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  1. 1

    [Poliomyelitis--Challenges for the Last Mile of the Eradication Programme] Poliomyelitis--Herausforderungen in der Endphase des globalen Eradikationsprogramms.

    Muller O; Jahn A; Razum O

    Gesundheitswesen). 2016 Apr; 78(4):227-9.

    The World Health Organisation initiated the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the year 1988. With the large-scale application of routine and mass vaccinations in children under the age of 5 years, polio disease has become restricted to only 3 endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria) by today. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, increasing numbers of secondary polio epidemics have been observed which were triggered through migration, political turmoil and weak health systems. In addition, there emerged serious technical (e. g., back-mutations of oral vaccine virus to wild virus) and socio-political (refusal of vaccinations in Muslim populations of Nigeria and Pakistan) problems with the vaccination in the remaining endemic countries. It thus appears questionable if the current eradiation initiative will reach its goal in the foreseeable future. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
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  2. 2

    [In Africa as a nurse] Als krankenschwester in Afrika.

    Haag M

    KRANKENPFLEGE JOURNAL. 1992 May; 30(5):204-6.

    The author relates her experience in Benin during a 3 and 1/2 year tenure as a nurse under the aegis of the German Development Agency. In Malanville, she was responsible for starting the operating room, caring for hygiene, sterility, and the related training of domestic staff. A septic and aseptic operating room was set up along with a storage room for instruments, a sterilization room, and a changing room. For the operating and surgical station, the following personnel were available: 2 nurses with 3 years of training, 1 nurse with 2 years of training, and 3 orderlies without training. A nurse with 3 years of training was assigned to the author to carry on the project after her departure. The standard of operating care was very low. It took a month to teach the staff what was not sterile. There was a even problem with putting on sterile gloves which required an exercise in patience. There were an average of 5 relatives per patient taking care of the patient and cooking. The undernutrition center for infants had 6 beds with 2 German nurses who administered Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), diphtheria, polio, and tetanus vaccinations. Their activity was strengthened by nutrition counselling and plans for underweight and malnourished children. Abrupt weaning that resulted in harmful diarrhea and vomiting was prevalent. Clinical signs of marasmus and kwashiorkor were frequent. In the middle of 1990, AIDS educators informed students of the public school as well as registered prostitutes about condom use. In the hospital, there were about 900 births per year, and women were asked to follow recommendations for prenatal care, especially to achieve anemia prevention by getting iron tablets. They were urged to deliver in the clinic, not at home assisted by untrained midwives. Oxytocin and syntometrin were available as was a hand-driven, vacuum evacuation pump. This experience made a lasting impression on the author who has resolved to go to another developing country to train traditional birth attendants in midwifery.
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  3. 3

    [Population policy and family planning in the third world] Bevolkerungspolitik und Familienplanung in der Dritten Welt.

    Schubnell H

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 274-95.

    Beginning with the observation that the idea of the 3rd World is an artificial creation of western development economists, the author analyses the effects of family policy goals and processes toward the improvement of welfare and opportunities for children and mothers in African, Asian and South American countries and particularly the effects of programs aimed at decreasing fertility. He points out that two opposing points of view have dominated the development of family planning policies: "Development is the best pill" implies that when a country has become economically developed to European standards that fertility will decrease of its own accord; the opposing view: "No development without a pill" holds that economic development and modernization cannot take place without prior control of the rate of population growth. The author reviews UN General Assembly resolutions concerning the fundamental human right to development and sketches the background of UN actions based on that assertion. The author then traces the historical roots of community-based family planning from early times to more recent times, marked by national drives to limit the number of conceptions. He presents statistics on government policies regarding family planning, the populations affected by those policies and the demographic situations under which these policies operate. He itemizes the ethical issues involved in government and organizational activities in family planning and includes many examples of government activities in developing countries in which these principles have been involved.
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