Your search found 22 Results

  1. 1

    Lives on hold: making sure no child is left behind in Myanmar.


    [New York, New York], UNICEF, 2017 May. 20 p.

    As part of a series highlighting the challenges faced by children in current crisis situations, this UNICEF Child Alert examines the impact of the reforms, economic growth and national reconciliation process in Myanmar. It also looks at the investments in children’s health, education and protection that Myanmar is making, and shows how children in remote, conflict-affected parts of the country have yet to benefit from them.
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  2. 2

    Republic of India - Health, nutrition and population technical assistance to North East States (India).

    Mullen PM

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 Jun 16. 9 p.

    The eight states in India’s North-East region are connected to the rest of the country by a narrow corridor and (until recently) were classified by the Indian government as special category states. This non-lending technical assistance (NLTA) was requested by the governments of Nagaland and Meghalaya, stemming from previous engagements with the World Bank Group - the state human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) program (supported by International Development Association (IDA) financing) in the case of Nagaland, and International Finance Corporation (IFC) advisory services for private sector involvement in government health insurance program and investment in medical education in the case of Meghalaya. Both state governments show commitment to improving health and nutrition services and outcomes and look to the World Bank to provide support. The state governments requested the Bank for technical assistance in specific areas for which other sources of support, particularly the national health mission, were not available, and improvements in which held the potential to leverage the effectiveness of existing government financing. The development objective of this activity is to support development of health system strategies, policies, and management systems in North East states.
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  3. 3

    Towards universal access to prevention, treatment and care: experiences and challenges from the Mbeya region in Tanzania -- a case study.

    Vogel UF

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2007 Mar. 49 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/07.11E; JC1291E)

    This study takes stock of the situation in Mbeya in 2005, documenting the region's continuing efforts to build on the Regional Programme's strong comprehensive prevention approaches to further increase their coverage while strengthening the new district focus, expanding multisectoral work and making available antiretroviral treatment. In doing so, this study describes Mbeya's progress towards universal access and identifies ongoing challenges. Through its comprehensive, decentralized and multisectoral approaches and the continuing efforts of a variety of actors, the region appears to be in a better position to reach universal access than other parts of Tanzania and Africa in general. The experiences of the Mbeya region to date can serve as lessons learnt to other parts of the country and, more broadly, the continent. This publication is neither a scientific study nor an evaluation of the Regional Programme. It is an analytical description of HIV control activities in the region to date and their status to date. Its focus is mainly on access. The programmes presented here follow national and international recommendations. The quality of the individual programmes, however, has not been assessed for the purpose of this publication. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Do health sector reforms have their intended impacts? The World Bank's Health VIII project in Gansu province, China.

    Wagstaff A; Yu S

    Journal of Health Economics. 2007 May; 26(3):505-535.

    This paper combines differences-in-differences with propensity score matching to estimate the impacts of a health reform project in China that combined supply-side interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness and quality of care with demand-side measures aimed at expanding health insurance and providing financial support to the very poor. Data from household, village and facility surveys suggest the project reduced out-of-pocket spending, and the incidence of catastrophic spending and impoverishment through health expenses. Little impact is detected on the use of services, and while the evidence points to the project reducing sickness days, the evidence on health outcomes is mixed. (author's)
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  5. 5

    Toolkit to improve private provider contributions to child health: introduction and development of national and district strategies.

    Prysor-Jones S; Tawfik Y; Bery R; Wolff A; Bennett L 3d

    Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], Support for Analysis and Research in Africa [SARA], 2005 Jun. 50 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADF-758; USAID Contract No. AOT-C-00-99-00237-00)

    June 2002, the World Bank published a discussion paper titled Working with the Private Sector for Child Health. The paper--developed with technical assistance from the USAID Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development (AFR/SD) through the Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) project--lays out a framework for analyzing the contributions of the private sector in child heath. The framework, outlined below, is designed to serve as a basis for assessing the potential of different components of the private sector at country level. The framework identifies the following components of the private sector as being important for child health: Service providers (formal sector, other for-profit, employers, non-governmental organizations [NGOs], private voluntary organizations [PVOs], and traditional healers); Pharmaceutical companies; Pharmacies; Drug vendors and shopkeepers; Food producers; Media channels; Private suppliers of products related to child health, e.g. ITNs; Health insurance companies. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Strategy to involve rural workers in the fight against HIV / AIDS through community mobilisation programs. Draft for review.

    Schapink D; van Poelje R; Reerink IH; Delion J; Gurung D

    [Unpublished] 2000 May 1. 58 p.

    The Rural HIV/AIDS Initiatives (RAIDS) is a contribution of the rural sector to the Bank’s multisectoral effort designated as AIDS Campaign Team (ACT- Africa) launched in 1999. Starting in 1998, RAIDS attempted to involve rural communities in HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation through rural frontline workers especially extension workers and/or local RAIDS consultants in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Malawi, Niger and Nigeria. RAIDS commissioned a team of consultants from the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) and Tanzania Netherlands Support for AIDS (TANESA) to review rural AIDS activities in SSA and to develop a framework of strategies to involve rural workers and rural communities in HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation efforts. This report is the outcome of their work, and is based on literature review, field visits and KIT/TANESA’s experience on district level approach to HIV/AID prevention and mitigation in Africa. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Somalia. Report on the nutrition situation of refugees and displaced populations. [Somalie : Rapport sur l'état de nutrition des réfugiés et des populations déplacées]

    United Nations. Administrative Committee on Coordination. Sub-Committee on Nutrition

    RNIS. Report on the Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Populations. 2003 Jan; (40):15-18.

    The different nutrition assessments performed in southern Somalia revealed nutrition situations which varied from precarious (category II) to very poor (category I), even if the good Deyr rainfall in some areas may temporarily improve food security. The nutrition situation of the children residing in temporary shelters in the Coastal Belt of Somaliland region is of concern (category II). (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Information support for new public health action at district level.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Information Support for New Public Health Action at District Level


    This World Health Organization expert committee report presents chapters on new public health action towards health for all; current issues in health information; health information needs at the district level; methods for collecting and processing information; the analysis, presentation, and reporting of health information; facilitating the use of health information; and resources and management support to district health information development. Many countries in recent years have developed national health information systems to supply a range of essential health information for national policy making and health planning. National health systems at the district level are closely involved in data collection and reporting. These systems face the challenges of how to continue supporting district-level managers in implementing primary health care and how to decide what new information will be required at the local level, especially for monitoring the equity, coverage, quality, and efficiency of health interventions, as a country undergoes major health system reforms. Health information systems suffer from a number of well-known problems, with further improvements still required in data collection processes, methods of analysis, use of microcomputers and informatics, and the presentation and communication of health information. These new challenges emphasize the critical need that all countries have for reliable, relevant, timely, and useful health information. Recommendations are made for member states and the World Health Organization.
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  9. 9

    The hospital in rural and urban districts. Report of a WHO Study Group on the Functions of Hospitals at the First Referral Level.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on the Functions of Hospitals at the First Referral Level


    In 1992, the WHO Study Group on the Functions of Hospitals at the First Referral Level compiled a report on the functions of the hospital in rural and urban districts. It advocates that the 1st referral level hospital should be integrated into the district health care system, which is administered by a district health council. This approach strengthens primary health care and uses hospital resources to promote health. The most pressing need for this approach to work is changing people's attitudes and motivation. Various obstacles invariably slow this integration process such as resistance by central and local government officials and inadequate funding. The district hospital should help people to find health rather than just cure disease. Further it must accept the fact that it is not the center of the health system. This means a redistribution of both finance and effort. Governments need to improve the decentralization process to facilitate integration. The study group proposes a step by step methodology to integrate the health system. The 1st step is creating a district health council with representatives from the district health office, the hospital, other sectors of the health care system, and the community. The council determines the community diagnosis including population trends, patterns of morbidity and mortality, and disease and risk distribution by age and location. It also needs to review health services in the district. The council can divide these services into preventive, promotional, curative, rehabilitative, and organizational services. It also must reassess distribution of resources including people, buildings, equipment, and materials. The council must draft a plan and deliberate on implementing the plan. Once the council has taken these steps, it can then implement, monitor, and evaluate the plan and its results.
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  10. 10

    [Study of the organization and functioning of the health district. Project to improve care in rural areas. Research report] Rapport de recherche. Etude de l'organisation et du fonctionnement de la circonscription sanitaire. Projet d'amelioration de l'offre de soins en milieu rural.

    Zayyoun A; Rouini M

    Rabat, Morocco, Ministere de la Sante, Institut National d'Administration Sanitaire, 1998 Sep. 35, [37] p.

    This study was conducted to explore the organization and functioning of healthcare operations at the health district level, fully understanding that the health district is the interface between the healthcare system and the population, as well as the implement through which health policies and programs are delivered to populations. Specific study objectives were to describe the organization and functioning of districts, to identify and explain problems with the existing model, to uncover training and reorganizational needs, and to provide a ground-level view of the existing situation prior to the implementation of a project to improve rural healthcare delivery in Morocco. Study results and conclusions are based upon data collected in interviews with selected individuals, from available documentation, and through observation. Data were collected during January 1997 for Mohammadia province and during February 1998 in S. Kacem and Boulmane provinces. Six districts were studied. Study results are presented upon the health district’s mission and role, planning, organization, management, and relation with its environment. Analysis of the data indicates that while health districts understand their roles, they must be placed at the top of the healthcare pyramid rather than at its base in order to achieve the highest possible degree of success. Health districts are on the front lines, but without the necessary tools and framework, while supervision grows increasingly rare and of dubious effectiveness.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Achieving health for all: a proposal from the African Region of WHO.

    Monekosso GL

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1992 Dec; 7(4):364-74.

    The Director of WHO's Regional Office for Africa presents a health development framework based on the primary health care (PHC) concept. the government should review national health policies, national health strategies, and national heath services to resolve basic issues. Then it should define the framework for health development by breaking down the goal into operational target-oriented subgoals for individuals, families, and communities, by creating health districts as operational units, and by organizing support for community health. Once this framework has been decided, the government should use it to restructure the national health systems. At the district level, health and development committees, helped by community health workers, and district health teams would be responsible for community health education and activities. The provincial health offices would oversee district activities, select and adapt technologies, and provide technical support to communities. A board would manage the provincial hospitals (public, private, and voluntary). These hospitals would work together to organize secondary medical care programs. A public health office wold link them with the provincial health centers. Other sectors would also be involved, e.g., departments of education and water. The national health ministry would set national policies, plans, and strategies. A suprasectoral health council would coordinate cooperation between universities and other sectors and external agencies. National capacity building would involve establishing management cycles of health development, using national specialists as health advisors, and placing health as a priority in development. To implement this framework, however, the government needs to surmount considerable structural economic, and social obstacles by at least decentralizing and integrating health and related programs at the local level, fostering a national dialogue, and promoting social mobilization.
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  12. 12

    Technical assistance in research and evaluation, national and state (Benue, Rivers, Niger, Kwara) level projects.

    Kiragu K

    [Unpublished] 1991. [4], 25 p.

    Johns Hopkins University/Population Communications Services (JHU/PCS) Research and Evaluation Officer Karungari Kiragu visited Nigeria October 7-November 7, 1991, to orient new Lagos-based research and evaluation officers to the JHU/PCS evaluation unit and procedures; assist JHU/Lagos and the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria evaluate national music and logo campaigns with a household survey, clinic service statistics, and exit interviews; assist JHU/Lagos staff and Research and Marketing Services with an audience research project, and review focus group discussions and in-depth interview results; assist JHU/Lagos staff with evaluation plans for ongoing activities in Benue, Rivers, and Niger; and assist JHU/Lagos and the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council evaluate Family Life Education activities. All of these objectives were accomplished. While project proposals were originally to be reviewed for Kwara, Kano, Akwa Ibom, and Cross Rivers, priorities were realigned to allow greater focus upon the national music and logo campaigns, as well as the incorporation of new evaluation activities in Benue, Rivers, Niger, and Kwara. Consultants were hired to conduct the music and logo evaluations, several meetings were held to organize the 2 surveys, tentative dates were set for data collection, data collection instrument development commenced, early arrangement for state level evaluation in Benue and Niger was undertaken, and plans were finalized to begin audience research. Specific activities for participating parties are recommended in the report, followed by a comprehensive list of persons contacted during the visit.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Integrating health services: the experience of NGOs in Ethiopia.

    Walley J; Tefera B; McDonald MA

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1991 Dec; 6(4):327-35.

    Many non-governmental organizations (NGO) remained in the Wollo region of Ethiopia following famine relief and emergency medical service efforts of 1984-85. Since then, these organizations have helped identify strategies and processes needed to implement Ministry of Health (MOH) policies, especially in the area of integrated maternal-child/curative health services. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of 4 broad approaches to health development adopted by the NGOs over the post-famine relief period of 1986-88, and considers further strategic adaptation in later years. Under the themes of direct management, clinic adoption, impact area, and air-drop resources, earlier NGO approaches largely suffered poor sustainability, non-replicability, and inefficient use of resources. Moreover, these approaches distracted the MOH from pursuing its own viable approaches, effectively stymieing the development of district and regional health systems. Later NGO approaches support improvements in the MOH's priority health programs through the provision of technical and material assistance for analyzing, developing, and implementing improved systems of district health management and care. NGOs wishing to adapt their existing programs into a comparable health systems approach should build upon existing relationships with the MOH in support of district and regional health services, foster skill development among indigenous health personnel, seek avenues to improve efficiency, and promote activity-based training and regional and district health team management.
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  14. 14

    The advent and growth of television broadcasting in Nigeria: its political and educational overtones.

    Umeh CC

    AFRICA MEDIA REVIEW. 1989; 3(2):54-66.

    In 1959, the regional government of Western Nigeria established the 1st television station in Nigeria and in Africa. Even though it promoted the station as a means to educate the people about development and the world, it initially served as a means for an opposition leader to address the people of Western Nigeria. The regional governments of Eastern and Northern Nigeria and the federal government in Lagos followed and started their own TV stations in the early 1960s. All 4 of these stations basically existed to serve partisan political objectives for the various governments. Any stations established after these 4 continued this same political and regionalistic heritage. In 1973, a new surge of regional consciousness occurred after the now military government allowed the division of the country into 19 states. This change, the concurrent oil boom, and the effectiveness and importance of existing TV broadcasting led to a new surge of state owned TV stations. 3 years later, the military government established the National Television Authority (NTA) to coordinate nationwide coverage. The NTA then acquired existing TV stations. This event slowed the growth of TV broadcasting until 1979 when military government rule ended. The 5 political parties vying for election in the states revoked the NTA charter and a proliferation of TV stations occurred. This also happened because the civilian administration was disorganized. As regionalization played a role in the broadcasting of political propaganda, so did it play a role in educational programming, Despite TV broadcasting's political ties, it has been successful in producing quality educational programs for schools and colleges nationwide via the NTA network with the assistance of UNESCO.
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  15. 15

    Papua New Guinea.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Jul; 1-8.

    The eastern half of the island of New Guinea (85% of total area); the Bismarck, Trobriand, Louisiade, and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos; and Bougainville, Buka, and Woodlark islands constitute the predominantly mountainous country of Papua New Guinea. It is located 160 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean. This tropical country has 2 monsoon seasons with average annual rainfall ranging from 200-250 cm. It has 1 of the most heterogenous populations in the world with as many as several 1000 separate communities. Only 650 languages have yet been identified with 160 of them totally unrelated to each other or to any other language. At different times in its history, the country (or parts thereof) has been under the control of Germany, Australia (its largest bilateral aid donor), Japan, and Britain. After independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea established a veritable and strong parliamentary democracy. This democracy has an excellent human rights record and has a clear respect for these rights. 75% of the population live predominately at subsistence level. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased about 2%/year during the 1980s with agriculture making up 35% of GDP (40% of exports) and mining (copper and gold) 15%. In 1989, exports included 40% of GDP. Other than mining, the industrial sector made up 9% of GDP with little contributing to exports. Food processing was the fastest growing segment of the industrial segment. 45% of agricultural production consisted of subsistence cultivation. Coffee and cocoa were the 2 leading cash crops. Financially, the country was sound in 1989 with exports and imports almost equal from 1986. The United States relationship with Papua New Guinea is friendly and the 2 countries have a good trade relationship.
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  16. 16

    The Kenya Civil Registration Demonstration Project (CRDP): a strategy for a rapidly developing country in Africa.

    Gil B; Ronoh JK

    Nairobi, Kenya, Dept. of the Registrar-General, [1987]. xxiv, 568 p.

    Compulsory registration of births and deaths of all ethnic groups in Kenya began with independence in 1963. Nevertheless only 42% of all expected births and 22% of all expected deaths were being registered by 1979-1980. Recognizing the shortfalls, the Kenyan government began its Civil Registration Demonstration Project (CRDP) with the help of UNFPA in 1981. After the establishment of working committees and tours of targeted areas, the Committee for Improvement of the Registration System (IRS) established the head office in November 1981. It also devised a plan to address the issues of field organization and operations, registration of documents, registration processes, training of CRDP staff and personnel from other ministries, management, evaluation, and statistical data processing. The Committee for Civil Registration Enlightenment Campaign (CREC) set the strategy to secure the cooperation of both adults and primary school children (via its Civil Registration Education Programme) by launching a media campaign and introducing incentives to get people to register births and deaths. To reach all the population, CRDP enlisted the help and cooperation of all ministries. For example, assistant chiefs (employees of the Provincial Administration), village leaders (e.g., village elders and traditional birth attendants), and health personnel (employees of the Ministry of Health) reported and completed registers of birth and death within each smallest administrative unit. They did this along with performing their normal duties. To establish and efficient registration system, staff randomly selected demonstration districts to test the 2 schemes (those of IRS and CREC), and upon successful completion of the experiment, other districts would be added over a 7-10 year period.
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  17. 17

    BEMFAM's population strategies.

    Schiavo MR

    In: Country studies on strategic management in population programmes, edited by Ellen Sattar. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes, 1989 May. 1-23. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Series Vol. 8)

    Brazil has a population of 144 million with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. Brazil also has the highest economic disparity rate in the world, with 65% of the population living below the poverty line. Despite some degree of governmental acceptance of family planning, the government does not have the resources to support an effective program, and it is therefore up to nongovernmental agencies to expand the population's access to family planning. BEMFAM, the Family Well-Being Civil Society, was founded in 1965 to stimulate the creation of a government family planning program. BEMFAM was affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1967 and was granted recognition as a public utility in 1971. BEMFAM's 1st community program was in Rio Grande do Norte, and it was shortly extended to other northeastern states. As a result of political leadership seminars held by BEMFAM in 1980 and 1981, state legislators took the lead in creating the Representatives Group for Population and Development Studies with the goal of integrating state legislatures to implement a national family planning program. Due to BEMFAM's influence, the northeast is the 1 region where people expect to get contraceptives from government health centers. BEMFAM's work is concentrated in 4 areas: studies and surveys; information, education, and communication; training; and service delivery. According to the results of the Brazil Demographic and Health Survey carried out in 1986, 99% of women know of at least 1 contraceptive method, but only 43% use one. The most used method is female sterilization, followed by the pill (28% and 25% respectively). Brazil's new constitution designates family planning as a basic human right. BEMFAM will implement 6 strategies to increase the level of family planning in Brazil. 1) It will act to influence political leaders to improve family planning programs. 2) It will spread information and knowledge about family planning to the community at large. 3) It will train health professionals in family planning. 4) It will assist government agencies and private programs to maintain standards of service. 5) It will conduct studies and carry out research related to family planning, health, and development. 6) It will continually upgrade its own staff and facilities. BEMFAM has prioritized its efforts according to location, need, and sustainability of the programs.
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  18. 18


    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1986 Aug; 1-8.

    The Philippines is an archipelago of 7100 islands and islets, 11 of which compose about 95% of the total area and population. The majority of the Filipinos are descendants of Indonesians and Malays. Approximately 90% of the population are Christian with the majority of the remaining 10% being Moslems. In the 1960s, the annual population growth rate was roughly 3%, but it fell to 2.4% in the late 1970s and was still 2.4% in 1985. In 1970, President Marcos implemented an official family planning policy to reduce the high growth rate and thereby stimulate economic development. A population commission coordinates family planning efforts. Both the Spanish (1521-1898) and the United States (1898-1946) have ruled the Philippines with a brief occupation by the Japanese (1942-1945). The US assisted in the reconstruction of the economy following World War II and continues to maintain and operate military bases. Further, from 1946-1986, the Philippines has received >$3.7 billion in economic and military assistance from the US. The government operated under a constitutional democracy from 1946-1972, but in 1972 President Marcos declared martial law. In 1981, martial law ended and Marcos called for a presidential election. After winning the election, he called for an amendment of the 1972 constitution making him, rather than the prime minister, the head of government. Even though martial law ended in 1981, the Marcos government retained its wide powers to arrest and detain anyone. In February 1986, popular support backed by a peaceful civilian-military uprising brought Corazon Aquino to the Presidency. In the mid 1980s a severe economic recession hit the Philippines with the real GNP growth rate ranging from -5.3%-0%. The Philippines have diplomatic relations with the south east Asian nations, many East Bloc nations, the US, China, Cuba, and the Soviet Union.
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  19. 19

    The Holy See.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-4.

    Rome surrounds the State of the Vatican City which provides the territorial base of the Holy See, i.e. the central government of the Roman Catholic Church. The population consists of 1000 people mostly of Italian or Swiss nationality, while the work force includes 4000 individuals. Even though Italian is commonly used, official acts of the Holy See are written in Latin. When Italy unified in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy ruled over most of the Papal States, except Rome and its environs, until 1870 at which time Rome was forced to join the Kingdom. On February 11, 1929, the Italian Government and the Holy See signed an agreement recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City, fixing relations between the church and the government, and providing the Holy See compensation for its financial losses. Pope John Paul II, the first nonItalian Pope in almost 5 centuries and a Pole, is the present leader of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Holy See and the State. The Roman Curia and its staff, the Papal Civil Service, assists the Pope in ruling the Holy See. The Curia, directed by the Secretariat of State, includes 9 Congregations, 3 Tribunals, 12 Pontifical Councils, and offices that handle church affairs at the highest level. Since the 4th century, the Holy See has had diplomatic relations with other sovereign states and continues so today. Presently, it has nearly 80 permanent diplomatic missions in other countries and carries on diplomatic relations with 119 nations. In addition, the HOly See participates in diplomatic activities with international organizations which include the UN in New York and Geneva, UNESCO, the European Economic Community, and other related organizations. The United States has had relations with the Papal States form 1797-1870. The US and the Holy See reestablished diplomatic relations on January 10, 1984.
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  20. 20


    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Jul; 1-7.

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however.
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  21. 21

    Report on the evaluation of SEN/77/P04: population/socio-spatial/regional planning (population/amenagement du territoire).

    Fabri MY; Pool DI; Simonen M

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. xiii, 34, [7] p.

    The Senegal population/socio-spatial/regional planning project illustrates a truly integrated approach to population and development planning. The evaluation Mission concluded overall that the project's achievements are positive. The project's main accomplishments have been the establishment of a sophisticated population data bank, the preparation of national and regional population projections, an analysis of migration movements, and the production of related maps and tables using primarily 2ndary data sources. The technical quality and detail of the work undertaken, as well as its potential usefulness, were high. However, the Mission also found that various constraints specific to this project have considerably limited its achievements. These include inadequately formulated project objectives and planned activities, poorly defined conceptual framework, low absorptive capacity of the implementing agency, and severe United Nations Fund for Population Activities budget reductions. The value of the work was found to be lessened because the data assembled have not yet been systematically integrated into other relevant data banks, properly disseminated or utilized. The Mission recommended measures which will help conserve the valuable data bank and other results of the project and will assist in the transfer to nationals of the knowledge and skills to update and utilize the data bank. Limited outside assistance--financial and technical--is needed for some of the recommended measures.
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  22. 22

    A summary of the report on the evaluation of MEX/79/P04 "Integration of population policy with development plans and programmes".

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. 19, [9] p.

    The objective of this UNFPA project was to build the institutional and methodological base for integration of population policy into and its harmonization with national, sectoral and state policies or socioeconomic development in Mexico. More specifically, the project was to achieve integration of population policy with 6 sectoral plans, 24 state plans and the Master Development Plan within 3 years. Although the Mission considers it an achievement that the project signed agreements with all 31 states and the Federal District, no formal contacts had been made with the 6 sectors. Mexico's National Population Council (CONAPO) coordinated the project. The Mission recommended that support to integration activities be continued on the basis of the experience that has been acquired. Therefore it is necessary 1) to strengthen the activities at the state level; 2) to support the development of methodologies considering the impact of socioeconomic plans and programs on demographic variables and to provide a comprehensive program of international technical experience; 3) to recognize that responses to ad hoc support activities are an important integration instrument for both sectors and states; and 4) to exact greater clarity concerning the role of the project in the National Population Program. A lack of aedquately trained personnel proved to be a continual obstacle to implementation. The Mission recommends that at an early stage in the development of such projects a thorough assessment of the human resource requirements and existing capacity for integration of demographic and socioeconomic variables be made and that, based on this assessment, a specific training strategy be developed and incorporated in the project's design. In addition to training, the project also included research support activities; the outputs, however, were descriptive rather than analytical, which can be traced to both the design and execution of the work plan for research activities. The UNFPA's funding constraints and its management of reduced funds further complicated the project's execution, which suffered from high personnel turnover and lack of coordination of project activities.
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