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  1. 1

    [Making a case for a program of sexual culture] Pladoyer fur ein Programm sexueller Kultur.

    Thoss E

    PRO FAMILIA MAGAZIN. 1992 Mar-Apr; (2):12-4.

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) enjoy regular attention in the wake of the misfortunes and failures of international family planning (FP) programs, since these are market-oriented management and knowledge organizations. Development assistance administrations increasingly rely on cooperation with NGOs because of their grass-roots orientation. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) verified in a 1990 study on reproductive rights of women that only 50% of UN members had a functional FP service. In Eastern Europe there has been a clear rejection of centralized bureaucracies making nonstate FP organizations consider their future orientation. For 20 years the IPPF sensitized UN organizations and governments to the idea of FP, being the first NGO in FP. At present hundreds of organization compete with IPPF, among them nonstate FP organizations (FPOs), research and educational outfits, lobby groups, and international women networks (International Women's Health Coalition, FINRAGE, ISIS, Women's Global Network of Reproductive Rights) with differing size, ideology, and influence. Critics are afraid of increasing bureaucratization and remoteness from human beings of such NGOs. The causes of meager success of institutionalized FP include lack of cultural modification, lagging practice of male contraception, sexual violence and discrimination against women, no halt to the spread of AIDS especially among heterosexuals, and feeble programs. A program of sexual culture integrates good and bad sexuality recognizing various life styles that men and women choose. It includes sexual emancipation. The elimination of exploitation of children and women requires further efforts. In view of the poverty and environmental destruction in developing countries, the program of sexual culture is necessary, since it will reestablish the sexual basis of family planning.
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  2. 2

    [Population growth, development work, and family planning (the church's experience in the third world)] Bevolkerungswachstum, Entwicklungsarbeit und Familienplanung (kirchliche Erfahrung in der Dritten Welt).

    Schoop W

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 308-15.

    This paper approaches the problem of population growth, development and family planning from the point of view of Christian church activities in the 3rd World. It is an oversimplification of the situation to believe that development policy in a country can be guided only by population considerations. The challenge of population growth must be seen in the context of many barriers to development in the 3rd World which are closely associated with population trends. Thus, birth control measures will succeed only when they are part of a unified multi-sector development aid that is integrated into the life of the country taking into consideration cultural and ecological factors. The author traces the evolution of viewpoints among development specialists since the Bucharest conference of 1974 in which contraception was no longer accepted as the basic principle in development aid, unless it is integrated into a complete system of satisfying the basic needs of a population. The target group for this strategy is primarily the family, representing as it does the smallest unit of human society in village and urban communities. The author lists and discusses a number of general criteria for acceptability of methods of contraception. Development leaders trained in the western churches can accept methods of natural family planning (NFP) such as rhythm methods but in many societies local cultures unquestionably accept richness in children as a blessing. The use of NFP requires the acceptance of a new life style by both husband and wife.
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