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FELDSHER I AKUSHERKA. 1990 Apr; 55(4):3-8.The World Health Organization (WHO) used the slogan, "our planet--our health, think globally--act locally" for the 42nd international day of health which took place all over the world on April 7, 1990. In 1902 the Panamerican Sanitary Bureau was founded and in 1907 the International Bureau of Public Hygiene was set up in Europe. In the wake of the deterioration of the sanitary and epidemiological situation in many countries after World War I, the League of Nations created a health protection organization in 1923. In 1945 at the conference of the United Nations in San Francisco a new international health organization was proposed, and in 1946 in New York the UN discussed the charter of the WHO which came into existence on April 7, 1948 with 26 members. At present, 166 countries participate in the work of the WHO. WHO data show that in Latin American and Caribbean countries 40 million people live in the streets, and 400-500 million people live in open dwellings and are exposed to the harmful effects of air pollution from industrialization. In recent years, the pollution of the oceans has increased to the point where more than 10 million tons of petroleum products alone are dumped. In the last 300 years, the forests of the globe have been reduced by 1/2. Also, about 120 species of animals and birds have disappeared, and another 100 species are expected to vanish in the next 30 years. 1.7 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, and 1.2 billion lack waste disposal systems which results in the constant threat of cholera and diarrheal diseases. About 5 million children die of diarrheal diseases each year. In the USSR in 1988, a resolution was passed about the protection of nature, and scientific institutes proposed radical measures to establish a rational relationship between humanity and the environment. A 1992 conference on the conservation of natural resources will feature issues of the environment and development.