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FELDSHER I AKUSHERKA. 1990 Apr; 55(4):3-8.The World Health Organization (WHO) used the slogan, "our planet--our health, think globally--act locally" for the 42nd international day of health which took place all over the world on April 7, 1990. In 1902 the Panamerican Sanitary Bureau was founded and in 1907 the International Bureau of Public Hygiene was set up in Europe. In the wake of the deterioration of the sanitary and epidemiological situation in many countries after World War I, the League of Nations created a health protection organization in 1923. In 1945 at the conference of the United Nations in San Francisco a new international health organization was proposed, and in 1946 in New York the UN discussed the charter of the WHO which came into existence on April 7, 1948 with 26 members. At present, 166 countries participate in the work of the WHO. WHO data show that in Latin American and Caribbean countries 40 million people live in the streets, and 400-500 million people live in open dwellings and are exposed to the harmful effects of air pollution from industrialization. In recent years, the pollution of the oceans has increased to the point where more than 10 million tons of petroleum products alone are dumped. In the last 300 years, the forests of the globe have been reduced by 1/2. Also, about 120 species of animals and birds have disappeared, and another 100 species are expected to vanish in the next 30 years. 1.7 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, and 1.2 billion lack waste disposal systems which results in the constant threat of cholera and diarrheal diseases. About 5 million children die of diarrheal diseases each year. In the USSR in 1988, a resolution was passed about the protection of nature, and scientific institutes proposed radical measures to establish a rational relationship between humanity and the environment. A 1992 conference on the conservation of natural resources will feature issues of the environment and development.
[The second session of the Global Commission on AIDS in Brazzaville, the Congo, 8-10 November 1989] Vtoroe zasedanie Globalnoi komissii po SPID v Brazzavile, Kongo, 8-10.11.89.
ZHURNAL MIKROBIOLOGII, EPIDEMIOLOGII I IMMUNOBIOLOGII. 1990 Nov; (11):119-20.The Global Commission on AIDS is a duly constituted organ of the World Health Organization established in 1989. Its functions are the examination and elucidation of the global progression of epidemics, especially that of the HIV, and fighting the spread of HIV infections. It has 23 members. There was evidence of the spread of AIDS in connection with narcotic use (contaminated needles), thus combating drug use was a major factor in halting its spread. At the end of the 1980s the AIDS epidemic was graver than expected. Despite the global strategy and the change of the behavior of high risk groups, AIDS continues to spread. The number of the infected increased in eastern Europe, western Africa, and southeastern Asia mainly as a result of drug use and prostitution. The strategy includes fighting against prejudice and discrimination, promotion of sexual education, and the use of condoms. The strategy for the 1990s includes strengthening clinical research and therapy; the development of a vaccine; ethics and human rights; and the study of prostitution, the behavior of clients and prostitutes, and very sexually active groups. The widespread practice of blood transfusion during delivery in Africa, insufficient nutrition, and anemia was detailed by the Congolese member. The danger of spreading AIDS further by the contaminated blood of donors who obtain false AIDS tests was mentioned. A special session of the General Assembly of the UN could address the issues of narcotic demand, combat the danger of cocaine use, and suggest appropriate legislative measures. The 3rd meeting was scheduled for March 1990 in Geneva with an agenda on safe blood transfusion; quarantine and isolation; and developing a vaccine within 5 years whose testing on humans poses ethical problems, as observing the law without violation of human rights is required.
[World demographic processes and their determining factors] Mirovye demograficheskie protsessy i opredelyayushchie ikh faktory
Vestnik Statistiki. 1985; (2):54-60.This is a general review of the International Conference on Population, which was held in Mexico in August 1984. The focus is on the Soviet viewpoints toward the various issues discussed at the conference. (ANNOTATION)