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[HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women from Buenos Aires metropolitan area] Resistencia de HIV-1 a drogas antirretrovirales en gestantes del area Metropolitana de Buenos Aires.
Medicina. 2016; 76(6):349-354.The study aimed to determine the prevalence of antiretroviral resistance associated mutations in HIV-1 infected pregnant woman treated in Buenos Aires metropolitan area (period 2008-2014). A total of 136 women with viral load = 500 copies/ml were included: 77 (56.6%) were treatment-naive and 59 (43.4%) were antiretroviral-experienced patients either with current (n: 24) or previous (n = 35) antiretroviral therapy. Genotypic baseline resistance was investigated in plasma of antiretroviral-naive patients and antiretroviral-experienced patients. The resistance mutations were identified according to the lists of the World Health Organization and the International Antiviral Society, respectively. Frequencies of resistance associated mutations detected in 2008-2011 and 2012-2014 were compared. A total of 37 (27.2%) women presented at least one resistance associated mutation: 25/94 (26.5%) in 2008-2011 and 12/42 (28.5%) in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05). Among naives, 15 (19.5%) had at least one mutation: 10/49 (20.4%) in the period 2008-2011 and 5/28 (17.8%) in 2012-2014 (p > 0.05). The resistance mutations detected in naives were associated with non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, being K103N the most common mutation in both periods. In antiretroviral experienced patients, 22/59 (37.3%) had at least one resistance mutation. This study demonstrates a high frequency of resistance associated mutations which remained stable in the period analyzed. These levels suggest an increased circulation of HIV-1 antiretroviral resistant strains in our setting compared to previous reports from Argentina.
[New recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of contraceptive methods] Nuevas recomendaciones de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para el uso de los metodos anticonceptivos.
Gaceta Medica De Mexico. 2016 Sep - Oct; 152(5):601-603.The Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use of the World Health Organization have been updated recently. These criteria constitute a guideline for the selection of family planning methods appropriated for women and men with known medical conditions or personal characteristics of medical relevance. The guidelines last updating incorporates recommendations for the use of a new emergency contraceptive pill and three long-acting hormonal methods, and revises some previously established recommendations. This article provides information on the last edition of such document and aims to contribute to its dissemination.
[International financial cooperation in the fight against AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean] La cooperacion financiera internacional para la lucha contra el SIDA en America Latina y el Caribe.
Cadernos De Saude Publica. 2014 Jul; 30(7):1571-6.This study analyzed the financial contribution by the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria and its relationship to eligibility criteria for funding in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2002-2010. Descriptive analysis (linear regression) was conducted for the Global Fund financial contributions according to eligibility criteria (income level, burden of disease, governmental co-investment). Financial contributions totaled US$ 705 million. Lower-income countries received higher shares; there was no relationship between Global Fund contributions and burden of disease. The Global Fund's international financing complements governmental expenditure, with equity policies for financial allocation.
[Ethic evaluation of sexual health programs on adolescence]. Valoracion Etica de los Programas de Salud Sexual en la Adolescencia.
Cuadernos De Bioetica. 2011 Jan-Apr; 22(74):77-91.In public health services, the interest in sexuality seems to turning from traditional topics such as potential treatments for male erectile dysfunction, psychosomatic disorders, the control of premature ejaculation and contraception. Instead, an increasingly prominent role is being given to prevention strategies carried out by means of campaigns or through sexual health programme sin schools. The different teaching strategies that underlie these programmes, which in many cases lack social consensus but are often promoted by international organizations such as WHO or UNESCO, reveal not only divergent ethical conceptions and worldviews on the meaning of sexuality, but also conflicting starting points, means and goals, focusing either on barrier-contraceptive methods or on sexual abstinence and personal responsibility. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the scientific evidence underlying each educational approach and the ethical postulates of each pedagogical proposal. This paper presents an outline of a six-point adolescent sexuality education program, which is respectful of individuals' ethical convictions. Given that few works on preventive medicine issues include an ethical evaluation of the steps followed in their development, this article also proposes a systematic evaluation of strategies for sexual health in the community that is developed through four steps verifying the following aspects: 1) the accuracy of information, 2) the level of evidence, 3) efficiency and 4) non-maleficence about the target population of each health program. The methodology used in these sexual health programs is another aspect that will verify their ethical consistence or, conversely, their absence of ethical values. We emphasize the duty of designers of programme for children not to carry then out against the will of their parents or tutors, and not conceal sensitive and relevant information.
[Clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of a cohort of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Cali, Colombia] Caracteristicas clinicas, epidemiologicas y microbiologicas de una cohorte de pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar en Cali, Colombia.
Biomedica. 2010 Oct-Dec; 30(4):482-91.INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommended strategy for global tuberculosis control is a short-course, clinically administered treatment, This approach has approximately 70% coverage in Colombia. OBJECTIVE: The clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics along with drug therapy outcomes were described in newly diagnosed, pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study, conducted as part of a multicenter clinical trial of tuberculosis treatment. A cohort of 106 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited from several public health facilities in Cali between April 2005 and June 2006. Sputum smear microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility tests to first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, chest X- ray and HIV-ELISA were performed. Clinical and epidemiological information was collected for each participant. Treatment was administered by the local tuberculosis health facility. Food and transportation incentives were provided during a 30 month follow-up period. RESULTS: The majority of patients were young males with a diagnostic delay longer than 9 weeks and a high sputum smear grade (2+ or 3+). The initial drug resistance was 7.5% for single drug treatment and 1.9% for multidrug treatments. The incidence of adverse events associated with treatment was 8.5%. HIV co-infection was present in 5.7% of the cases. Eighty-six percent of the patients completed the treatment and were considered cured. The radiographic presentation varied within a broad range and differed from the classic progression to cavity formation. CONCLUSION: Delay in tuberculosis diagnosis was identified as a risk factor for treatment compliance failure. The study population had similar baseline epidemiologic characteristics to those described in other cohort studies.
[Family planning: a global handbook for providers. Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration] Planificacion familiar: un manual mundial para proveedores. Orientacion basada en la evidencia desarrollada gracias a la colaboracion mundial.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 2007.  p. (WHO Family Planning Cornerstone)This new handbook on family planning methods and related topics is the first of its kind. Through an organized, collaborative process, experts from around the world have come to consensus on practical guidance that reflects the best available scientific evidence. The World Health Organization (WHO) convened this process. Many major technical assistance and professional organizations have endorsed and adopted this guidance. This book serves as a quick-reference resource for all levels of health care workers. It is the successor to The Essentials of Contraceptive Technology, first published in 1997 by the Center for Communication Programs at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In format and organization it resembles the earlier handbook. At the same time, all of the content of Essentials has been re-examined, new evidence has been gathered, guidance has been revised where needed, and gaps have been filled. This handbook reflects the family planning guidance developed by WHO. Also, this book addresses briefly other needs of clients that come up in the course of providing family planning. (excerpt)
Coping with crises. How providers can meet reproductive health needs in crisis situations. Face aux crises. Comment les prestataires peuvent répondre aux besoins de santé dans des situations de crises.
Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 2005 Dec; (53):1-19.Know what to do. The materials that guide international humanitarian relief providers-- particularly the Inter-Agency Field Manual and its Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP)-- can inform local providers of the reproductive health care needs of refugees. Kits of supplies that are part of the MISP can be ordered. Disaster preparedness training courses can help providers and government officials respond effectively when crises occur. Plan ahead. Make emergency preparedness plans that consider staffing, logistics, supplies, infrastructure, establishing relationships with news media, and coordination with other organizations. Plan for contingencies. Offer care immediately if a crisis occurs. Coordination is desirable but takes time, while health needs are urgent and great. (excerpt)
[New guidelines for preventing mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus] Nuevas orientaciones para prevenir la transmisión maternofilial del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2004; 16(4):289-294.During a meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, on 5 and 6 February 2004, a working group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other scientists, health officials, and community representatives from throughout the world revised the guidelines developed by WHO in 2000 on the use of antiretroviral agents. Special attention was paid to the role of such agents in the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to infant during pregnancy, labor, and breast-feeding. This paper summarizes the newly developed guidelines, which contain specific recommendations for low-resource settings. It is hoped that the information provided will help curb HIV transmission from mother to child in developing countries, where it accounts for the majority of cases of HIV infection in childhood. (author's)
[Health, equity, and the Millennium Development Goals] Salud, equidad y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2004; 15(6):430-439.In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups—ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion—would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs. (author's)
[Multiple drug resistance: a threat for tuberculosis control] La resistencia a múltiples fármacos: una amenaza para el control de la tuberculosis.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2004; 16(1):68-73.Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) was reported soon after the introduction of streptomycin, although it did not receive major attention until recently. It was not considered a major issue in the industrialized world until outbreaks of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) were reported among HIV infected people. Administration of standard shortcourse chemotherapy (SSCC) with first-line drugs under directly observed therapy (DOT) is the cornerstone of modern TB control. Unfortunately, data available on the treatment outcome of MDR-TB cases under routine programmatic conditions suggest that patients with MDR-TB respond poorly to SSCC with first-line drugs. Since 1994, the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) have conducted anti-TB drug resistance surveys through a network of subregional laboratories and researchers. Drug resistance was present in almost all settings surveyed, and prevalence varied widely across regions. High prevalence of MDR-TB is widespread in the Russian Federation and areas of the former Soviet Union (Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, and Lithuania) as well as Israel, Liaoning and Henan Provinces in China, and Ecuador. The Global Project has surveyed areas representing over one third of notified TB cases. However, enormous gaps still exist in the most crucial areas. The most effective strategy to prevent the emergence of drug resistance is through implementation of the directly observed treatment short (DOTS) strategy. Effective implementation of the DOTS strategy saves lives through decreased TB transmission, decreased risk of emergence of drugresistance, and decreased risk for individual TB patients of treatment failure, TB relapse, and death. The World Bank recognizes the DOTS strategy as one of the most cost-effective health interventions, and recommends that effective TB treatment be a part of the essential clinical services package available in primary health care settings. Governments are responsible for ensuring the provision of effective TB control through the DOTS strategy. WHO and its international partners have formed the DOTS-Plus Working Group, which is attempting to determine the best possible strategy to manage MDR-TB. One of the goals of DOTS-Plus is to increase access to expensive second-line anti-TB drugs for WHO-approved TB control programmes in low- and middle-income countries. (author's)
VIDAS. 1999 Jan; 2(12):5-8.According to the most recent estimates of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), at the end of 1998 the number of people living with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) will have grown to 33.4 million, 10% more than just a year earlier. The epidemic has not been controlled anywhere. In practically all countries of the world, new infections occurred in 1998. (excerpt)
[90 percent cases of HIV transmission are due to perinatal contagion or breastfeeding. One million children were HIV positive in 1977] El 90 por ciento de casos por contagio perinatal o lactancia. Un millon de niños/as portan VIH en 1977.
RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):22-24.A million children under 15 years of age will have contracted HIV worldwide by 1997, while in 1996, of the one and a half million people who died of this disease, 350,000 were under 15, according to UNAID numbers released on the occasion of the world AIDS campaign (December 1), whose theme this year is "Children in a World with AIDS." Approximately 90 percent of children with HIV were infected by their mothers, during pregnancy or childbirth or through mother's milk, according to the UN organization. (excerpt)
[Fundamental international legal principles. Reproductive rights of women] Bases legales internacionales. Derechos reproductivos de las mujeres.
RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):14-15.Women's reproductive rights under international human rights legislation are a composite of various independent human rights. While a human rights perspective is not limited to legal principles, demands for reproductive self-determination may also be based on international law. Women's reproductive rights were a key topic at two recent international conferences, the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the 1995 United Nations Fourth International Conference on Women (Fourth World Conference on Women (CCMM, Spanish acronym). (excerpt)
[Launch of a radio campaign for the participation of rural women in landholding] Lanzamiento de Campaña Radial. Por la participación de las mujeres rurales en la tenencia de la tierra.
RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):2-3.Given the need for peasant and indigenous women to know about the articles of the Agrarian Reform Institute Law (INRA, Spanish acronym), principally the articles favorable to them, the National Network of Information and Communication Workers, RED-ADA, sponsored by UNIFEM, UNICEF, and SECRAD [Service of Radio and Television Training for Development], has launched the National Campaign "for women's right to land." The first phase of the radio campaign, broadcast by different stations throughout Bolivia, ran for three months, from December 1997 to February 1998, and consisted of six radio spots in four languages: Quechua, Aymará, Guaraní, and Spanish. (excerpt)
[Latin America and the Caribbean. Human rights for the twenty-first century] Latinoamericana y El Caribe. Derechos humanos para el siglo XXI.
RedAda. 1997 Nov; (25):15-17.In December 1998, the United Nations will commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Cognizant of the importance of this event, women the world over are preparing now so that their different voices will not go unheard during this great celebration. In this respect, campaigns are being organized for universal ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, for the approval of an optional protocol on this Convention during that celebration, as well as campaigns for the full recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, the rights of indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities, and so forth. (excerpt)
[There are no human rights without women's rights] Sin derechos de las mujeres no hay derechos humanos.
RedAda. 1997 Nov; (25):14-15.For the upcoming celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (December 10, 1998), the Global Leadership Center for Women is promoting the Worldwide Campaign, "There are No Human Rights without Women's Rights," to be kicked off on November 25 of this year, under the framework of the "16 Days of Activism against Gender Violence," an annual event being held for the seventh consecutive time by women around the globe. The purpose of this campaign is to highlight "the gap that still exists between talk about the Universal Declaration and other international agreements and the systematic violation of human rights that women experience as a daily reality." Another goal is to revitalize discussion about the issue and create the momentum for urging women everywhere "to imagine a world in which we all fully enjoy our human rights," according to the official announcement. (excerpt)
RedAda. 1997 Nov; (25):20.All human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated. So says the Platform for Action approved by the UN Fourth World Conference on Women. Their full enjoyment, on an equal footing, by women and girls should be a priority for the governments and the United Nations, and is necessary for women's progress. (excerpt)
[Activities of the Oficina Provincial de la Mujer for the prevention of adolescent pregnancies continue] Siguen actividades de la Mujer en prevencion de embarazos en adolescentes.
Logros. 1999 Nov-Dec; 4(1):9.The Provincial Office for Women, in coordination with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), has given several workshops for mayors, health workers, political leaders, agronomists, and others. (excerpt)
Fuera del Closet. 1996 Sep; (10):4-5.The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (a human being under the age of 18) declared the right of children to health and protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. This was reiterated by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights. The Declaration of the Conference on Human Rights urged the governments to step up their efforts to protect and promote the human rights of women and children. It called for the elimination of gender-based violence and all forms of sexual harassment and exploitation. (excerpt)
Fuera del Closet. 1996 Sep; (10):6-7.Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), including HIV/AIDS, represent more than 10% of the diseases suffered by men and women worldwide. The World Health Organization recognizes that these diseases are most common in young, sexually active people between the ages of 15 and 24, and their incidence is on the rise. (excerpt)
Fuera del Closet. 1995 Nov; (7):4-8.Dr. Peter Piot, Associate Director of the WHO Global Programme on AIDS (GPA), is one of the many experts who believe that HIV/AIDS is no longer an epidemic disease like cholera, which follows a pattern with a predictable conclusion, but rather has become an endemic chronic infection like malaria. (excerpt)
[The shadow of the epidemic. It changed their world] La sombra de la epidemia. Cambio el mundo para ellos.
VIDAS. 1997 Oct; 1(3):9-10.Throughout the 1997 worldwide campaign against AIDS, UNAIDS and its associates will call the international community's attention to the many facets of the epidemic's effect on children's lives. (excerpt)
[Children. HIV / AIDS. It's everyone's responsibility] Niños. VIH / SIDA. La responsabilidad es de todos.
VIDAS. 1997 Nov; 1(4):12-13.The most recent perspective of UNAIDS and its associates involves a world in which HIV transmission has been greatly reduced, where the treatment, care, and assistance provided are adequate, and where the vulnerability of children, their families, and their communities to the effects of HIV/AIDS has decreased appreciably. (excerpt)
[Risk of HIV infection. Sexually transmitted diseases] Riesgo de infección por VIH. Enfermedades de transmisión sexual.
VIDAS. 1997 Dec; 1(5):8-9.According to the World Health Organization, some 685,000 men and women contract sexually-transmitted infections every day, and, worldwide, approximately 250 million new sexually-transmitted infections occur every year. (excerpt)
[Report. Is sexual and reproductive health a key issue in policy proposals? The parties respond] Memoria. ¿Es la salud sexual y reproductiva un tema clave en las propuestas políticas? Los partidos responden.
[La Paz, Bolivia], Programa de Coordinacion de Salud Integral [PROCOSI], . 100 p.Sexual and reproductive health have a decisive influence on the entire population's quality of life. We felt it necessary to share this concern with the political parties that were presenting the country with all types of proposals structured around government plans. How could this issue not be dealt with? As a first step, we sought out political parties to provide them with oral and written information about this problem and motivate them to reflect on it. The second step was to invite them to present their opinions about the international progress made on sexual and reproductive health and about the agreements Bolivia has signed at worldwide conferences organized by the United Nations in Cairo (1994) and Beijing (1995). The third step was to encourage them to write up viable proposals to overcome the tragedy of high maternal mortality rates in Bolivia. These were ways to approach the issue, since covering it in all its extension is not possible. (excerpt)