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[Child mortality in the developing countries of Africa] Smertnost detei v razvivaiushchikhsia stranakh Afriki.
SOVETSKOE ZDRAVOOKHRANENIE. 1989; (3):58-63.Infant mortality statistics in developing African countries are reviewed. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) surveys, there was an overall decrease in infant mortality from 1960-1986, although the infant mortality rate in the African region remains higher than in other WHO regions (119.4, compared with 40.6 in the European region, 11.8 in the Eastern Mediterranean region, 110.2 in the South- Eastern Asia, 49.7 in the American Region, and 44.5 in the Western part of the Pacific ocean). In infants younger than 28 days old, mortality is associated with pregnancy and labor complications, congenital birth defects, and birth trauma. In Algeria, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe, 70-90% of all deaths were caused by tetanus (70-80% of African women give birth at home without any medical help). In a 1 month to 1 year old age group, the leading cause of mortality is diarrhea (52% in Sudan, 29.2% in Sierra Leone); other causes of death are measles (15.8%), acute respiratory diseases (14.3%), malaria (8.5%), and infectious meningitis (6%). In a 1-4 years old age group, leading cause of mortality is nutritional deficiencies (9%). In addition to medical causes, infant mortality is also associated with a number of socioeconomic factors: insufficient nutrition of mothers, heavy physical work during pregnancy, young age of mothers and short interval between pregnancies, lack of proper medical care during pregnancy and labor, and early switching to infant formula not following proper hygienic recommendations.
[Statistical country yearbook: members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1984] Statisticheskii ezhegodnik stran--chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi, 1984.
Moscow, USSR, Finansy i Statistika, 1984. 456 p.This yearbook presents general statistical information for member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. A section on population (pp. 7-14) includes data on area and population; population according to the latest census; average annual population; birth, death, and natural increase rates; infant mortality; average life expectancy; marriages and divorces; urban and rural population; and population distribution by social group. (ANNOTATION)
[Experience with the expanded WHO program on immunization against tetanus] Opyt rasshirennoi programmy VOZ po immunizatsii protiv stolbniaka.
ZHURNAL MIKROBIOLOGII, EPIDEMIOLOGII I IMMUNOBIOLOGII. 1985 Nov; (11):97-103.According to (WHO) statistics, over 1 million infants in the developing countries die each year from tetanus. The estimated annual occurrence of tetanus in the 3rd World exceeds 2.5 million cases, including approximately 1.3 million newborn infants. In 1974, WHO began an expanded program for the systematic immunization of infants against tetanus and certain other diseases. The program uses 2 approaches for preventing tetanus: 1) immunization of infants under 1 year of age with the AKDS vaccine; and 2) immunization of pregnant women or, if possible, all women, with tetanus anatoxin. The 2nd approach is more effective, especially when 2 doses of tetanus anatoxin are administered within a minimum interval of 4 weeks. The anatoxin has no harmful effects on the fetus and can be used during any stage of pregnancy. The program strives to reduce infant mortality caused by tetanus to less than 1 case in 1000 by 1990, and to 0 by 2000. To attain these goals, systematic immunization should be combined with drastic improvements in delivery techniques and hygiene in developing countries. Specialized surveys indicate that initial steps toward implementation of the program resulted in a significant reduction of infant mortality caused by tetanus. Experience with the expanded WHO program shows that elimination of tetanus in infants is a realistic and attainable goal.