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[The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.
In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
[Population policy and family planning in the third world] Bevolkerungspolitik und Familienplanung in der Dritten Welt.
In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 274-95.Beginning with the observation that the idea of the 3rd World is an artificial creation of western development economists, the author analyses the effects of family policy goals and processes toward the improvement of welfare and opportunities for children and mothers in African, Asian and South American countries and particularly the effects of programs aimed at decreasing fertility. He points out that two opposing points of view have dominated the development of family planning policies: "Development is the best pill" implies that when a country has become economically developed to European standards that fertility will decrease of its own accord; the opposing view: "No development without a pill" holds that economic development and modernization cannot take place without prior control of the rate of population growth. The author reviews UN General Assembly resolutions concerning the fundamental human right to development and sketches the background of UN actions based on that assertion. The author then traces the historical roots of community-based family planning from early times to more recent times, marked by national drives to limit the number of conceptions. He presents statistics on government policies regarding family planning, the populations affected by those policies and the demographic situations under which these policies operate. He itemizes the ethical issues involved in government and organizational activities in family planning and includes many examples of government activities in developing countries in which these principles have been involved.