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SOTSIOLOGICHESKIE ISSLEDOVANIIA. 1982 Oct-Dec; 9(4):124-6.Within the framework of a UN resolution calling for censuses to be carried out in all countries of the world between 1975-1985, the Peoples Republic of China allocated 360 million yuan and used 15.6 million dollars of UN funding to prepare for conducting their census beginning in July 1982. The 1st census of the Chinese mainland was in 1953, showing a population of 601 million. By the beginning of the 1980s, UN estimates put the count at 1.02 billion, an increase of 420 million in 30 years, 1/2 of which are under the age of 20. The new census form includes more questions, and to prevent errors it will be taken twice, first by local census takers and then by census takers from outside the local area. Within the larger cities the 2nd census from previous census counts determined % error in size of population and a .17% error in place of birth. In backward areas the errors are respectively .09 and 4%. Full tabulation should be completed by June 1984, and a report of final results should be forthcoming by the end of 1985. An important aim of the census is to consolidate controls over population growth and to enforce further the rule of "1 woman, 1 child," which, although it has succeeded in dropping the population growth rate from 2.34 to 1.17 since 1971, now faces the problem of hundreds of millions of young Chinese born during the 1950s and 1960s reaching marriageable age. The census faces problems of weak communications and low education level among the populace, as well as resistance from local leaders, who are already heavily burdened with projects.