Your search found 47 Results

  1. 1

    From concept to measurement: operationalizing WHO's definition of unsafe abortion. [editorial]

    Ganatra B; Tuncalp O; Johnston HB; Johnson BR Jr; Gulmezoglu AM

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014; 92:155.

    Unsafe abortion is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a procedure for terminating a pregnancy as performed by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an inappropriate environment that fails to meet minimal medical standards, or both. Concepts first outlined in a 1992 WHO Technical Consultation are embodied in this definition. However, although this definition is widely used, it is inconsistently interpreted. In this editorial, we discuss its correct interpretation and operationalization. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Updated WHO guidance on safe abortion: health and human rights.

    Erdman JN; DePineres T; Kismodi E

    International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2013 Feb; 120(2):200-3.

    Since its first publication in 2003, the World Health Organization's "Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems" has had an influence on abortion policy, law, and practice worldwide. To reflect significant developments in the clinical, service delivery, and human rights aspects of abortion care, the Guidance was updated in 2012. This article reviews select recommendations of the updated Guidance, highlighting 3 key themes that run throughout its chapters: evidence-based practice and assessment, human rights standards, and a pragmatic orientation to safe and accessible abortion care. These themes not only connect the chapters into a coherent whole. They reflect the research and advocacy efforts of a growing field in women's health and human rights. Copyright (c) 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  3. 3

    Girls decide: Choices on sex and pregnancy.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Jan. [28] p.

    Girls Decide: Choices on Sex and Pregnancy explores innovative projects for girls and young women that offer great potential for making a difference on a large scale. These projects empower girls and young women, and affect all areas of their development, by implementing a positive approach towards their sexual and reproductive health and rights. When girls and young women understand that their sexual identities, feelings, emotions, sexual behaviour and aspirations are legitimate and respected, they are empowered. When they have access to the knowledge and the opportunities to make choices about relationships, sexuality and pregnancy, and when communities and societies give girls and young women the space and support they need to become confident, decision-making individuals, everyone benefits. It is time for policy- and decision-makers, educators, service providers and community leaders to re-think strategies for girls and young women: invest in, protect and promote policies, programmes, services and research that incorporate a positive approach to their choices around all aspects of sex, sexuality and pregnancy.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Applying the WHO strategic approach to strengthening first and second trimester abortion services in Mongolia.

    Tsogt B; Seded K; Johnson BR

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2008 May; 16(31 Suppl):127-34.

    Abortion was made legal on request in Mongolia in 1989, following the collapse of the socialist regime, and later bound by a range of regulations. Concerned about the high number of abortions and inadequate quality of care in abortion services, the Ministry of Health applied the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to issues related to abortion and contraception in 2003. The aim was to develop policies and programmes to reduce unintended pregnancies, mitigate complications from unsafe abortion, and improve the quality of abortion and contraception services for all socio-economic groups, including adolescents. This paper describes the changes that arose from a strategic assessment, highlighting the introduction of mifepristone-misoprostol for second trimester abortion. The aim was to replace mini-caesarean section and intra-uterine injection of Rivanol (ethacridine lactate), so that second trimester abortions could take place earlier than at 20 weeks gestation. National standards and guidelines for comprehensive abortion care were developed, the national pre-service training curriculum was harmonized with the new guidelines, at least one-third of the country's obstetrician-gynaecologists were trained in manual vacuum aspiration and medical abortion, and three model comprehensive abortion care units were established to provide high quality services to women, high quality training for providers and serve as nodes for further scaling up.
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  5. 5

    Sex politics: reports from the Front Lines.

    Parker E; Petchesky R; Sembler R

    [Rio de Janeiro], Brazil, Sexuality Policy Watch, [2006]. 412 p.

    Sex Politics: Reports from the Front Lines is a comparative study of the politics of sexuality, sexual health and sexual rights in eight countries and two global institutions. Over the past few decades, sexuality has become the focal point for political controversy and a key domain for social change. Issues such as protecting sexual freedoms and enhancing access to resources that promote sexual health are among the SPW's central concerns. The documents that are included in Sex Politics are based on research that has been carried out between 2004 and 2007 on sexuality and politics in Brazil, Egypt, India, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Vietnam, the United Nations and the World Bank. These case studies are framed, at the outset, by an introductory chapter on sexual rights policies across countries and cultures that seeks to describe some of the conceptual architecture as well as the collaborative process that was used in developing these studies, and at the end, by a crosscutting analysis of the local and global politics of sex and reproduction that seeks to offer a preliminary analysis of at least some of the issues that emerge from a comparative reading of the diverse case studies included in this work. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    Peer Reviewed

    Achieving transparency in implementing abortion laws.

    Cook RJ; Erdman JN; Dickens BM

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Nov; 99(2):157-161.

    National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. (author's)
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  7. 7

    Ensuring women's access to safe abortion care in Asia.


    [Chapel Hill, North Carolina], Ipas, 2004. (8) [4] p.

    This document compiles facts and recommendations for action to prevent maternal mortality due to unsafe abortion, ensure that legal abortion is safe and accessible for all women, guarantee that legal abortion and postabortion care services are within reach of all women throughout health systems, and review laws and policies that place women's lives in danger. These essential steps to protect women's health and guarantee their human rights--endorsed by the world community over the past decade--require concerted action from health systems, professional associations, parliamentarians, women's organizations and all relevant stakeholders. Implementing safe, legal abortion services, removing barriers to existing services, and informing the public about where they can obtain abortion care are key measures to ensure safety and access to abortion. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Abortion as stigma. More is at stake in the abortion rights backlash than abortion itself.

    Kissling F

    Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All. 2004; (Spec No):88-91.

    In the effort to make the Cairo consensus a reality, no issue has been more controversial than abortion. Most of the industrialised world and the larger developing countries passed liberal abortion laws by the mid-1970s, around the time when women’s rights and autonomy began to be widely recognised. But abortion remains illegal in most African and Latin American countries and some parts of Asia, except in cases of rape or incest or when a woman’s life is in jeopardy. Even then, it is often difficult for women to find safe and legal services. New actors in the world of political and social conservatism have recently joined forces with the institutional Catholic Church, bolstering its opposition to all forms of reproductive health. The result has been a shrewd takeover of the terms of debate on abortion and a severe public backlash against it. The threat, however, is not just to the legal right to abortion: every kind of reproductive health service and family planning method is now under siege. In the early 1990s there was growing international consensus that safe and legal abortion was a public health imperative, a human right and a compassionate response to unintended and unsustainable pregnancies. Now, however, we have doubt, hesitation and in some cases, a full-scale retreat. Public courage is at a low ebb and will not resurge without a strong push. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Safe abortion: WHO technical and policy guidance.

    Cook RJ; Dickens BM; Horga M

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2004 Jul; 86(1):79-84.

    In 2003, the World Health Organization published its well referenced handbook Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems to address the estimated almost 20 million induced abortions each year that are unsafe, imposing a burden of approximately 67 thousand deaths annually. It is a global injustice that 95% of unsafe abortions occur in developing countries. The focus of guidance is on abortion procedures that are lawful within the countries in which they occur, noting that in almost all countries, the law permits abortion to save a woman’s life. The guidance treats unsafe abortion as a public health challenge, and responds to the problem through strategies concerning improved clinical care for women undergoing procedures, and the appropriate placement of necessary services. Legal and policy considerations are explored, and annexes present guidance to further reading, international consensus documents on safe abortion, and on manual vacuum aspiration and post-abortion contraception. (author's)
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  10. 10

    Ensuring women's access to safe abortion care in Europe.


    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Ipas, 2003. [2] p.

    This document compiles facts and recommendations for action to prevent maternal mortality from unsafe abortion, ensure legal abortion is safe and accessible to all women, put legal abortion and postabortion care within reach of all women throughout health systems, and review laws and policies that place women’s lives in danger or contain punitive measures against women who have undergone illegal abortion. These essential steps to protect women’s health and guarantee their human rights — endorsed by the world community over the past decade — require concerted action from health systems, professional associations, parliamentarians, women’s organizations and all relevant stakeholders. Implementing safe, legal abortion services, removing barriers to existing services, and informing the public about where they can obtain abortion care are key measures to ensure safety and access to abortion in order to safeguard women’s health. The material included here is drawn from the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women, the corresponding 5-year reports on progress, and the UN Millennium Goals. The most recent estimates of public health impact of abortion in the region are also included. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    GOP's "politics of past" scorched.

    POPLINE. 2003 Sep-Oct; 25:1, 4.

    A former Republican governor of Michigan has lashed out against the GOP for “playing the politics of the past” by “allowing itself to become identified with an agenda on family planning that threatens to reverse the decades of progress in empowering women in the United States and abroad.” (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Bush's other war: the assault on women's sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC]

    New York, New York, IWHC, 2003. 11 p.

    Internationally and domestically, in our courts and in our schools, at the UN and on Capitol Hill, it is no exaggeration to say that the White House is conducting a stealth war against women. This war has devastating consequences for social and economic development, democracy, and human rights—and its effects will be felt by women and girls worldwide. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    The 108th Congress: more bad news for women.

    International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC]

    New York, New York, IWHC, [2003]. 10 p.

    The United States Congress is pursuing a number of misguided domestic and international policies that have profound—and profoundly counterproductive–impacts on women in the United States and around the world. Each individual action deserves attention; taken together they paint a chilling picture of Congress' willingness to sacrifice women and girls to gain political favor with those on the far right. In tandem with the Bush administration, the Republican-dominated 108th Congress is chipping away at women’s rights and health both at home and abroad. The International Women’s Health Coalition has compiled some of its most egregious actions, as a complement to our ongoing monitoring of the Bush administration (see the Bush’s Other War factsheet at (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    UNICEF in the crosshairs.

    Crossette B

    New York, New York, International Women's Health Coalition, 2003 Sep 2. 4 p.

    A couple of years ago, a conservative organization called the Catholic Family and Human Rights Institute produced a very contentious report claiming that the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) was complicit in China's forced abortion policy. The report led directly to a White House decision in early 2002 to withhold the $34 million U.S. contribution to the fund that had already been appropriated by Congress. That a State Department investigative team went to China and decided the charges were unfounded didn't bother the Bush administration. The cut was made permanent, and efforts in Congress to restore some money this year were beaten back. After succeeding in that campaign, the institute, which largely reflects Vatican policy, is now laying the groundwork for an attack on UNICEF. The agency, it argues in a new report — The United Nations Children’s Fund: Women or Children First? — has been taken over by radical feminists, led by Carol Bellamy, the executive director. Let's not be ambiguous. For those of us who have watched UNICEF evolve to grapple with the ugly world of illiteracy, AIDS and abuse in which millions of children now live, this campaign against the agency is dangerous, intended to inflame and galvanize the lobby that opposes all abortions, preaches "abstinence-only" birth control and tries to block advances in women's rights at international conferences. That might not be much of a problem—since such thinking bucks world trends and modern development theory—were it not for the possibility that U.S. support for UNICEF could be put in jeopardy just as it was for the UNFPA. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003. 106 p.

    In October 2000,at the United Nations Millennium Summit, all countries agreed on the global imperative to reduce poverty and inequities. The need to improve maternal health was identified as one of the key Millennium Development Goals, with a target of reducing levels of maternal mortality by three-quarters between1990and2015. The causes of maternal deaths are multiple. Women die because complications during labour and delivery go unrecognised or are inadequately managed. They die from diseases such as malaria, that are aggravated by pregnancy. They die because of complications arising early in pregnancy, sometimes even before they are aware of being pregnant, such as ectopic pregnancy. And they die because they seek to end unwanted pregnancies but lack access to appropriate services. Achieving the Millennium Development Goal of improved maternal health and reducing maternal mortality requires actions on all these fronts. (author's)
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    UN study expresses concern over national antiabortion policies.

    Ahmad K

    Lancet. 2002 Jul 6; 360:64.

    The UN Population Division estimates that nearly 40% of 50 million abortions done worldwide each year are done illegally. In a country-by-country analysis of abortion policies, the UN agency found that in 98% of countries, abortion is legally permitted to save a woman's life. In more than 62% countries, abortion is allowed to preserve a woman's physical and mental health, whereas 39% of countries only allow abortion in cases of fetal impairment. Axel Mundigo of the Center for Health and Social Policy welcomed the report saying that it will help highlight the problem of unsafe abortion, which mostly affects developing countries. Mundigo also noted that in some poorer nations up to 90% of these abortions are unsafe leading to severe infection, sepsis, and a high risk of death for the mother and the child. As a response to this problem, it is suggested prevention of unwanted pregnancies by promoting appropriate family planning methods; and improvement in access to safe abortion, where this does not contravene local law.
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  17. 17

    Unsafe abortion and post-abortion family planning in Africa. The Mauritius conference.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Africa Region; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Technical Services Division; International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Public Affairs Department

    Nairobi, Kenya, IPPF, 1994. [2], 36 p.

    In March 1994, more than 100 specialists from family planning associations (FPAs) and ministries of health participated in the IPPF-supported Conference on Unsafe Abortion and Post-Abortion Family Planning in Africa (sub-Saharan Africa) in Gran' Baie, Mauritius. It was designed to help FPAs and governments confront the public health and social problems caused by unsafe abortion. Topics discussed in the working groups were abortion and postabortion family planning services, role of support services in abortion and postabortion family planning services, counseling and contraceptive needs, and reducing the number of unsafe abortions. Working groups developed strategies and action plans to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion in Africa. The estimated unsafe abortion rate in Africa is 23/1000 women aged 15-49, ranging from 12 in Middle Africa to 31 in Eastern Africa. In Nigeria, 50% of all maternal deaths are related to abortion. In Kenya, insertion of foreign bodies/instruments is the most common abortion method. In Benin, most abortion patients are married (70.5%) and Catholic (58.7%). No African country provides abortion on demand. Botswana, Ghana, and Zambia have the most liberal abortion laws (abortion allowed for social and sociomedical reasons). In countries where abortion services are legal, FPAs can produce a list of sympathetic health personnel, conduct a follow-up on women who have been denied safe abortion services, document where safe abortion services are withheld from some population groups, promote the use of newer abortion techniques, and provide training in safe abortion techniques. Many donor and technical cooperating agencies have made commitments and implemented initiatives to bring about safe abortion and postabortion family planning services in Africa, such as Family Health International and Johns Hopkins University's Center for Communication Programs.
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  18. 18

    [The United States and population policies: return to Mexico City policy announced] Les Etats-Unis et les politiques de population: retour annonce a la politique "de Mexico".

    Toubon R

    EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2001 Feb; (65):2.

    The first publicly official decision rendered by the new president of the United States, George W. Bush, was to restore US policy blocking all US international population assistance to organizations involved in any abortion-related activities. Enacted for the first time in 1984 by then president Reagan, at World Population Conference convened in Mexico, the policy forbids all foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) from receiving US funding if they are involved in expressing the least opinion upon abortion legislation in their own countries, and even if their abortion-related activities are funded by their own resources. Contraception, family planning services, abortion, and abortion services are often intimately linked with each other. For example, women attempt to abort their fetuses following conception due to contraceptive failure or lack of use. When a woman has just aborted her fetus or is about to do so is an ideal moment to discuss contraception. At the same time, family planning centers are often the only medical facilities available to help women seeking abortion, most often under very dangerous conditions. The US's Mexico Policy goes against all proper medical ethics. The World Health Organization and the UN Population Fund have refused to certify, against conditions imposed by the US Congress for tapping funds, to USAID that they would not, during 2001, conduct legal abortions or advocate changes to abortion legislation. It is too early to assess the impact of the US's return to former anti-abortion policy at the international level.
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  19. 19

    Eliminating unsafe abortion.

    Basnayake S

    REAL LIVES. 2001 Feb; (6):41-2.

    Although abortion is illegal in many developing countries, this has not prevented the procedure from occurring. It is well known that women faced with unwanted pregnancies resort to abortion regardless of the legality and the risks associated with the procedure. Many have no choice but to undergo abortions performed by unqualified people in unhygienic settings. High rates of maternal morbidity and mortality prevail in many countries. This article is a doctor's argument that by legalizing or liberalizing restrictive abortion laws, and investing in safe abortion services, governments can save the lives of thousands of women each year. Legalizing abortion does not increase demand for the procedure, rather, it decreases the rate of abortion-related deaths. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has consistently supported efforts to legalize abortion, and many of its publications have indicated its political support for this cause. Hence, family planning associations should be guided by the IPPF's principles of advocating for the legalization of abortion. They should design advocacy programs aimed at both reforming the laws and policies to support women's rights and improving access to family planning and abortion related services.
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  20. 20

    Country experiences on abortion: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Japan. IPPF ESEAO Regional Programme Advisory Panel Meeting on Abortion, 30-31 October, 1993, Bali, Indonesia.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. East and South East Asia and Oceania Region [ESEAOR]

    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IPPF, ESEAOR, 1993. [6], 107 p.

    This book contains country reports on the legal, medical, demographic, social, ethical, and cultural issues and concerns surrounding abortion in Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, which were prepared for a 1993 meeting of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region (IPPF-ESEAOR) Programme Advisory Panel on Abortion. Each paper includes recommendations about what concerns can be addressed by IPPF-ESEAOR and local family planning associations (FPAs). After the country reports, the book presents a summary of the following issues and concerns raised in the region: 1) there is inadequate data on abortion in most countries, 2) adolescent pregnancies and abortions are increasing, 3) abortion rates among women over 40 are increasing, 4) sex education for youth is inadequate or nonexistent, 5) restrictive abortion laws have an impact on maternal mortality and morbidity, 6) herbal abortifacients used by women should be studied, 7) RU-486 should be studied as a postcoital fertility regulation option, 8) contraceptive use is low among women who undergo abortion, 9) health care providers require training in providing postabortion care in a nonjudgmental manner, 10) women with unwanted pregnancies should receive counseling and services, 11) strong opposition to abortion and contraception remains in some countries, and 12) information about all aspects of abortion should be disseminated. FPA-level recommendations based on these findings are included for Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Japan. The book ends with a chart of most common gestational period, in weeks, for requested abortions by selected countries and a list of participants at the regional meeting.
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  21. 21

    Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    Spinelli A

    PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1989 Spring; 18(1):5-6.

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.
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  22. 22

    Despite moral dilemmas at the heart of the ICPD, "consensus" is achieved.

    FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1994; 10(2):5.

    Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, while noting her desire for all pregnancies to one day be planned and all children loved, publicly rejected abortion at the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development as a method of family planning. She stressed that serious flaws exist in the draft program of action and reaffirmed the Islamic principle of the sanctity of life and the emphasis of the family unit. Pakistan will be guided in its policies by the laws of Islam even though family planning is now being encouraged in the country. Norway's Prime Minister Gro Brundtland, a practicing doctor for 10 years, however, was more realistic on abortion. Women abort unwanted fetuses the world over through whatever means available and regardless of the legality of the procedure. Antiabortion legislation makes many of these abortions highly unsafe for the pregnant women. Prime Minister Brundtland called upon the leaders of all countries to provide legal and safe abortion services to women in need. After abortion became legal in Norway, the number of abortions remained the same and the country now has one of the lowest such rates in the world. Contrary to the claims of conservative and uninformed detractors in some countries, sex education does not promote promiscuity, but helps reduce levels of fertility. Brundtland pointed to the successes of programs in Thailand, Indonesia, and Italy as evidence. In Norway, sex education also promotes responsible sexual behavior and even abstinence. Finally, Prime Minister Brundtland encouraged governments to allocate much more of their budgets to family planning programs. Norway in 1991 allocated 4.55% of its official development assistance to family planning, the only country to surpass the 4% level in this area.
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  23. 23

    Foreign aid and family planning [editorial]

    WASHINGTON POST. 1993 Nov 24; A16.

    The resumption of United States aid to the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was announced on November 23, 1993, at the State Department. The IPPF had not received any American funds since 1984 because of President Reagan's Mexico City policy, which barred foreign nongovernmental organizations from subsidies if they were engaged in abortion-related activities. President Clinton invalidated this policy immediately after his inauguration, and IPPF received $13.2 million as part of a $75 million 5-year package. While US participation in international family planning programs was suspended, population budgets in bilateral programs had continued to increase. The US contributes 40% of total global population assistance programs. Achievements in this area include decreasing fertility rates and average family size in the developing world. Yet, total world population continues to grow, since the number of people of reproductive age is still rising. The world's population was 5.5 billion in 1993, a figure that would double in 40 years at the current rate of growth. Uncontrolled population growth adversely affects economic development, political stability, health, education, and the environment. Reagan and Bush administrations denied these effects. The commitment of the Clinton administration to providing family planning information and services through the foreign aid program, underscored at the signing ceremony, are just as important as the IPPF grant.
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  24. 24

    Taking risks to save lives and health.

    Mohamad K


    To reduce the serious health consequences of illegal abortion, the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association is providing menstrual regulation services. At present, the Association has 15 comprehensive family planning clinics located in 13 out of 27 province capitals. Initially, menstrual regulation was available only in cases of contraceptive failure, but indicators for this service were quickly broadened to meet the large demand for termination of unwanted pregnancies. The ambiguity of the 1992 health law's wording on abortion--abortion is not explicitly mentioned, in an apparent effort to alienate neither anti-abortion forces nor promoters of safe abortion--threatens to stalemate further gains for Indonesian women. Although abortionists are rarely prosecuted, family planning organizations must be cautious to avoid liability suits. The situation in Indonesia is an example of women's health being held hostage to political interests.
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  25. 25

    [Interventions to reduce maternal mortality] Intervencoes para a reducao da mortalidade materna.

    Faundes A; Cecatti JG; Bacha AM; Pinotti JA

    REVISTA PAULISTA DE MEDICINA. 1989 Jan-Feb; 107(1):47-52.

    In the fight against maternal mortality, the WHO recommended that developing countries adopt effective measures to reduce its high prevalence. One measure is the improvement of data about maternal deaths and major risk factors during pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium. Official figures are underreported by 50% or more, and the cause of death tends to be attributed to an immediate preceding complication. In the US, maternal mortality declined from 37/100,000 live births in 1960 to 8/100,000 in 1984; in Chile from 299 in 1960 to 45 in 1984; in Ecuador from 270 in 1960 to 189 in 1984; and in Paraguay from 327 in 1960 to 283 in 1984, a barely noticeable reduction. Strategies that improve knowledge include the keeping of statistics; epidemiological investigations (case control studies); and the formation of committees on maternal death, which are composed of highly regarded professionals (the UK, Chile, and Cuba obtained good results with them). The education of the populace by radio, television, and print media to utilize prenatal assistance is another measure. The human resources, location, and minimum instrumentation of these health centers are basic requirements. Most maternal deaths occur in hospitals of inadequate staff and material resources. The traditional birth assistant training program of Ceara state, Brazil, is a model for others. Caesareans save many lives in complicated deliveries, but in Sao Paulo state, more than 80% of some groups choose it without justification. Assistance Needs to be extended into the puerperium to monitor normal involution of the genital organs, to confirm normal lactation, and observe any pathology present during pregnancy. Cardiopathy, renal insufficiency, chronic hypertension, grand multiparity, and advanced maternal age are high risk factors for pregnancy. Postabortion deaths account for more than half of mortality in some Latin American countries. In the UK, mortality dropped from 35 in 1969, after the legalization of abortion in 1968 to 8 in 1975. The reverse was observed in Romania when abortion became outlawed. Nonetheless, abortion is a touchy issue and education about contraceptives should be stressed.
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