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[New York, New York], Guttmacher Institute, 2018 Apr. 2 p.The United States -- through its Agency for International Development (USAID) -- has long been a global leader in enabling women’s access to contraceptive services in the world’s poorest countries. Empowering women with control over their own fertility yields benefits for them, their children and their families. It means fewer unintended -- and often high-risk -- pregnancies and fewer abortions, which in poor countries are often performed under unsafe conditions. Better birth spacing also makes for healthier mothers, babies and families, and pays far-reaching dividends at the family, society and country levels.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2010 Jul; 110 Suppl:S17-9.Unsafe abortion is a recognized public health problem that contributes significantly to maternal mortality. At least 13% of maternal mortality is caused by unsafe abortion, mostly in poor and marginalized women. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) launched an initiative in 2007 to prevent unsafe abortion and its consequences, building on its work on other major causes of maternal mortality. A Working Group was identified with collaborators from many international organizations and terms of reference provided direction from the FIGO Executive Board as to possible evidence-based interventions. A total of 54 member associations of FIGO, representing almost half its member societies, requested participation in the initiative, with 43 subsequently producing action plans that are country specific and involve the national government and multiple collaborators. Obstetrician/gynecologists have demonstrated the importance of the initiative by an unprecedented level of engagement in efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in country and by sharing experiences regionally. (c) 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Entre Nous. 2009; (68):24-25.Romania is a very special case when it comes to reproductive health in the modern world. After 30 years of a prohibitive society that denied couples and women the right to family planning, as a result of the political changes in December 1989 women in Romania have regained the fundamental right to freely decide the number of desired children, as well as the timing and spacing of births. Decree Law No. 1/ 1989, which promoted total abortion liberalization was the first resolution passed after the political changes in 1989 and it can be considered the symbolic foundation of family planning (FP) in Romania.
[Washington, D.C.], Population Resource Center, .  p.An estimated 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide. The resulting overall abortion rate was 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the sub regions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). In response to the findings of surveys, the United Nations Population Fund, the UNFPA, and USAID launched targeted family planning programs in Eastern Europe, as well as other high risk regions like Asia and Latin America. (excerpt)
Studies in Family Planning. 2003 Jun; 34(2):87-102.Legal abortions are authorized medical procedures, and as such, they are or can be recorded at the health facility where they are performed. The incidence of illegal, often unsafe, induced abortion has to be estimated, however. In the literature, no fewer than eight methods have been used to estimate the frequency of induced abortion: the “illegal abortion provider survey,” the “complications statistics” approach, the “mortality statistics” approach, self-reporting techniques, prospective studies, the “residual” method, anonymous third party reports, and experts’ estimates. This article describes the methodological requirements of each of these methods and discusses their biases. Empirical records for each method are reviewed, with particular attention paid to the contexts in which the method has been employed successfully. Finally, the choice of an appropriate method of estimation is discussed, depending on the context in which it is to be applied and on the goal of the estimation effort. (author's)
Tokyo, IPPF, Western Pacific Region, (1972).Add to my documents.
INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):29.Largely due to the country's prevailing socioeconomic conditions, the Russian Federation is experiencing complex problems developing its population policies. Since the mid-1990s, Russia's population has decreased, working-age men suffer high rates of mortality, there is below replacement-level fertility, the health of Russian citizens has deteriorated, and STDs are spreading fast. Falling life expectancy and the marked aging of the population and labor force are causing considerable concern. However, despite these challenging conditions, the Russian Federation has been working toward achieving the consensus reached at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Implementation since 1994 of Presidential Program activities has led to a 33% reduction in the number of abortions in Russia and a 20% decrease in maternal mortality caused by abortions. Some educational programs for adolescents and youth are also under way. The government of the Russian Federation considers international cooperation in population issues to be an important activity which complements domestic policies and actions. International support needs to be mobilized in support of Russian reforms related to social and population issues.
[Reproductive health: agreements and obligations since Cairo] Salud reproductiva: acuerdos y obligaciones despues de El Cairo.
In: IV Reunion Nacional sobre Poblacion, [sponsored by] United States. Agency for International Development [USAID], Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Lima, Peru, PROPACEB, 1995 Sep. 83-92.The outcome of the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994 had important implications for the development of future programs. Since the end of the 1950s family planning programs have been characterized by an emphasis on contraception, measuring effectiveness by means of continuation rates and new acceptors. In the 1970s it became clear that family planning also had to be associated with maternal-infant health. The 1984 conference in Mexico revealed the importance of the condition of women as relating to problems of fertility, morbidity, mortality, and family formation. The central topic of the Cairo conference was that the right to health includes reproductive health. The Program of Action had a section on reproductive rights and reproductive health from a social perspective. This also means the right to information, services, and family planning methods. The conference accepted five actions relating to family planning, maternal health, abortion (in Peru there were 271,150 abortions out of 905,400 pregnancies in 1989), infections of the reproductive tract including AIDS, and infertility caused by tuberculosis and STDs. Actions outside the health sector relate to problems of the population and health with socioeconomic development and improvement of the status of women and equality with men. Other objectives deal with the elimination of all discrimination against girls, the participation of women in the programs, access to education, and the elimination of poverty.
The Soviet question: as the new commonwealth rises from the ruins, will Western family planning assistance come to the rescue?
FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1992 Jan-Feb; 2(1):22-3, 25.Family planning in the old Soviet Union was administered through roughly 100 Family and Marriage Centers scattered across the hugh country. Unfortunately they only provided abortions and help for infertile couples, and not much else. The old Soviet government gave contraceptives a low priority and as a result they were only available as imports on the black market. The result is a lot of ignorance and misinformation about oral contraceptives, IUDs, and sexuality in general. The average Soviet women has 4-6 abortions in a life time. The USSR's infant mortality rate in 1991 was 23/1000. In 1988 its maternal mortality rate was 43/1000. The contraceptive prevalence rate in 1988 was 13.7%. There are some small, encouraging signs of change. The abortion rate fell 15.4% between 1975-1988 according to JOICFP. In 1989 the Soviet Family and Health Association (SFHA) was established in order to improve these horrible statistics. The biggest obstacle to the success of the SFHA is the political instability currently being experienced as the Commonwealth is being formed. The IPPF helped raise $14,000 dollars to purchase 15.5 million Malaysian condoms. UN aid is only in the form of technical assistance since the Commonwealth is considered a developed nation. This is the same problem currently facing the Eastern Block nations. The Commonwealth is really like 2 different countries in terms of its family planning needs. The states of the South and East have a population growth rate of 2.5% annually. While the states of the North and West have a population growth rate of 0.6%. Until political stability is achieved in the new Commonwealth, donor nations are going to be unwilling to offer a great deal of assistance. Ultimately the Commonwealth is going to have fund its own family planning system aided by the technical advice from the West.
FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1992 Jan-Feb; 2(1):7, 21.Even though Brazil's BEMFAM program stopped providing sterilization services over a year ago, many sources hostile to BEMFAM in the Brazilian government are still accusing it of misconduct. BEMFAM is sponsored by the International Federation of PLANNED Parenthood and was investigated and cleared of any wrong doing by the Brazilian government. In Brazil it is against the law to perform sterilization for the purposes of birth control, yet it is estimated that there are between 6-20 million such operations each year. Over 65% of the births in Brazil are by Caesarian section and it is common for women to ask their doctors to perform a tubal ligation at the same time. Abortion is illegal in Brazil, but there are an estimated 1.4-2.4 million abortions each year. 56% of Brazilian women use contraceptives, with 90% using either the pill or illegal sterilization. 90% of those who use the pill obtain it over the counter at pharmacies with inadequate knowledge on how to use it. 80% of the people receive their health care from the Brazilian government.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):6-7.Providing resources for family planning programs in the USSR, where an extremely high rate of abortions threatens the lives of women, will require a multi-sectoral approach involving the government, international agencies, and the private sector. Every year, some 10-13 million of the USSR's 70 million women of fertile age undergo an abortion (only 7 million of the abortions every year are considered legal). A recent report indicates that only 15-18% of Soviet women have not had at least one abortion in their lifetimes. A result of the high rate of illegal abortions, morbidity and mortality affects many Soviet mothers. Additionally, infant mortality rates is as high as 58.5% in some areas of the USSR, a figure similar to that found in developing countries. Knowledge of modern contraception is high, but use remains low. This is due primarily to the lack of contraceptive availability. IUD's injectables, implants, and oral contraceptives are scarce. And even when oral contraceptives are available, few women opt for this method, due to the rampant misinformation and exaggeration concerning its side-effects. While the USSR does produce condoms, their quality is poor. Part of the solution to the lack of available contraception rests in the transition to a market economy. As the demand for these services increases, the market will begin meeting this demand. The government also has a important role to play, which includes the provision of information, medical and paramedical education, sex education, and service delivery. And international agencies will need to provide the necessary technical assistance.
WORLD WATCH. 1990 Sep-Oct; 3(5):29-34.In the early 1950s, the Soviet Union and several of its Eastern European satellites completed their transition from high to low fertility before the US and Western Europe. They did this even though there were not enough modern contraceptives available to meet the needs of its citizens. As late as 1990, the Soviet Union had no factories manufacturing modern contraceptives. A gynecologist in Poland described domestically produced oral contraceptives (OCs) as being good for horses, but not for humans. The Romanian government under Ceaucescu banned all contraceptives and safe abortion services. Therefore, women relied on abortion as their principal means of birth control, even in Catholic Poland. The legal abortion rates in the Soviet Union and Romania stood at 100/1000 (1985) and 91/1000 (1987) as compared to 18/1000 in Denmark and 13/1000 in France. All too often these abortion were prohibited and occurred under unsafe conditions giving rise to complications and death. Further, the lack of contraceptives in the region precipitated and increase in AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. On the other hand, abortion rates were minimalized in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary due to the availability of modern contraceptives and reproductive health services. Hungary and East Germany even manufactured OCs. OC use in these 2 nations rated as among the world's highest. East Germany also treated infertility and sexually transmitted diseases. The region experienced a political opening in latecomer 1989. In 1989, IPPF gave approximately 15 million condoms and 3000 monthly OC packets to the Soviet Union to ease the transition. More international assistance for contraceptive supplies and equipment and training to modernize abortion practices is necessary.
Family Planning Perspectives. 1973; 5(4):232-236.Some of the main findings of a survey conducted by International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) included: 1) as of 1971, 7 in 10 of an estimated 500 million women at risk of having an unwanted pregnancy were using no contraceptive method at all; 2) in developed industrialized countries 60% of the couples at risk used contraception vs. about 12% in less developed countries; 3) only about 1/7 of the women at risk used the most effective medical methods--the pill, IUD, or contraceptive sterilization; 4) more than 55 million women terminated their pregnancies by induced abortion. There were 4 abortions for every 10 babies delivered; 5) about $1.5 billion was spent worldwide in 1971 by governments, private agencies and individuals on contraception; 6) a like amount was spent on induced abortion; 7) 62% of the $3 billion total spent on fertility control came from individuals who paid for their own services. The methodology of the survey is explained and the reliability of some of the data is discussed. The point is made that often highly industrialized countries have the lowest number of women who need contraception, and practice the highest rate of contraception. In more developed countries, 2/3 of contracepting couples used the pill or the IUD or had a contraceptive sterilization. In less developed countries, only 3 out of 10 contraceptors used these most effective medical methods. No more than 25% of those practicing contraception are guided by organized clinic programs; where there are programs, there are twice as many practicing contraception. About 70% of the total spent for fertility control services in 1971 was spent in industrially developed countries: 1/4 in the United States, 1/5 in the Soviet Union, and 1/5 in Eastern and Western Europe. The principal bar to successful spread of the use of family planning in less developed countries is the lack of resources for the extension of services and training programs.