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Geneva, World Health Organization, 1965. (Technical Report Series No. 308,) 28 p.This is a report of a World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on the Health Problems of Adolescence which met in Geneva from November 3-9, 1964. Adolescence is characterized by a series of biochemical, anatomical and mental changes that are unique to this group which encompasses the age range of about 10-20. This report deals with the primary importance of the family in the life of the adolescent, the influence of the society, and the influence of socioeconomic factors under 1 heading. Also discussed are anatomical, physiological, mental, and emotional aspects of growth and development (such as the development of conseptual thought, search for a sense of personal identity, acquisition of proper sexual attitudes and behavior, etc.). Health needs such as nutrition, physical and mental fitness, the relation of health with school and employment, and health problems such as veneral disease and menstrual disorders are also discussed. The WHO Expert Committee recommends that further attention be given to the mental problems and needs of youth, ways of effective contribution for the establishment and development of school health services be provided for, and time be devoted to the organizational problems of caring for the physically and mentally handicapped individuals.
MEDICAL JOURNAL OF AUSTRALIA. 1991 Feb 18; 154(4):230-3.The 1st published study of efficacy of a hormonal male contraceptive, by the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, employed weekly deep intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate. 271 fertile married men at 10 centers worldwide participated for 18 months. The goal of this preliminary study was to determine if azoospermia was necessary or sufficient for effective contraception. Azoospermia was produced in 157 men, who then participated in a 12-month trial. There was 1 pregnancy, for a failure rate of 0.8 per 100 person-years, highly effective in comparison with oral contraceptives, IUDs and injectables. There was a 12% annual discontinuation rate reasons cited were acne (4%), behavioral effects such as aggression or increased libido (1%), and other medical reasons (1%), e.g. weight gain, polycythemia, hyperlipidemia or hypertension. Recruitment of study subjects was difficult in developed countries until direct public appeals met with success. Future developments in the male hormonal contraceptive field will require a more acceptable administration route. To develop this, longer-acting injectables or implants utilizing testosterone cybutanate (20AET-1), or other combinations of testosterone with a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist are envisioned. The effect of incomplete azoospermia and the fertilizing capacity of remaining sperm is a serious issue for research. Each more crucial is resolution of the social, political and legal problems involved in male hormonal contraceptive research. Probably reform of the US product liability litigation procedures will do more to advance contraceptive development than any other single factor.