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PRO FAMILIA MAGAZIN. 1992 Sep-Oct; (5):4-5.Organized family planning work as it is known today is quite new, although the means and methods of conscious targeting of reproductive behavior are as old as human society. In all societies the regulation of the number of birth has been a central issue. The transition from predominantly agrarian to industrial economic system has also transformed the structure of the family and its role as the location of the reproduction of the labor force. Scientific and medical research as well as the struggle of women for equality and their increasing participation in the work force and thereby their changing position in the family have all played a major role. Reproductive behavior has often been subjected to population policy goals, thus it was not surprising that Nazi Germany suppressed every attempt to introduce family planning. In the 1950s and 1960s privately organized family planning associations were established in many developing countries with the objective of reducing the rapidly increasing birth rate. As a result, even today the International Planned Parenthood Federation debates the issue of identification of family planning with birth control. In specific cases the counseling offered is restricted to problems in the use of contraceptives, undesired infertility, sexuality and partnership, and sterilization. In addition, it is necessary to provide counseling on psychosocial issues and to discuss issues in small groups. Counseling sites have to be established that use these techniques, as practiced for years by the International Planned Parenthood Federation in the European region, which has set up task forces to study how segments of the population can be reached. The established family planning organizations have been concerned with unwanted pregnancy and its prevention, unwanted infertility, sex education for all age groups, marriage counseling, and therapy. Accordingly, emancipatory family planning work has been undertaken in 20 European countries.