department

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007. 43 p.

    Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the survival of HIV infected individuals and is critically needed to save millions of lives. As resource-limited countries rapidly expand their HIV/AIDS treatment programmes, increasingly countries are faced with the need to make second-line ART regimens available. The 2006 WHO ARV treatment guidelines outline the strategic approaches that should inform updated national treatment guidelines for first- and second-line therapies, and outline which agents should be considered for use in first line and second line. National programmes, however, are requesting additional operational guidance on the composition of their 2nd line ART formularies based on programmatic efficiencies and costs. As the ARV formulary is generally limited in developing countries, there is an increasing and urgent need for principles and criteria by which to prioritize ARV options. Regulatory bodies both nationally and internationally (e.g. the WHO pre-qualification project) are also requesting guidance on how to select the most needed therapeutic ARV agents for rapid appraisal. WHO therefore convened an expert meeting to review the scientific evidence and programmatic data available, in order to develop guidance for national programmes, regulatory authorities and implementing partners on selection, prioritization and planning for second-line ARV drugs. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    322872

    Decentralising HIV M&E in Africa. Country experiences and implementation options in building and sustaining sub-national HIV M&E systems, in the context of local government reforms and decentralised HIV responses.

    Fraser N; Ndiaye A; Gorgens-Albino M

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Global HIV / AIDS Program, 2007 Aug. 10 p. (HIV / AIDS M&E -- Getting Results)

    In operationalising the 3rd of the Three Ones - One HIV M&E system, a growing number of countries in Africa are opting to decentralise their national HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems. This decentralization is primarily driven by other decentralisation processes happening within government, and by the fact that the HIV response itself is changing towards less centralized intervention and increased community ownership. Decentralisation of national HIV M&E systems is an arduous and resource intensive process, but experience has shown that it is essential to decentralise M&E functions as HIV services are rolled out. This note summarizes the experience of countries that are decentralizing their national HIV M&E systems and describes how it can be done. It defines decentralization, discusses the rationale and benefits of decentralizing the HIV response, and key factors to take into account when doing so. Decentralizing the HIV M&E system is linked to decentralizing the HIV response. The note describes how each of the 12 components of a HIV M&E system can be decentralized, with country examples. (author's)
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  11. 11
    322953
    Peer Reviewed

    Elizabeth Mataka: UN Special Envoy for HIV / AIDS in Africa.

    Schatz JJ

    Lancet. 2007 Dec 1; 370(9602):1821.

    One Sunday morning last year, an elderly Zambian woman, four grandchildren in tow, showed up at Elizabeth Mataka's door. "I'm looking for Mrs Mataka-people said she will help me. She's the one who helps grandmothers", the woman said. She had found exactly the right person. Mataka, herself a grandmother of three, heads the Zambia National AIDS Network (ZNAN) and helps coordinate funds fl owing in from donors. And earlier this year she was elevated to the highest levels of the global response to the pandemic. In April, 61-year-old Mataka was elected Vice Chair of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The next month, she got a surprise midnight call from New York with the news that she had been chosen to replace the outgoing United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, Canadian diplomat Stephen Lewis. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    320919

    Integrating gender issues into HIV / AIDS programs: an operational guide.

    Ofosu-Amaah AW; Oppong MY

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Gender and Development Group, 2004 Nov. [43] p.

    This Operational Guide provides specific guidance to national HIV/AIDS program management teams, public-sector ministries, private sector entities, and non-governmental and community-based organizations (NGOs/CBOs) implementing World Bank-financed HIV/AIDS programs and projects, as well as the World Bank's operational staff who design these programs and projects. It provides concrete examples of the integration of gender concerns into all stages of project preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The immediate objective is to provide the tools needed to identify and analyze gender-specific issues and concerns in HIV/AIDS programs and make appropriate provisions in HIV/AIDS operations to address these concerns. The ultimate goal of this Operational Guide is to enhance the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions by ensuring that the gender inequalities that underlie the epidemic are addressed. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    318925
    Peer Reviewed

    Michel Kazatchkine: The Global Fund’s new Executive Director.

    McCarthy M

    Lancet. 2007 Jul 28; 370(9584):311.

    In 1983, Michel Kazatchkine was a clinical immunologist at the Hôpital Broussais in Paris, France, when he was called to see a French couple with unexplained fever and severe immune deficiency who had been airlifted home from Africa. This man and woman were the first of many AIDS patients that Kazatchkine would take care of in the coming decades. There were no effective antiretroviral treatments available, and the couple lived only a few months on the ward before dying. "Those were difficult years with patients dying every day on the wards", Kazatchkine recalls. Much of his time, he says, was spent providing end-of-life care, consoling patients, "and holding their hands when they were dying". This year, after more than two decades of working in AIDS clinical care, research, and international programmes, Kazatchkine takes over the helm of the second largest funder of AIDS care: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria. Anthony Fauci, Director of the US National Institute of Allergy andInfectious Disease, who says he has worked "up close and personal" with Kazatchkine since the early days of the epidemic, calls him "the perfect kind of person for the position". He's a scientist who understands the science; a clinician who understands clinical care; and an expert in AIDS who understands the epidemic, Fauci says. "He's also a fine 'people person': the kind of person who can build consensus, but also the kind of person who can take the lead." (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    318924
    Peer Reviewed

    The Global Fund: 5 years on.

    McCarthy M

    Lancet. 2007 Jul 28; 370(9584):307-308.

    This spring the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria announced that its programmes had treated nearly 3 million tuberculosis patients, distributed more than 30 million insecticide-treated bednets, and were providing antiretroviral drugs to more than 1 million people infected with HIV. After nearly 5 years of operation "Global Fund programmes are saving 3000 lives a day", says the Fund's new executive director Michel Kazatchkine. The Fund was launched in 2002 to raise, manage, and disburse funds to fight three leading killers of people in poor countries: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. At the time, efforts to combat those diseases were fragmented and woefully underfunded. The Fund's narrow focus has won it the approval of foreign-aid sceptics such as William Easterly, professor of economics at New York University in New York City and author of the book White Man's Burden, which critiques many current development programmes. "One of the curses of foreign aid is that each agency tries to do everything; and when you try to do everything, you tend to do a mediocre or bad job", Easterly says. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    317554
    Peer Reviewed

    Margaret Chan?s vision for WHO.

    Samarasekera U

    Lancet. 2007 Jun 9; 369(9577):1915-1916.

    When the late Lee Jong-wook, former Director-General of WHO, took office in July, 2003, he made his priorities clear: HIV/AIDS was topping the agenda at the global health agency. In his first few months he launched his signature issue-the 3 by 5 campaign-which aimed to provide antiretroviral drugs to 3 million people in developing countries by 2005. His successor, Margaret Chan, who took office on Jan 4 this year, has taken a decidedly different approach to putting her stamp on the organisation. She has spent her first 100 days in office consulting with her colleagues to refine and sharpen her vision for WHO. Presenting her six priorities-health development, health security, strengthening health systems, using evidence to define strategies and measure results, managing partnerships to get the best results in countries, and improving the performance of WHO-to the 60th World Health Assembly (WHA) in May, Chan confirmed that these were now WHO's agenda. Rather than major new initiatives at this stage, Chan has opted for a "simple but elegant framework for looking at how WHO can help countries to develop better health outcomes", explains Ian Smith, one of Chan's advisers. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    313141

    Joint ILO / UNESCO Caribbean Sub-Regional Workshop: Improving Responses to HIV / AIDS in Education Sector Workplaces. Report. September 28-30, 2005, Hilton Kingston Hotel, Jamaica.

    Budhlall P

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization [ILO], 2006. [44] p.

    The workshop was organized under the auspices of an ILO-initiated programme during 2004-2005 to enhance a sectoral approach to HIV/AIDS education sector workplaces, as a complement to the ILO?s Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS in the world of work, adopted in 2001. A number of research papers and assessments prepared by international organizations in recent years have highlighted the vulnerability of education sector workers, foremost teachers, who are considered to be highly susceptible to HIV and AIDS infection in developing countries. The high prevalence, disability and mortality rates among these personnel in turn deprive affected countries of some of their most educated and skilled human resources. Moreover, teachers are often not trained or supported to deal with the HIV/AIDS crisis within schools, and the disease has also affected the management capacity of education systems to respond to mounting crises. In 2005, UNESCO joined forces with the ILO to spearhead the development of an HIV and AIDSworkplace strategy for the Caribbean which has as its objective the development of a model workplace policy and related resource materials for use by education staff and stakeholders at national and institutional levels of a nation?s education system. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    313139

    Joint ILO / UNESCO Southern African Subregional Workshop, 30 November - 2 December 2005, Maputo, Mozambique. Improving responses to HIV / AIDS in education sector workplaces. Report.

    International Labour Organization [ILO]; UNESCO

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 2006. 63 p.

    The workshop was organized under the auspices of an ILO programme initiated in 2004, developing a sectoral approach to HIV/AIDS education sector workplaces, as a complement to the ILO's code of practice HIV/AIDS and the world of work, adopted in 2001. A number of research papers and assessments prepared by international organizations in recent years have highlighted the impact of HIV and AIDS on the education sector workforce in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. High prevalence results in morbidity and mortality rates which deprive affected countries of some of their most educated and skilled human resources. In addition, teachers are often not trained or supported to deal with HIV in schools, and the disease has also affected the management capacity of education systems. In 2005, UNESCO joined the ILO in a collaborative project, aimed at the development of an HIV and AIDS workplace policy and related resource materials for use by education staff and stakeholders at national and institutional levels in southern African countries. The workshop in Maputo brought together representatives of government (ministries of labour and education), employer organizations and teacher/educator unions from seven countries to participate in this process, along with representatives of regional and international organizations (see Appendix 1 for list of participants). (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    308260

    Learning by inquiry: sexual and reproductive health field experiences from CARE in Asia.

    Fletcher G; Magar V; Noij F

    Atlanta, Georgia, CARE, 2005 Jun. 32 p. (Sexual and Reproductive Health Working Paper Series No. 1)

    In other words, keep digging below the surface. Getting rid of a thorny plant means digging right to the roots; it is not enough to just cut back the branches! But sometimes, fears of "getting it wrong" and other work pressures can leave staff unsure of how to deal with questions like: What do we really know about what is happening at field level? Do our project designs really achieve their intended effect? Why are we implementing projects this way? How do social and personal relationships in and around the project work? Who holds what power? Are we contributing enough to the creation of positive change in people's lives? How could we do more? These are not easy questions - and there are no simple answers. But by asking such questions throughout the project cycle, and looking for answers and amending work as a result, staff can increase project impact. Making one set of changes, however, is not enough. Staff must keep asking questions. Do the changes work? If so, who do they benefit? How? Where is the power now? Have inequities changed? And what else can be done to create greater change in people's lives? This approach is often referred to as "reflective learning," or learning by inquiry. It is closely linked with organizational learning. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    312470

    Procurement manual for the DOTS-Plus projects approved by the Green Light Committee.

    Jille I; Jouberton F; Jaramillo E; Sereguina M; Wehrens R

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006 Apr. 20 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2003.328 Rev.2)

    The IDA Foundation is a non-profit organization supporting health care in low- and middle-income countries by providing high-quality drugs and medical supplies at the lowest possible price. In addition, IDA provides procurement agency services and offers consultancy and training on topics related to the various aspects of pharmaceutical supply management. IDA is based in the Netherlands and is ISO 9002-2000 and GDP certified. The quality of IDA products is verified in IDA's GcLP-approved laboratories. GLC is a subgroup of the Stop TB Working Group on DOTS-Plus for MDR-TB. GLC has been established to review applications from potential DOTS-Plus pilot projects and determine whether they are in compliance with WHO's Guidelines for establishing DOTSPlus pilot projects for the management of MDR-TB. Projects that are approved will benefit from second-line anti-TB drugs at concessional prices and from technical assistance from the GLC. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    310953
    Peer Reviewed

    Health in an unequal world.

    Marmot M

    Lancet. 2006 Dec 9; 368(9552):2081-2094.

    William Harvey was born in Folkestone on April 1, 1578. He was educated at the King's School, Canterbury, Gonville, and Caius College, Cambridge, and the University of Padua, graduating as doctor of arts and medicine in 1602. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1607 and was appointed to the Lumleian lectureship in 1615. In the cycles of his Lumleian lectures over the next 13 years, Harvey developed and refined his ideas about the circulation of the blood. He published his conclusions in 1628 in Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, which marks the beginning of clinical science. In it, Harvey considered the structure of the heart, arteries, and veins with their valves. By carefully devised experiments and supported by the demonstration of the unidirectional flow of the blood in the superficial veins of his own forearm, he established that the blood circulated, and did not ebb and flow as had been believed for more than 1000 years. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    309889

    A healthy partnership -- a case study of the MOH contract to KHANA for disbursement of World Bank funds for HIV / AIDS in Cambodia.

    Wilkinson D

    [Brighton, England], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2005 Mar. 12 p.

    In 1998, the Cambodian Ministry of Health was experiencing difficulties in disbursing World Bank funds earmarked for local NGOs/CBOs, and in 1999, contracted Khana to manage the disbursement process. Given the scarcity of documented successful government-NGO/CBO disbursement initiatives, the Alliance commissioned a case study of this mechanism of making World Bank funds more accessible to civil society organisations. This report of the case study outlines the background and context to adopting the disbursement mechanism, explains the selection of the disbursing agency and the process of contract negotiation, details the nature and quantity of the disbursement, and identifies the strengths, weaknesses and lessons learned from this model. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    306773

    Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. GDF / MSH Drug Management Consultant Training Workshop in Vietnam: trip report.

    Moore T

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Nov 11. 12 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-076; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)

    More than eight million people become sick with Tuberculosis (TB) each year. TB continues to be a major international killer disease because of poor access to effective high quality medicines, irrational treatment decisions and behaviors, and counterproductive financial priorities by some national health systems that impede progress. Access to TB medicines is becoming less of a problem as both first and second-line TB treatments are made available to developing countries through global initiatives such as the Global TB Drug Facility (GDF) and the Green Light Committee (GLC) of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Stop TB department in Geneva. Since 2001 Management Sciences for Health (MSH) through the USAID-funded Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) program has collaborated with Stop TB to promote better overall TB drug management by GDF and GLC secretariats and by national TB control programs. RPM Plus activities include technical assistance to the GDF and the GLC to develop program monitoring tools, conduct TB program monitoring missions to recipient countries of GDF drugs, audits of monitoring missions conducted by partner organizations and training workshops on TB pharmaceutical management. GDF and GLC secretariats operate with minimal staffs and both depend greatly on partner organizations to carry out the necessary in-country work to make sure TB medicines are received, distributed and used according to guidelines. The number of countries receiving GDF and GLC support is ever increasing requiring even more assistance from partner organizations like MSH/RPM Plus. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    303746

    Guidelines for organizing national external quality assessment schemes for HIV serological testing.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1996 Jan. 35 p. (UNAIDS/96.5)

    These guidelines are destined for policy makers and programme planners wishing to introduce national external quality assessment schemes (NEQAS) for serological testing for human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). They describe some important basic principles and the main practical aspects of NEQAS. The objectives of external quality assessment schemes are briefly discussed below and elsewhere (References 1 and 2 in bibliography, Annex 2). It is now widely accepted that quality assurance, quality control and quality assessment constitute an essential part of HIV testing and of diagnostic testing in general. Quality assessment is one component of a total quality assurance programme. The availability of excellent HIV tests does not automatically guarantee reliable laboratory results. Many steps are involved between the moment when a specimen enters the laboratory and the moment when the result of the test is reported to the physician, and at each step something can go wrong. Therefore each government should ensure that sufficient support is made available for a National Reference Laboratory to provide a suitable programme to monitor and if necessary improve the quality of HIV testing in the country. A well-functioning national programme is an important step towards achieving high-quality laboratory performance nationwide. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    303743

    UNAIDS in individual countries.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, [1996]. 10 p. (Facts about UNAIDS)

    National governments have the primary responsibility for dealing with HIV/AIDS within their own borders, even though many individuals and groups -- from government as well as the wider society -- must be part of the national response. The role of UNAIDS is to strengthen the ability of countries to respond to the epidemic, and to coordinate the UN system's support to that end. To be effective, the national response must be broad-based and multisectoral. AIDS remains an important health issue, but many of the causes and consequences of the epidemic lie outside the health sector. With its unique, collaborative approach, UNAIDS can support countries in the following ways as they mount an expanded response to the epidemic: By advocating more effectively for the introduction of AIDS issues into the country's health, economic and social development agendas. Each UN organization can work with its major counterparts to promote cross-sectoral collaboration; By involving a greater number of partners in AIDS activities. Each UN organization can help involve partners not yet participating in the response to the epidemic, including government departments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector; By allocating resources more efficiently and effectively in support of national efforts. Working together, the UN organizations can identify overlaps, gaps and opportunities for integrating AIDS into related programmes; By making better use of local and regional technical expertise available in the UN system. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    297610

    Address by Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the launch of the Integrated Sustainable Community Initiative at the Faculty of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 11 July 2005.

    Matsuura K

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, 2005. [4] p. (DG/2005/115)

    I am very pleased to be with you today for this launch of the Integrated Sustainable Community Initiative. Let me begin by thanking the university authorities for the warm welcome I have received here at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Not all of you were there, so let me tell you what a joy it was to experience the energy and artistic expression of the young people at the opening ceremony of the World Heritage Committee last night. The Millenium Development Goals, which countries have committed themselves to achieve by 2015, have at their core the reduction of poverty. In his address to the first joint sitting of the third democratic Parliament, President Mbeki reiterated this by making the commitment to move South Africa towards the eradication of poverty and under-development, improve the quality of life for all South Africans and address the persistent challenges of racial and gender inequality. Illiteracy is both a cause and result of poverty and, indeed, is seen as an indicator of poverty. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has also been characterized as a disease of the poor. Equally important is addressing the issue of social cohesion caused by decades of deliberately enforced social divisions. Thus, improving literacy, strengthening the coping mechanisms for dealing with HIV/AIDS and strengthening respect for human rights can contribute greatly to addressing the goals that South Africa has set for itself. (excerpt)
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