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[The Expanded Programme on Immunization: the results of its realization, problems and prospects] Rashirennaia Programma Immunizatsii: resultaty osushchestvleniia, problemy i perspektivy.
ZHURNAL MIKROBIOLOGII, EPIDEMIOLOGII I IMMUNOBIOLOGII. 1985 Feb; (2):114-20.A report to interested physicians in the USSR explained the progress of and problems associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) expanded immunization program, set up by resolution in 1974, to inoculate every child in the world up to age 1 against measles, pertussis, tetanus, polio, diphtheria, and tuberculosis by 1990. The program called for distribution of DTP anatoxin, live polio and measles virus, and Calmette-Guerin bacillus. By 1983, 50% of children in Europe, America, the Peoples Republic of China, and the immediately contiguous areas had been vaccinated against polio and DTP, but in developing countries the figures were only 24% and 31% respectively, and only 26% and 14% for measles and tuberculosis respectively. The decision was made in 1983 to concentrate more effort and resources on establishing national health programs by training higher level administrative workers and technicians to work at the local level in storing and delivering vaccines, and operation and maintenance of the refrigeration equipment, which is of vital importance in tropical regions. Refrigeration equipment has been developed recently to meet the unique conditions of the developing nations, periodic comprehensive evaluation of program implementation is conducted, and a series of laboratory and field studies are now underway to improve efficiency of implementation by improving the thermal stability of vaccines and the refrigeration chain, increasing availability of vaccines to the population, and improving the economy of operations. Audits show that vaccine losses now account for only 14% of expenditures, with 45% going for labor. Almost 80% of all costs are now being met by the countries involved. Thus, international cooperation has been instrumental in the results of the expanded immunization program.