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[Research centers and the teaching of demography] Centri di ricerca e di insegnamento della demographia.
In: Demographie: analyse et synthese. Causes et consequences des evolutions demographiques, Volume 1. Rome, Italy, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, 1997 Sep. 291-310.Various international institutions of demography have played a leading role in research over the years including the Population Division of the UN, the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, and the Comite International de Cooperation dans les Recherches Nationales in Demographie. Demographic research dates back to the work of J.P. Suessmilch in the 18th century, who first systematized such figures, and it reached its maturity in the second half of the 19th century, when the first International Congress of Demography was held in Paris in 1878, at which the term demography (coined in 1855 by A. Guillard) was officially accepted. In 1927, the separation of demography from statistics was demonstrated on an international level by the first World Population Conference held in Geneva. Margaret Sanger conceived the idea of the conference declaring that unchecked population growth could profoundly alter human civilization. In 1928, the International Union for the Scientific Investigation of Population was founded affirming the autonomy of demography. Population Index was founded in 1933, followed by various national demographic journals. Demography, the present organ of the Population Association of America, was founded in 1964, and Population and Development Review in 1974. After the second World War, a period of impasse set in, but during the 1950s and 1960s academic studies flourished, especially those preoccupying politicians and the public: the low fertility in the UK and France, international migration in the US, and above all, the growth of global population, primarily in the Third World. Intervention programs were formulated by specialized UN organizations (FAO, UNESCO, UNFPA) whose activities continue in conjunction with the research efforts of over 600 research centers worldwide.
NUOVI ANNALI D IGIENE E MICROBIOLOGIA. 1987 Sep-Dec; 38(5-6):471-6.Community medicine (CM) addressing the global problems of human health has been intensifying in concert with primary health care (PHC) in developing countries, especially since the 1977 session of the WHO launched a program called "Heath for all by 2000" whose central component was PHC. An international conference in Alma Ata in 1978 on PHC stressed essential health care for all communities supported by practical methods that were scientifically valid and socially acceptable, assistance that was accessible to all members of the community. The objectives of PHC were: promotion of proper nutrition, safe water supplies, basic hygiene, maternal-child hygiene, vaccination against major infectious diseases, prevention and control of endemic local diseases, health education, and proper treatment of common diseases and injuries. A PHC post on the village level of Cm would have 1 community health worker (CHW) and 1 traditional birth assistant (TBA) providing health care for 500-1500 people. On the district level, a PHC unit would have 2 CHWs and 2 TBAs for 10,000 people. On the regional level, a PHC center would have 1 physician, 2 attendant nurses, 2 obstetricians, 1 technician, 1 pharmacist, and 1 administrator. Finally, on the national level, hospitals would take care of health needs. The lack of properly trained staff and resources poses the biggest problem in the organizational structure of Cm, but this could be overcome by collaborating with rural medicine and traditional medicine.
MINERVA GINECOLOGICA. 1991 Dec; 43(12):609-10.AIDS continues to pose a grave global problem because it is spreading in the general population by increasing heterosexual transmission and vertical transmission from seropositive mothers to fetuses. A minor rate of transmission has been observed from blood transfusion and blood products. On October 31, 1990 WHO data indicated that a total of 298,914 AIDS cases had been reported. In Africa there were 75,642 cases: 15,569 were in Uganda, 11,732 in Zaire, 9139 in Kenya, 7160 in Malawi, 3647 in the Ivory Coast, 3494 in Zambia, and 3134 in Zimbabwe, with the rest averaging less than 4% of the total African caseload. There were 180,663 cases in the Americas: 149,498 in the US, 11,070 in Brazil, 4941 in Mexico, 4427 in Canada, 2456 in Haiti, 1368 in the Dominican Republic, 870 in Venezuela, 743 in Honduras, 710 in Argentina, 648 in Trinidad an Tobago, 643 in Colombia, 507 in the Bahamas, and 203 in Panama, the rest being less than 200. Asia had only 790 cases: 290 in Japan, 116 in Israel, 48 in India, 45 in Thailand, 37 each in Turkey and the Philippines, 31 in Lebanon, and 27 in Hong Kong. Europe had 39,526 cases: 9718 in France and 6701 in Italy as of June 30, 1990, however, by December 31, 1990 there were 8227 cases reported of whom 4074 had died. There were 6210 in Spain, 5266 in the German Federal Republic, 3798 in England, 1462 in Switzerland, 1443 in the Netherlands, 999 in Romania, 764 in Belgium, 663 in Denmark, 481 in Portugal, 450 in Austria, 443 in Sweden, and 347 in Greece. Little attention has paid to notification in eastern Europe: 40 cases in the USSR, 43 in Poland, 23 in Czechoslovakia, 22 in the German Democratic Republic, 42 in Hungary which is contrasted to 999 cases in Romania. Oceania had 2293 cases: 2040 in Australia, 207 in New Zealand, 16 in French Polynesia, 14 in New Caledonia, 13 in New Guinea, 2 in Tonga, 1 in Fiji, and 1 in the Federated States of Micronesia.
[A convergence of objectives at the International Conference on Population] Convergenza di abiettivi alla Conferenza mondiale sulla popolazione
Politica Internazionale. 1985 Feb; 13(2):66-73.A review of events at the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico in 1984, is presented. The author notes that despite the introduction of political issues that defied consensus, there was general agreement on the need to limit global population growth by a combination of measures designed to promote development and reduce fertility simultaneously. Changes in U.S. population policy are described. (ANNOTATION)
[Indications for the education of children of permanent migrants, with particular reference to language] Indicazioni per un'educazione dei figli dei migranti permanenti, con particolare riferimento alle lingue.
Studi Emigrazione. 1980 Mar; 17(57):77-90.Add to my documents.
[Education, culture, and socialization of immigrants; activities and proposals of the Council of Europe] Educazione, cultura, socializzazione degli emigrati; attivita e proposte del Consiglio d'Europa.
Studi Emigrazione. 1980 Mar; 17(57):61-68.Add to my documents.
[Policies of European countries concerning the education of immigrant children] La politica dei paesi europei in materia di formazione scolastica dei figli degli emigrati.
Studi Emigrazione. 1980 Mar; 17(57):44-60.Add to my documents.
[The reality of demographic explosion and its consequences in the light of "Humanae vitae"] La realta dell'esplosione demografica e le sue conseguenze alla luce della "Humanae vitae".
In: Vella CG. La coppia e l'amore: a dieci anni dall'Humanae vitae. Milano, Italy, Pia Socita San Paolo, Gruppo Periodici Paolini, 1978. 81-99.Population growth during the last century has been a phenomenon without precedents, causd not only by increased fertility rates, but by decreased mortality rates. Demographic explosion is confined, these days, practically only to developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In these countries the phenomenon of population explosion is strictly related to negative economic conditions, even worse social conditions, and, often, to the political situation. If it is true that fertility rates must be controlled, it is also true that socioeconomic conditions must change. The function of some of the great international organizations such as ONU and WHO should be to see that these changes come about, and that they constitute priority before any other consideration.