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TIDSSKRIFT FOR SAMFUNNSFORSKNING. 1998; 39(1):78-107.The article discusses the role of the United Nations' Population Commission through its first 50 years. The Commission has given advice on the development of population statistics, analyses, projections and policies. The Commission has also played an important role in the planning of and follow-up to the five World Population Conferences. The Commission has concentrated on problems faced by developing countries, including the role of family planning. The important link between population factors and development is emphasized in the 1995 change of name to the Commission for Population and Development. (EXCERPT) (SUMMARY IN ENG)
TIDSSKRIFTET SYKEPLEIEN. 1997 Jun 3; 85(10):6-7.A comment is made concerning an article on the MEUSTA project, whose main goal is fighting AIDS in Tanzania. The article described the main components of the project well in a succinct manner but gave erroneous information about its financing. It was stated that 1 million crowns a year were expended plus salary and operating costs for the nurse and her family paid by the Norwegian Nursing Association (NNA). It is correct that NNA is responsible on the Norwegian side, but this responsibility is based on a contract between NNA and the Norwegian foreign assistance organization NORAD. As far as project costs are concerned, so far 80% of these have been covered by the Norwegian authorities, channeled through NORAD's support for the project activities of private organizations. In other words, NNA's share makes up 20%, a part of which is obtained through fund-raising actions and lotteries among the members. This year NNA manages 6 projects in African countries, Palestine, and Latvia. All projects are based on a contractual arrangement with the Norwegian authorities (NORAD and the Department of Foreign Affairs) and all are financed via the above-mentioned means.
JOURNALEN SYKEPLEIEN. 1993 Jun 8; 81(10):19.The author worked for almost two years in a remote little clinic in Chesta, West Kenya. It was common for a child to be brought to the clinic with high temperature and other symptoms and be treated for cerebral malaria, lung inflammation, or meningitis. These episodes occurred day and night, sometimes the children were saved and sometimes they died. The author arrived in Kenya on her fourth missionary assignment looking for work and acceptance as a registered nurse. Six weeks had to be spent at a polyclinic and 12 weeks at various children's wards with Kenyan hospitals. There was a lack of medicines and supplies and an enormous turnover of patients. The organization that she was associated with had problems in finding replacements in health work in West Kenya, where, in connection with the usual evangelical work, clinics had been in operation for 12 years. She was requested by NORAD to participate in the health care component of an integrated development program at the Chesta mission station in West Pokot. The work involved being on duty in the clinic as well as out in the field, driving around and even flying on the mission's helicopter to reach villages in the Cherangani Hills. There were mobile clinics at 6 sites in the mountains with 1 visit per month. At 2 of these sites there was an integrated development program comprising health, agriculture, school development, and evangelization. The World Health Organization's vaccination program was conducted at every site. The available services included a maternal-child health care clinic, family planning, teaching of local midwives, and treatment of the sick. The Christian principle of placing equal value on all people was the foundation of the work. This was especially important for women: to be considered not just as chattel of men but as work partners with their own identities and worth.
JOURNALEN SYKEPLEIEN. 1993 Aug 10; 81(12):19.The experience of working in a project of the Pentecostal Friends' outer mission funded by NORAD among Indians in Canindeyu, Paraguay, is recounted. There was no clinic, but medical consultations were performed at schools or at the homes of the Indians. Much of the time was spent on preventive work and the teaching of health care. Most people in the forests had never met a doctor, and one had to diagnose and treat according to one's best abilities. The people knew a lot of medicinal plants, yet they were fascinated by modern drugs. The objective was to find local health care workers who could understand and retain health education. The pattern of sickness was different from that found in Norway. Sometimes children did not have an appetite, but mostly they were anemic and infested with intestinal worms. Recurring problems had to do with washing babies and general hygiene. It was difficult to teach about hygiene when the watering hole was 1-2 km away, the only possessions were a kettle, and no plates, blankets or pencils were available. Pregnancy care was another problem. Indian women had a natural concept of pregnancy and birth, and they were not particularly concerned about the exact time. They did not like to travel to give birth; most got help from a relative or friend who had some experience and knew that she had to wash her hands thoroughly for this proceeding. Some women wanted to give birth at a specialized clinic, but they did not know which one to travel to. Children got tetanus vaccinations because of the frequency of tetanus among the newborn. When a patient was hospitalized in an acute situation, transportation had to be secured and the necessary drugs for treatment also provided, because the Indians had little opportunity to get them. Whenever an infusion bag was needed, it was also advisable to procure that in order to be able to proceed quickly with the treatment. It was difficult to travel in the rain, even when the distance was not far. It has also happened that fences without gates blocked the roads because the owner did not want traffic through his forest or fields. The bicycle and medical bag had to be lifted over the fence, which was especially difficult when a heavy tropical storm was gathering.
[India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern] India: amming er gammeldags, flaske er moderne.
JOURNALEN SYKEPLEIEN. 1992 Sep 7; 80(14):21.In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper nutrition in magazines read by millions of the Indian middle class who use these products most.
TIDSSKRIFT FOR DEN NORSKE LAEGEFORENING. 1991 May 30; 111(14):1729-33.The 4 cornerstones of reproductive health according to the WHO are family maternal care neonatal and infant care, and the control of sexually transmitted diseases. In recent years, the AIDS epidemic has caused concern in the world. The world's population doubled to 4 billion from 1927 to 1974, and it will reach 6 billion by the year 2000. The rate of growth is 1.4% in China and 2% in India vs. .3% in Europe. Contraceptive prevalence is 15-20% in Africa, 30% in South Asia, and 75% in East Asia. Shortage of contraceptives leads to abortion in eastern Europe. In 1985 in the USSR, there were 115.7 abortions/1000 women (mostly married) aged 15-44; and 6.4 million abortions for 5.5 million births in 1989. RU-486 or mifepristone combined with prostaglandin has produced abortion in 90% of first trimester pregnancies. After approval in France in 1987, it was used in 40,000 abortions in the following year. 90% of the estimated annual 500,000 maternal deaths occur in developing countries. In Norway, the rate is fewer than 10/100,000 births vs. 100/100,000 in Jamaica. In the mid-1980s, 26% of rural women in Thailand, 49% in Brazil, 54% in Senegal, and 87% in Morocco went without maternal care. In Norway, infant mortality is 6-8/1000 live births vs. 75-150/1000 in developing countries. A WHO investigation on causes of infertility in 25 countries found a 31% rate of tubal pathology in 5800 couples. In Africa, over 85% f infertility in women was infection related. Venereal diseases and infertility are associated with premarital sexual activity in young people. Various donor agencies and the WHO Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction are providing help and resources including AIDS research.
[The health-for-all strategy: are we reaching our targets to reduce mortality?] Helse for alle-strategien--nar vi malene for redusert dodelighet?
Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening. 1992; 112(1):57-63.The author examines Norway's efforts toward attaining the WHO goal of health for all by the year 2000. "This article presents and discusses the sub-goals for expectation of life and mortality, and analyzes the possibilities of reaching them." Consideration is given to reductions in mortality from accidents, cardiovascular effects, and cancer; age-specific mortality rates; and deaths from suicide and homicide. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
[Family planning as a part of heath care] Familieplanleggning som en del av det forebyggende helsearbeid.
Sykepleien. 1976 Sep 20; 63(16):834-836.The World Health Organization has a 5-point family planning program. They give counseling to the subfertile, to women who wish to monitor or regulate their fertile periods, to parents concerning their family responsibility, and to people who need any kind of counseling for emotional or sexual problems. Scientific research in the areas of sterility and fertility comprises the 5th point of the program.