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[The problems of supplying water to the rural population in developing countries] Problemy vodosnabzheniia selskogo naseleniia v razvivaiushchikhsia stranakh.
FELDSHER I AKUSHERKA. 1991 Dec; 56(12):35-6.Since 1981, one of WHO's areas of concentration has been the sanitary conditions of developing countries. In many regions of the world water supplies are polluted. In about 60% of developing countries the population does not have proper sanitation technology. In 75% of African countries the rural population is deprived of adequate safe water supplies. In Zambia, only 56% of the population has safe drinking water and in Kenya only 28%. In the countries of southeast Asia which represent 25% of the world's population, an average 20% of rural populations have clean drinking water. In developing countries due to the shortage of clean water, 1000-2500 children under 5 years of age perish every hour because of diarrheal diseases. With the help of UNICEF in some developing countries work has started to establish water supply systems for the rural population each serving up to 1000 people. In Malaysia, Guinea, and the Philippines courses were started to train national specialists to supervise the quality of drinking water followed by the training of experts to carry out water supply programs. In the first 7 years in the rural areas of some developing countries the proportion of safe drinking water increased from 46% to 56%. In order to help the rural population obtain clean drinking water, monetary contributions have to be raised for realistic development of water supplies. It is advisable to observe the drinking water standards laid down in WHO guidelines in smaller communities and rural regions to assure safe drinking water for the population and to establish national standards in countries where none exist. The frequency of water analysis depends on the size of the local system and on the population figure of the community. Usually one test is required for each 5000 people/month.
[Statistical country yearbook: members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1984] Statisticheskii ezhegodnik stran--chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi, 1984.
Moscow, USSR, Finansy i Statistika, 1984. 456 p.This yearbook presents general statistical information for member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. A section on population (pp. 7-14) includes data on area and population; population according to the latest census; average annual population; birth, death, and natural increase rates; infant mortality; average life expectancy; marriages and divorces; urban and rural population; and population distribution by social group. (ANNOTATION)