Your search found 24 Results

  1. 1

    WHO guideline on health policy and system support to optimize community health worker programmes.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 116 p.

    The guideline uses state-of-the-art evidence to identify effective policy options to strengthen community health worker (CHW) programme performance through their proper integration in health systems and communities. The development of this guideline followed the standardized WHO approach. This entailed a critical analysis of the available evidence, including 16 systematic reviews of the evidence, a stakeholder perception survey to assess feasibility and acceptability of the policy options under consideration, and the deliberations of a Guideline Development Group which comprised representation from policy makers and planners from Member States, experts, labour unions, professional associations and CHWs. Critical to the success of these efforts will be ensuring appropriate labour conditions and opportunities for professional development, as well as creating a health ecosystem in which workers at different levels collaborate to meet health needs. Adapted to context, the guideline is a tool that supports optimizing health policies and systems to achieve significant gains to meet the ambition of universal access to primary health care services.
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  2. 2

    WHO Global Forum for Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers, 18-19 May 2016, Geneva, Switzerland. The future of nursing and midwifery workforce in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage. Forum statement.

    WHO Global Forum for Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers (2016: Geneva)

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016. [2] p.

    The goal of the World Health Organization and its Member States is to achieve the highest attainable levels of health for all people. A number of health development approaches have been directed toward this goal from primary health care in the 70’s through to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The commitment made by Member States to universal health coverage reinforces the need for strengthened nursing and midwifery contribution to achieve good health outcomes. Although many countries still have nursing and midwifery workforce shortages, we the Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers recognize that in addition to increasing our numbers, more must be done in order to realize these professions full potential. Consequently, we acknowledge the importance of ensuring the quality, acceptability, relevance and sustainability of our future nursing and midwifery workforce. Strengthening nursing and midwifery services in our respective countries is possible by using the latest evidence-based knowledge and relevant technologies to create policies and management systems that support practice and leadership which deliver quality services to individuals and communities within the distinctiveness of our health systems. In the context of this Forum and in support of the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 and the Global Strategic Directions for Strengthening Nursing and Midwifery 2016-2020, we commit ourselves to: a) Strengthening governance and accountability, b) Maximizing capacity and capability and realising the potential of the nursing and midwifery workforce and c) Mobilizing political will, commitment and investments for nursing and midwifery.
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  3. 3

    WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013. [78] p.

    The WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014–2023 was developed and launched in response to the World Health Assembly resolution on traditional medicine (WHA62.13). The strategy aims to support Member States in developing proactive policies and implementing action plans that will strengthen the role traditional medicine plays in keeping populations healthy. Addressing the challenges, responding to the needs identified by Member States and building on the work done under the WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2002–2005, the updated strategy for the period 2014–2023 devotes more attention than its predecessor to prioritizing health services and systems, including traditional and complementary medicine products, practices and practitioners.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Fighting the brain drain.

    McColl K

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2008 Sep 15; 337:958-960.

    In sub-Saharan Africa, 3% of the world's health workforce cares for 10% of the world's population bearing 24% of the global disease burden. Developing countries need an extra 4.3 million health workers, and urgent action is required to scale up education and training. Last month the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health emphasised the importance of building and strengthening the health workforce if the goal of achieving health equity within a generation is to be realised. International cooperation will be essential to strengthen health systems and to manage the migration of health workers from developing to developed countries. But these measures will take time. What can African and Asian health systems do to recruit and retain health workers now? How can health workers be persuaded to practise in rural areas? Guidelines, commissioned by the Global Health Workforce Alliance, aim to help countries make the best use of incentives to attract and retain health professionals. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Meeting on training in reproductive health for CCEE / NIS. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, 26-28 June 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Europe

    Copenhagen, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 1996. [5], 15 p. (EUR/ICP/FMLY 94 03/MT04; EUR/HFA Target 16)

    Responding to the needs for training in reproductive health, European public health training programmes have been increasingly offering training to participants from countries of central and eastern Europe/newly independent states of the former Soviet Union (CCEE/NIS). The WHO Regional Office for Europe convened a meeting to identify ways to better coordinate and cooperate in efforts made by the various schools, institutions and organizations with courses in reproductive health. After an overview of the current situation in reproductive health in CCEE/NIS (including the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS) and a summary of the relevant research activities in the Region, participants presented their training programmes and discussed training objectives for the future. Two working groups were formed to address clinical/research and management/behavioural training needs, respectively. Finally, the participants drew conclusions and made recommendations on ways to better coordinate training activities and facilitate twinning arrangements between relevant organizations, calling for coordination by WHO and the establishment of a clearing-house based in the WHO Regional Office for Europe. Governments, donors and individuals were called upon to support and advocate reproductive health programmes and services. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Integrating HIV-related content into a competency-based curriculum.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1993. vi, 44 p. (HIV / AIDS Reference Library for Nurses Vol. 6)

    The current challenge represented by the AIDS epidemic demands the involvement and continued commitment of nurses. Nursing services are required in the areas of human resources management, community development, and the provision of health and social services. This booklet, prepared by the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, outlines curricula that will ensure nurses have the basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to promote the prevention of HIV infection and provide clinical care to AIDS patients. The first section covers the integration of HIV/AIDS content into the basic nursing curriculum and presents a competency-based approach to curriculum development. The second section presents curriculum guidelines for formal education after the basic program, while the third suggests guidelines for planning continuing education through workshops and seminars. This is the sixth in a series of booklets that comprise the HIV/AIDS Reference Library for Nurses.
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  7. 7

    Informal consultation meeting for IMCI preservice training at the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, January 25-31, 1998.

    Northrup RS

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998. [22] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-3031-00)

    This trip report pertains to a consultant visit to WHO offices in Geneva, Switzerland, during January 25-31, 1998. The purpose was to participate in informal consultation meetings with WHO's Division of Child Health and Development. Discussion focused on pre-service training for Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) in medical, nursing, and other health provider teaching institutions. The consultant participated in a one-day introduction to IMCI with others who had not previously received the standard 11-day IMCI course. The consultant also participated in a 3-day consultation with medical and nursing faculty members from 13 developing countries, consultants from developed countries, and the WHO Division of Child Health and Development (CHD) staff. The appendices includes a summary of findings and group recommendations. The consultant met with BASICS and CHD staff and discussed private practitioner quality of care and met with a staff member from the Expanded Program on Immunization to discuss child survival and decentralization. There was some agreement that IMCI pre-service education was desirable and feasible and an appropriate activity for WHO. It is likely that the 11-day IMCI course content will be integrated within subjects in the curriculum and scattered over different years of study. There is a need to develop guidelines for teaching the content of and including readings on the technical background for the IMCI algorithm and methods and for IMCI treatment protocols for diseases and interventions. Materials could be self-study oriented.
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  8. 8

    WHO informal consultation meeting for IMCI preservice training, Geneva, Switzerland, January 28-30, 1998.

    Nersesian PV

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998. [50] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-3031-00)

    This trip report pertains to a consultant visit to WHO offices in Geneva, Switzerland, during January 28-30, 1998. The purpose was to participate in informal consultation meetings with WHO's Division of Child Health and Development. Discussion focused on pre-service training for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) in medical, nursing, and other health provider teaching institutions. The skills and knowledge taught in IMCI courses would be suitable for inclusion in pre-service training programs. Although it was expected that recommendations would result from the meetings, this did not occur. The appendices provide summary documents from small group discussions. It was generally agreed that WHO should continue to support the development of a strategy to and materials for incorporating IMCI into pre-service training for health providers. The referral care guidelines are nearly complete and should be included in any training materials. Participants considered it very important to include core inpatient content, even for providers working in outpatient facilities. Participants thought that pre-service trainers must have someone designated as an effective focus person who can link the child health and community health departments. Change to IMCI-based curricula within schools will be difficult to achieve, but worthwhile. All providers of sick children should be trained to provide standard IMCI care. An adaptation guide for pre-service training materials may be needed. IMCI introductory activities should be implemented country-wide. Experience integrating IMCI into training will indicate how to implement this approach.
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  9. 9

    Education for primary health care: accommodating the new realities.

    Ritchie JE

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1994; 15(2):147-9.

    The global community has been encouraged to adopt primary health care (PHC) as the means of achieving a prevention focus. Degree of activity had been used to assess a health service's effectiveness, while now, with PHC, it is incidence and/or prevalence of various conditions. The shift has changed budgetary allocations and procedures. Health professional training has not kept up with the changes, however. In the Western model, the skill and knowledge of health professionals, which result in the cure or alleviation of patients' conditions and their patients' appreciation, are a source of personal satisfaction. This type of reward is reduced in the PHC system, because the link between health professionals' efforts and the health of the people is less apparent. Few training institutions rate students' performance on their ability to identify preventive actions or determinants of disease. Usual clinical care fosters specialization and hierarchical relationships between disciplines. It is hard to convince people to choose disease prevention and health promotion when determinants of incidence are not always the same as the causes of individual cases. Clinical health workers are unaware of patients' lifestyles and living conditions. The World Health Organization [WHO] Regional Training Centre for Health Development at the University of New South Wales in Australia has made recommendations to bring about changes in health professional training. Health professionals should be integrated into the systems in which they operate. Policymaking bodies, training institutions, and professional associations should coordinate planned, interdependent change in human resources, management systems, and policies. Instructors should stress community participation, intersectoral collaboration, self-reliance, and equity. Students should develop plans to change learning into action and to implement them, if appropriate. Training institutions should start with the familiar and move to the new. Role modelling can be effective at bringing about needed changes in rewards.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed


    Lederberg J


    In this address at a scientific symposium on tropical diseases, it is reported that an important linkage has been made between the cutting edge of science and the problems of tropical diseases in developing countries. 15 years ago the World Health Organization (WHO) established the special program in research and training in tropical diseases. New tools in molecular biology and immunology may contribute in the development of malaria vaccine or leprosy vaccine, or in identifying and cloning targets for antiparasitic drugs. The task is a difficult one because of the intricacy of parasitic adaptation to their vectors and hosts. Ingenuity for survival is reflected in bacterial resistance to an antibiotic, or the diurnal habits of the filial worms that vary depending upon which side of the Indian Ocean the worms reside. Pride should be taken in the role of moral affiliation with the rest of humanity, and the sense of fraternity in dealing with the problems of the Third World. A role in infectious disease surveillance is the anticipation of genetic changes and development of the means to counter them; AIDS is a good example of what has occurred in the past and will occur in the future. Money, commitment, and development of motivated young scientists with expertise are needed in battling infectious diseases, particularly HIV. The collaborative national and international networks in biotechnology accomplished by Dr. Ken Warren are noteworthy.
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  11. 11

    Tribute to a global research programme on reproductive health [editorial]

    Bergsjo P

    Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 1991; 70(4-5):259-62.

    On its 20th anniversary, the Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, commonly known as the Human Reproduction Program (HRP) is featured in this editorial with a summary of its objectives and 2 main functions. HRP is a program of international technical cooperation to promote reproduction research, particularly in developing countries. It is funded by WHO, the UN Development Programme, the UN Population Fund and the World Bank, with major support from the Scandinavian countries. Its 2 operations are research and development, and strengthening human and material resources for research. Some ongoing research projects are a birth control vaccine based on human chorionic gonadotropin, long acting testosterone injectables, an anti-sperm agent from the plant Tripterygium wilfordii, and a large multi-center study of infertility. Some past efforts include the male contraceptive gossypol, now discontinued; the anti-progestin RU-486, now licensed as an early medical abortifacient in France, China and England; and the vaginal hormone-releasing ring, about to be introduced. In support of research HRP has donated grants to 1225 scientists from 375 institutions in 71 countries. It has supplied standardized immunoassay reagents and helped form national and regional reagent programs. Expert meetings and workshops, and the recent global assessment of the program are examples of information dispersal. Another benefit of the program is its effect on enhancing women's status, from improving reproductive choice to enhancing women's participation in reproductive research.
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  12. 12

    Obstetric mortality and its causes in developing countries.

    Barns T


    Discusses dual concerns of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG): that a widening gap between obstetric standards in Britain and those in the developing world exists and that the RCOG is unable to meet the needs of Third World doctors who come to the RCOG for postgraduate study. A meeting sponsored by Birthright and held at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) in June 1989 which explored aspects of Third World obstetric care reflects these concerns. The proceedings of the meeting have been published and verbatim recordings of the discussions are available on tape from the RCOG. Reports on maternal mortality/morbidity in the Third World indicate persistence of poor obstetrical practices and of common obstetrical complications. Suggestions for improvement include the redeployment of and the replanning of services within countries and an increase in health education for women. Access to care at the first referral institution level is seen as the key to the improvement of care. Problems of transport and communication create serious obstacles to the link between community care and the first referral institution. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to cut the Third World maternal mortality in half by the year 2000. To reach this goal WHO plans to field obstetric teams in Latin America, Africa and South Asia; to train nurse-midwives to perform life saving measures on their own initiative; and to employ community resources by training indigenous midwives to function as extensions of the health team. The RCOG will sponsor training designed for doctors who will work in developing countries.
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  13. 13

    Fellowship evaluation--by whom?

    Strombom M

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1989; 10(3-4):397-402.

    Persons who line in developing countries are awarded fellowships for study abroad. They are given by many donors, the UN and the World Health Organization among them. It is important to know whether the money is used effectively. Many donor agencies have done evaluations, but difficulties arise. The recipient governments should evaluate the fellowships. The current selection process may be politicized, and fellowships are not officially advertised. There may also be irregularities in employing the returned fellows. It is hard to see what changes could be brought about by a donor's evaluation that hinted at a country's misuse of fellowships. Recipient countries have the right to run their own affairs. However, they should understand the advantages and responsibilities of this. Many donor's evaluations are not of much worth to recipients. Some criteria used by donors are not meaningful to recipients. There may be conflicting opinions about needs and technologies. Attempts may be made to get fellows from third world countries even if the courses are not terribly suitable. The influences that the fellows may be exposed to are very important. Many governments provide awards to their citizens for overseas training. It would be very useful for countries to analyze all fellowship activity. This could give information about overlapping. In Lesotho, too much emphasis was put on rural development. Recipient countries are in a better position to find former fellows. Donor studies tend to be bureaucratized, evaluated from habit rather than need. Occasionally reports have not come to the attention of authorities, which does no one any good. Oversimplified attempts may take place. Research should be adapted to standard methods. If recipient countries do not have the experience required to evaluate fellowships, it could be done jointly by donors and recipients.
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  14. 14

    Child survival strategy for Senegal.

    Mitchell MD; Rogosch J

    [Arlington, Virginia], Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH] Project, 1987. iii, 36 p. (USAID Contract No. AID/DPE-5927-C-00-3083-00; PN-AAY-O22)

    Children <5 years old comprise 18% of the population of Senegal yet >50% of all deaths include these children. The leading causes of death for them include diarrhea, respiratory infections, malaria, measles, and tetanus, all of which can be prevented or treated. However, the health system cannot deliver the needed services to the children when these services are needed. The Child Survival Strategy for Senegal, a planning document for developing an action plan, has been designed to improve the delivery of these interventions. For example, Senegal targeted the immunization of 75% of all children <2 years old by April 30, 1987. This accelerated program caused some areas of infrastructure to be overlooked, e.g., maintenance of equipment, however. The Strategy recommended that the country develop a mechanism to fund and repair equipment, and target all children <1 year old (those at highest risk) rather than those <2 years old. Senegal has a diarrhea control program which uses home mix sugar salt solution at home and oral rehydration salts at health facilities. Yet this program had not been evaluated, so the Strategy suggested that it be evaluated and that the program widen the use of oral rehydration therapy through increased training of all health providers. Since child spacing and antenatal care have a significant impact on infant mortality, the Strategy recommended that the Ministry of Health sensitize itself to this and to the very low prevalence of contraceptive use and operate accordingly. Another recommendation was for Senegal to formulate a strategy for dealing with the unavailability of chloroquine during the rainy season when malaria transmission is at its peak. Other interventions where USAID could make contributions to child survival included national direction and coordination, expansion of the Rural Health Services Project Model, and self-financing.
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  15. 15

    The role of participant training in building social science capabilities in Asia.

    Kumar K

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, Center for Development Information and Evaluation, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, 1989 Aug. vi, 7 p. (A.I.D. Evaluation Occasional Paper No. 32)

    A comprehensive survey of social scientists who received financial support for overseas graduate training from an International Donor Agency focussed on the contribution of such training to the national building efforts in the social science discipline. A questionnaire was mailed to 1506 participants in Asian countries, which included 562 USAID trainees. The findings suggest that 1) trainees considered the social assistance provided by the agencies to be adequate, even though difficulty was experienced in travel and immigration arrangements, 2) problems encountered on return to their countries were mainly employment-related, due to either lack of equipment, institutional interest in research, or inadequate economic rewards. In addition, non-availability of professional books, lack of opportunities to attend overseas professional meetings and difficulty in getting information on developments in their major were factors which reduced further professional development. Most participants indicated that the knowledge and skills acquired from their training proved to be valuable. Furthermore, this data does not support the hypothesis that overseas trained participants gravitate to industrialized nations. It was found that in Asia such training provided the much needed expertise to lay the foundation for empirical research. Major concerns of the participants were the 1) underepresentation of women in such training programs, 2) lack of proficiency in English of participants, and 3) loss of contacts between participants and funding agencies.
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  16. 16

    Thai perspectives on the consulting process: an inquiry into organization renewal strategies for rural development agencies.

    French JH

    [Unpublished] 1988. xv, 212 p. (Doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University, 1988.)

    A researcher interviewed 18 Thai consultants, 4 of their clients, and 4 other change agents to learn what processes Thai consultants use in deciding upon intervention strategies. The researcher drew upon organization development literature, Thai history, anthropology, social psychology, and adult education. A wide range of interacting variables influenced these Thai consultants when constructing intervention strategies. Unlike Western consultants who use a system for decision making, Thai consultants make intuitive judgments by determining opportunities for change in light of environmental forces (social, political, economic, and historical forces) and the norms of predominant subcultures in the client agency. They must deal with status relations (e.g., debt and favors), resistance (e.g., power), and "balance" (e.g., having presence of mind) in Thai society which strongly lead them in determining change strategies based on values and culturally determined behaviors. The mix of clients which consultants must cope with includes members of the bureaucratic culture, the culture of technocrats, and the new breed. The 1st 2 cultures are characteristic of governmental agencies while the new breed are generally associated with nongovernmental organizations. All 3 subcultures are represented to some degree in every large development organization. Based on this research, 6 propositions were developed ranging from the proposition that despite systems theory being a useful tool for diagnosis of problems and assessment of change opportunities, it does not contribute to determining how to intervene in the Thai context to the proposition that only new practices and beliefs rationalized within the Thai culture will take root.
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  17. 17

    Public health training of foreign physicians: trends over the last two decades.

    Baker T

    In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, [1984]. 29-31.

    This presentation focuses on the changing role of US schools of public health over the past 60 years and covers predictions and trends of future changes. Foreign physician graduates of US schools of public health were not only responsible for founding the WHO, but have also served in positions such as director-general of WHO. Since World War II there has been an increase in foreign students trained in US schools of public health. Between 1965 and 1981 the number of foreign students increased from approximately 250 to about 700/year, and by 1983 the foreign student enrollment in US schools of public health had reached almost 1200. Most of the increase comes from heavily populated countries in Asia and in Africa. India was the country of origin for an average of 24 public health students in the US during 1967-68, but this number declined to 16 by 1977-78 and 1981. Nigeria significantly increased the number of trainees sent to the US from 5 students in 1967-68 to 54 in 1981. Although the total enrollment of foreign students has more than tripled since the 1960s, the % of foreign students in US schools of public health has dropped from over 20% in the early 1960s to about 13% in 1983. A review of all Johns Hopkins medical graduates shows that 75% of over 700 foreign medical graduate students live in their countries of origin, and only 14% live in the US. In general, the number of students from each country reflects that country's need. Assuming adequate levels of financing, US schools of public health should assist in the development of a sufficient number of schools of public health in their countries to meet those countries' needs for public health professionals.
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  18. 18

    Public health and community medicine at Loma Linda University.

    Dysinger PW

    In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, [1984]. 26-28.

    The School of Public Health at Loma Linda University in California was founded in 1967, and as of December 1983 had graduated a total of 1764 students, 187 of whom were physicians. 28 countries and 45 foreign schools were represented in this enrollment. The experience at Loma Linda University is different from many others in that there has been little government sponsorship of foreign medical graduates. Of 89 foreign medical graduates, only 17 were sponsored by the US Agency for International Development or the WHO, and all 17 returned to their home countries where they are making significant contributions in Tanzania, Kenya, Thailand and Indonesia. In 1970, the Loma Linda University School of Public Health developed an evening program in which most of the course work was taught in Los Angeles 1 evening per week over a 2-year period. 10 health officers and a few others completed that program. Their success stimulated extending the program. In 1973 an experimental program teaching a general Master of Public Health (MPH) course to Canadians was initiated. In 1980, Loma Linda University also launched an extended program in the Central American-Caribbean area. In the context of a general program in public health and preventive medicine leading to a Master of Public Health Degree, the curriculum in international health seeks to prepare health workers who will be: trainers of trainers; cross-cultural communicators; managers and supervisors of primary health care services; and practitioners of the integrated approach to community development. Graduates are prepared to deal with sociocultural, environmental and economic barriers. Students not having a professional background in health are required to add an area of concentration to degree requirements. Areas of concentration include: tropical agriculture, environmental health, health administration, health promotion, maternal and child health, nutrition and quantitative methods/health planning. The goal of the International Health Department is to help people help themselves to better health. Loma Linda University has also been involved with schools in Asia, Africa, Latin America and recently in the Philippines. The preventive medicine residency program at Loma Linda is for the 2nd and 3rd years only at the present.
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  19. 19

    Public health training for physicians from abroad: current problems and a look at the future.

    Henderson DA

    In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, [1984]. 15-8.

    At a time when there is a growing interdependency among nations with regard to trade, resources and security, there is an increasing provincialism in the US. In such a climate it is difficult to generate support for international programs. Involvement on the part of medical schools has waned almost to the point of nonparticipation in international medical affairs, largely because of constraints on training and residency programs. Academic health centers have not been supported as a matter of policy. Leadership in international health in other parts of the world, diminished involvement in international health, current priorities and programs and a future prospectus are discussed. The WHO seems an unlikely source for necessary leadership in helping define future directions for education or new strategies in preventive medicine and public health in the developing world. Institutions in Europe have deteriorated and participation and leadership from them are unlikely. Few people today are interested in clinical tropical medicine. Another reason for waning academic activity in international health relates to the paucity of interest on the part of foundations. An important initiative was the development about 5 or 6 years ago of the WHO Tropical Disease Research Program. It now has a budget of about US $25 million and has attracted additional money from the US and from other countries. A gamut of prospects has resulted including a maria vaccine, a leprosy vaccine, a new drug for malaria. In the developing countries, there is a much larger base of basic competence than existed only 10 or 20 years ago, but these health workers need support if health goals are to be attained. Schools of public health should be as much professional schools as schools of medicine, and the practice of public health should be engaged in. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in its global Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in Thailand and in Indonesia has pioneered admirable new approaches in practical training. Provision must be made for sufficient faculty to permit both professional practice and education in any school that offers public health education. The US has a vital and unique role to play in public health and preventive medicine.
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  20. 20

    Evaluation report to UNFPA on UNFPA-supported United Nations Demographic Training and Research Centre.

    Concepcion M; Grebenik E; Heisel D; Mauldin WP; Trone K

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, Oct. 1977. 159 p.

    UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) gives support to 6 UN Domographic Training and Research Centres (IIPS, CELADE, CDC, RIPS, IFORD, AND CEDOR). An evaluation of these centers addressed these points: 1) description and analysis of the objectives for each center as well as of the strategy for the total program and of the interrelationship between these objectives and the overall strategy; 2) description and problem oriented analysis of the center's programs including legal arrangements, institutional framework, planned and actual activities, resources, and funding; 3) description and analysis of the achievements by each center of its objectives; 4) description and analysis of the present and future role of each center for the achievement of the overall strategy. The International Institute for Population Studies (IIPS) gives adequate training to its personnel, but it needs to require minimum standards of knowledge of mathematics and statistics; a standard English test should be applied before admission. There is also a lack of opportunity for field work. At Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), training should provide more opportunities in studying interrelationships between population and socioeconomic variables, and put less emphasis on technical subjects, such as mathematics and statistics. The Cairo Demographic Centre (CDC) should continue to recruit the majority of its students from the Arab countries. The Centre should be more demanding in this recruitment and admission policies and procedures should be standardized. CDC should develop a specific policy on grades and on the conditions under which a candidate may not receive a diploma or degeee. The Mission recommends that the Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS) strengthen its field work program, coordinate its curriculum to avoid overlap of coursework, and that the UN contribute funds for all activities forming part of the agreement. At both Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques (IFORD) and Centre D'Etudes Demographiques ONU-Roumanie (CEDOR), the mission concludes that both centers are too small to be viable, and feels that under ideal conditions it would have been preferable to have both population development and technical demography taught in one and the same institution. Closer collaboration between the 2 centers is recommended. There is a dire need for training and research in French speaking developing countries.
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  21. 21

    Training in communication for family planning: retrospect and prospects.


    Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Communication Institute, July 1977. (A Synthesis of Population Communication Experience Paper No. 2) 148 p

    The aims and purposes of communication training are examined, tracing the evolution of training in family planning communications from the early stages of national program developments to the present. Topics discussed include training needs and the clientele of training programs including those involved in face-to-face communications, personnel responsible for integrating interpersonal and mass communications, mass media personnel, and specialists in the production of communications materials. Other topics covered include training for integrated family planning and development programs, national and regional training centers, university based/academic programs, the training of trainers, and training facilities. Examples of both successful and unsuccessful training programs are used to illustrate the many different aspects of population/family planning communications training. An assessment is made of recent developments and future prospects in the field.(AUTHOR'S, MODIFIED)
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  22. 22

    The western Pacific region.

    Kuang An Kun

    In: Bannerman RH, Burton J, Ch'en Wen-Chieh. Traditional medicine and health care coverage: a reader for health administrators and practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1983. 236-78.

    The various systems of traditional medicine in the countries of the Western Pacific Regions have several characteristics, including a long history, usually dating back many centuries. The resources in medicinal plants are rich, especially in the subtropical and tropical zones, although their development in different countries is unequal. While accepted by the general population, particularly among rural inhabitants, traditional medicine is often rejected or ignored by modern medical practitioners and by the more affluent and educated classes in some countries. Practices observed in the region follow 1 of 2 patterns. 1 model is highly institutionalized, with formal academic training in a variety of disciplines in recognized schools, professional associations, and official recognition. The Chinese system and Hindu medicine practiced in Malaysia, Singapore, Fiji, and Australia follow this pattern. The 2nd pattern is less well defined and institutionalized but nevertheless deeply rooted in the culture of the particular community in which it is practiced. The role of traditional healers in the region; the Chinese system of traditional medicine; traditional medicine in China today including the practice of acupuncture; research in herbal drugs; traditional Chinese medicine in other countries including Vietnam, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, and Japan; and folk and tribal medicines in the Philippines and rural Malaysia and South Pacific countries such as Papua New Guinea, Kiribati, and Fiji are discussed. WHO stimulates the development of traditional medicine in the region by supporting research, training traditional practitioners and encouraging their integration into health care systems as well as their participation in information sharing publications and activities.
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  23. 23

    Training for COPC in the Netherlands and around the world.

    Greep JM

    In: Connor E, Mullan F, ed. Community oriented primary care: new directions for health services delivery. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1983. 250-7.

    Education of doctors for community oriented primary care (COPC) in the Netherlands is described. A basic doctor has 6 years of training and is prepared for further specialty training in general practice (currently only 1 year), clinical specialty (4-6 years), and social medicine (4 years). After high school, a weighted lottery is performed. Out of 6000 interested graduates, 1950 are placed in medical faculties. Only straight A students have a double chance. In 1970, the Dutch government started a new medical faculty that was community oriented and emphasized primary health care. For this, the educational system of this facility had to be different. A problem-oriented system was adopted. In 1974, an integrated innovative curriculum was started. The basic philosophy emphasizes a preference for orienting medical education to primary care. By the 5th and 6th year, students must acquire: 1) practical experience in solving primary care problems; and 2) the ability to recognize unusual problems and develop appropriate referral. During the 1st 4 years the problem-solving process is encountered; the problems must be increasingly complex; and the teaching program progresses from the general to the specific. The teaching program should begin with health problems and proceed to consider normal and abnormal functioning. The original arrangement for hospital internships is not yet feasible. It seems that hospital organization is too rigid to combine with a less department-linked program. Evaluation is mandatory. A theoretical final M.D. exam was designed. The World Health Organization (WHO) held a meeting at which key figures from 18 selected schools were brought together. From this meeting, it was agreed that a network would be developed linking schools. The network members met again and formulated objectives.
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  24. 24

    Assessment of WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP) in India.

    Ramasubban R

    In: Assessment of the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction [HRP]. II. Task Force reports. Country reports, [compiled by] Sweden. Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries [SAREC]. Stockholm, Sweden, SAREC, 1983 Apr. 34 p.

    The Human Reproduction Program (HRP) presence in India since 1972 included 1 Research and Trailing Center (RTC), 2 Collaborating Center for Clinical Research (CCCR), the Indian Council of Medical Research, as well as other nondesignated centers. The All India Institute of Medical Sciences was designated a RTC and a PhD program in reproductive biology. Its curriculum research and training in teaching during 1975-78 involved 39 medical colleges and 300 persons in 8 workshops. Expertise was developed in intranasal approached to fertility regulation, long-acting hormonal contraception (silastic implants), and male methods of fertility control. The anti-HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) vaccine and male methods research were gradually terminated in 1978-79 and 1980. Expertise was acquired in measuring physiological parameters in reproduction and in producing vaginal rings. The Institute of Research in Reproduction houses the National Pituitary Agency with a staff of 300 including of 30 PhDs, 20 MDs, and 40-50 students and technicians as well as 200 supporting staff. Fields of interest are immunoassay, male reproduction, and vasectomy. The CCCR was the site of the WHO trial on contraceptive efficacy of the NETA injectable. The Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, also participated in WHO trials on infertility, evaluation of male drugs, and injectables and low-dose pills. The Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, engaged in research and development on nonsurgical methods of female sterilization, a postcoital once-a-week pill (Centchroman), a spermicidal cream (Consap), and cervical dilators. The Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, deals with lactational amenorrhea, infertility, and passive immunization. Multicenter WHO trials are carried out at these centers, however, HRP heavily favors clinical trials at the expense of basic research. The central role of WHO in India could help stop the brain drain by funding career development grants.
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