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[The control of viral diseases in the developing countries with the use of existing vaccines] Borba s virusnymi bolezniami v razvivaiushchikhsia stranakh s pomoshchiu sushchestvuiushchikh vaktsin.
ZHURNAL MIKROBIOLOGII, EPIDEMIOLOGII I IMMUNOBIOLOGII. 1991 Sep; (9):77-82.In developing countries, every year about 70 million measles cases occur with 1.5 million deaths, over 200,000 children contract paralytic poliomyelitis, 50 million people get infected with viral B hepatitis causing over 1 million deaths, and several thousand people perish because of yellow fever according to WHO data. At the present time, there are 12 vaccines against viruses: vaccines against German measles and mumps in addition to the above. The universal immunization program (UIP) of WHO targets measles and polio. In 1989, a WHO resolution envisioned a 90% immunization coverage by the year 2000. Measles vaccination is recommended for children aged 9-23 months, since most children have maternal antibodies during the first 3-13 months of age. The Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine provided seroconversion of 92, 96, and 98% for 18 months vs. the 66, 76, and 91% rate of the Schwarz vaccine. In the US, measles incidence increased from 1497 cases in 1983 to 6382 cases in 1988 to over 14,000 cases in 1989, prompting second vaccination in children of school age. The highest incidence of polio was registered in Southeast Asia, although it declined from 1 case/100,000 population in 1975 to .5/100,000 in 1988. Oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) provides protection: there is only 1 case/2.5 million vaccinations. Hepatitis B has infected over 2 billion people. About 300 million are carriers, with a prevalence of 20% in African, Asian, and Pacific region populations. Plasmatic and bioengineered recombinant vaccine type have been used in 30 million people. The first dose is given postnatally, the second at 1-2 months of age, and the 3rd at 1 year of age. Yellow fever vaccine was 50 years old in 1988, yet during 1986-1988 there were 5395 cases with 3172 deaths in Africa and South America. Vaccination provides 90-95% seroconversion, and periodic follow-up vaccinations under UIP could eradicate these infections and their etiologic agents.