Your search found 24 Results

  1. 1

    [Poliomyelitis--Challenges for the Last Mile of the Eradication Programme] Poliomyelitis--Herausforderungen in der Endphase des globalen Eradikationsprogramms.

    Muller O; Jahn A; Razum O

    Gesundheitswesen). 2016 Apr; 78(4):227-9.

    The World Health Organisation initiated the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in the year 1988. With the large-scale application of routine and mass vaccinations in children under the age of 5 years, polio disease has become restricted to only 3 endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria) by today. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, increasing numbers of secondary polio epidemics have been observed which were triggered through migration, political turmoil and weak health systems. In addition, there emerged serious technical (e. g., back-mutations of oral vaccine virus to wild virus) and socio-political (refusal of vaccinations in Muslim populations of Nigeria and Pakistan) problems with the vaccination in the remaining endemic countries. It thus appears questionable if the current eradiation initiative will reach its goal in the foreseeable future. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    [HIV: 590,000 children newly infected worldwide in 1997] HIV: 1997 weltweit 590 000 Kinder neu infiziert.

    Kutschki I


    In 1997 there were 590,000 children infected with HIV--most of them in Africa and Asia. according to UNAIDS estimates. In Germany, since the beginning of the epidemic, 50,000-60,000 persons have been infected with HIV, of whom 500 are children under 13 years of age. About 120 children have full-blown AIDS and the number of HIV-infected children is increasing. Throughout Europe there are 530,000 people infected with HIV. In some countries the situation has stabilized; however, in Portugal and Greece the number of infected people has been rising sharply. In Central and Eastern Europe the HIV epidemic is still in its infancy; therefore, the number of AIDS cases is low. On the other hand, the epidemic is spreading worldwide. In 1997 it was estimated that there were 5.8 million new infections and 2.3 million deaths caused by AIDS. More than 30 million people live with HIV worldwide; of these, 1.1 million are children under 15 years of age (90% in the developing world). More than 40% of the 14,000 adults who get newly infected each day are women. The probability that the child of an HIV-infected woman will be infected with HIV is over one-third in the developing world, whereas it is under 5% if optimal therapy has been obtained.
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  3. 3

    [Sexual abstinence or thrombosis? Comment on the controversy regarding the "third generation pill"] Enthaltsamkeit oder Thrombose? Stellungnahme zur Kontroverse um "Pille der dritten Generation".

    Strobel E

    FORTSCHRITTE DER MEDIZIN. 1995 Nov 30; 113(33):18, 20.

    In October 1995 the WHO published the alarming results of an international study about oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of venous thrombosis stating that with the use of the third generation of OCs or micropills containing gestodene and desogestrel the risk increases twofold compared with OCs containing other gestagens. However, the Zurich discussion group, composed of German and Swiss hormone researchers, declared that this statement should be taken with a grain of salt. The study reported that 3 cases of thrombosis occur for 100,000 woman years when no OCs are used. When OCs without the above two gestagens are used the incidence of thrombosis increases to 8 cases/100,000 woman years. With the use of these micropills the incidence rose to 17 cases/100,000. The experts interpretation of the differentials was that the common risk factors for thrombosis (obesity, smoking, age, and duration of OC use) were not sufficiently taken into consideration. The original higher dose OCs already produced side effects early on, such as thrombosis, stroke, and heart infarction. Therefore, in the late 1980s the introduction of the new generation of OCs with lower doses seemed to be a welcome solution. The micropill, Femovan by Schering, was put on the market containing .03 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and .075 mg of gestodene, a synthetic, very effective gestagen. The Organon Company introduced another preparation (Marvelon) that contained the same dose of EE and .15 mg of desogestrel. The considerable attention to the putative higher risk of thrombosis posed by these agents was not shared by the European Drug Commission, which did not see any reason for removal of these OCs from the market. The third generation OCs also provide benefits: reduction of bleeding anomalies and cardioprotective effects. Even the increased thrombosis risk is significantly lower than the thrombosis risk posed by pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium.
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  4. 4

    [World Health Report shows children as the tragic losers. Almost 10 million AIDS orphans can be expected] Weltgesundheitsreport zeigt Kinder als traurige Verlierer. Bald zehn Millionen AIDS-Waisen zu erwarten.

    Knauer RH

    FORTSCHRITTE DER MEDIZIN. 1995 Dec 10; 113(34):18-9.

    According to 1994 WHO statistics, about 51 million people died in the world, 40% of them from contagious diseases, most of which could have been prevented by improved hygiene and vaccinations. In the developing countries the average life expectancy is only 43 years and it may even decline, while in the industrialized countries it has reached more than 78 years. 12 million children under the age of 5 die every year. Pulmonary inflammation and other respiratory infections kill 4 million children annually; diarrhea is responsible for 3 million child deaths, malaria for another million, and tetanus for 500,000 deaths. Even measles, which is considered to have been subdued, kills 1.2 million children in the developing world. One-third of all children, 200 million worldwide, are undernourished, therefore particularly vulnerable to all kinds of infectious diseases. Nevertheless, in the past decade 80% of children were vaccinated against diphtheria, measles, neonatal tetanus, whooping cough, and tuberculosis. From 1985 to 1993 the number of deaths from these diseases among children under age 5 dropped from 3.7 million to 2.4 million. On the other hand, 5 million children will be infected with HIV by the year 2000 and another 5-10 million will be orphaned by AIDS. Infectious and parasitic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, claiming 16.4 million victims, followed by cardiovascular diseases with 10 million deaths per year and cancer which took the lives of 6 million people in 1994. Poor hygiene and life style factors account for or contribute to more than three-fifths of all mortality. In 1994 there were 3 million deaths caused by smoking; by 2020 an estimated 10 million people will die because of it. Morbidity is also alarming, with about 2 billion people being ill every minute. 200 million people suffer from schistosomiasis, 18 million are affected by river blindness, 600 people die from work-related accidents every day and another 33,000 are injured.
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  5. 5

    [The path to and from Cairo] Der Weg nach und von Kairo.

    Hohn C


    This contribution first attempts to cast some light on the history of the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 (ICPD) from the demographic point of view....Then the determinants of the fertility decline slowly starting in third world countries are discussed....The International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984 and its main topics are also dealt with. In another part of this contribution, the ICPD, its conference topics and especially the new Programme of Action adopted there are...discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) (EXCERPT)
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  6. 6

    [Trends in European family planning programs] Tendenzen der Familienplanungsarbeit in Europa.

    Heinrichs J

    PRO FAMILIA MAGAZIN. 1992 Sep-Oct; (5):4-5.

    Organized family planning work as it is known today is quite new, although the means and methods of conscious targeting of reproductive behavior are as old as human society. In all societies the regulation of the number of birth has been a central issue. The transition from predominantly agrarian to industrial economic system has also transformed the structure of the family and its role as the location of the reproduction of the labor force. Scientific and medical research as well as the struggle of women for equality and their increasing participation in the work force and thereby their changing position in the family have all played a major role. Reproductive behavior has often been subjected to population policy goals, thus it was not surprising that Nazi Germany suppressed every attempt to introduce family planning. In the 1950s and 1960s privately organized family planning associations were established in many developing countries with the objective of reducing the rapidly increasing birth rate. As a result, even today the International Planned Parenthood Federation debates the issue of identification of family planning with birth control. In specific cases the counseling offered is restricted to problems in the use of contraceptives, undesired infertility, sexuality and partnership, and sterilization. In addition, it is necessary to provide counseling on psychosocial issues and to discuss issues in small groups. Counseling sites have to be established that use these techniques, as practiced for years by the International Planned Parenthood Federation in the European region, which has set up task forces to study how segments of the population can be reached. The established family planning organizations have been concerned with unwanted pregnancy and its prevention, unwanted infertility, sex education for all age groups, marriage counseling, and therapy. Accordingly, emancipatory family planning work has been undertaken in 20 European countries.
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  7. 7

    [The population debates of Cairo from an Islamic viewpoint] Die Bevolkerungsdebatte von Kairo aus muslimischer Sicht.

    Duran K

    EUROPA ARCHIV. 1994 Dec 10; 49(23):667-74.

    This paper focuses on Islamic attitudes toward the population issues discussed at the International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in September 1994. (ANNOTATION)
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  8. 8

    [Population questions from a German viewpoint, with reference to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD 1994): presentation of the government report for the ICPD 1994] Bevolkerungsfragen aus deutscher Sicht im Hinblick auf die Internationale Konferenz 1994 fur Bevolkerung und Entwicklung (ICPD 1994): Vorstellung des Regierungsberichts fur die ICPD 1994.

    Kroppenstedt F


    This article provides a summary of a report prepared by the German government in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Topics reviewed include the demographic situation in Germany, population questions and policies, and international cooperation in the area of population policy. (ANNOTATION)
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  9. 9

    [Cairo and the enraged men] Kairo und die wutenden Manner.

    Thoss E

    PRO FAMILIA MAGAZIN. 1995 Jan-Feb; (1):24-5.

    The majority of people consider the UN Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in September 1994 to have positive results, especially in strengthening of the rights of women. However, this would not be so without the systematic pressure of the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and the international women's movement. At the parallel NGO forum, 1500 NGOs took part from 133 countries. The concluding document of the conference committed the participant countries to an action program for the next 20 years without any means to enforce it. The German commission prior to the conference that was to deal with the demands and rights of women consisted of 28 members of whom only 4 were women. The situation was similar in Cairo, except for the American delegation that had over 50% women. As a result, women and NGOs must contemplate how they could influence the implementation of the conference action program. The Cairo consensus has already suffered a substantial setback, because the $5.7 billion program accepted in Cairo cannot be considered attainable in the wake of the US Congressional elections in November 1994, when the Republicans had gained the majority. They do not support the international demand for sexual and reproductive health programs. Therefore, significant curtailment of US input can be expected. The consequences of the action programs must be pondered by the Pro Familia organization, since the new orientation of international family planning towards sexual and reproductive health and rights impacts the delivery of services. The enhanced role of NGOs also poses a dilemma because they are more heterogenous, not necessarily practice-oriented, and independent from state institutions. Germany's step-by-step realization of the program on a national level requires continuous political advocacy. In addition, it is necessary to construct a strong women's lobby in German federal and provincial politics.
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  10. 10

    [40th anniversary of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)] 40 Jahre Internationale Gesellschaft fur geplante Elternschaft (IPPF).

    Aresin L

    PROFAMILIA MAGAZIN. 1993 Jan-Feb; (1):31-2.

    Meeting challenges and promoting choices was the motto of the 40th anniversary of the foundation of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) at a meeting of members in Delhi from 18 to 28 October, 1993. An international family planning congress also took place there with 300 delegates coming from renowned international agencies. The Secretary General, Halfdan Mahler, referred to future tasks and the high priority that reproductive health should be accorded. A resolution adopted in Ottawa 3 years before called for the strengthening of women's participation which materialized in working groups and in the International Program Committee. The first female director was appointed in the European region, and in the regional council the sex differentials had been evened out. Several reports dealt with India, where child mortality amounts to 80/1000 live births and maternal mortality to 340/100,000. Modern contraceptive prevalence is about 38%, with sterilization being the most popular at 30%. Legal abortion amounts to 3.0/1000 women aged 15-44 years. The Indian member organization needs more time before perceptible progress can be made in reducing the enormous population growth. The current president of IPPF was reelected. All regions would send the same number of delegates to the central council, and each has 8 delegate mandates. Members at large were eliminated despite forceful resistance of the Americans. After lengthy discussions, the assembly of members passed a strategic plan that would supersede the earlier 3-year plan. The improvement of service delivery for youth, including sex education, constant quality control, and the participation of men in family planning, were the key points. The meeting wound up with a declaration called IPPF/FPA Vision 2000, which reiterated future priorities wherein all member organizations were requested to cooperate with their government in order to accomplish family planning goals for all, but in particular for the underprivileged and for the marginalized groups.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    [Immunological birth control] Immunologische Geburtenkontrolle.

    Hinney B


    The Special Program of Research Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of WHO has been supporting new and improved methods of contraception since the 1970s for about 600 million couples in reproductive age in developing countries. A new approach is the immunological influencing of fertility by vaccine. In man spermatozoa surface antigens, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadotropin, and sexual steroids serve as target antigens. In women the potential antigens are more spermatozoa surface antigens, zona-pellucida antigens, trophoblast surface antigens, and embryonal antigens as well as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), GnRH, gonadotropins, and sexual steroids. Most of these produced untoward side effects. The most promising is the immunization against spermatozoa surface antigens and against HCG. Anti-HCG antibodies bound to tetanus toxin carrier produced contraception in primates, but its drawback was the cross reaction of the beta chain of the HCG molecule with luteinizing hormone (LH). This was avoided by using a synthetic peptide bound to diphtheria toxin. 43 women aged 26-43, who had been sterilized, were injected with this vaccine. In all 30 women who remained in the study dose-dependent antibody levels increased to provide contraception within 6 weeks that lasted 6 months. Side effects included mild myalgia, pruritus exanthem (2 cases), plasma cortisone increase (1 case), and menstrual disorder (5 cases). Outstanding questions remain: reversibility, allergic reactions, cross reaction with other organ systems, failure at the time of implantation, or immune reaction developing during pregnancy. These will preclude their universal introduction for some time to come.
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  12. 12

    [Immunocontraception -- current research status] Immunkontrazeption -- jetziger Stand der Forschung.

    von Ditfurth M; Pelzer V

    GYNAKOLOGE. 1990 Jun; 23(3):178-83.

    In 1972, WHO advanced the idea of a safe and reversible birth control vaccine lasting 1-2 years. This contraceptive could utilize the connection of sperm antibodies and sterility by active immunization (foreign antigens) and passive immunization (monoclonal antibodies). After long experimentation, a vaccine was introduced in 1984 based on the carboxyl-terminal peptide (CTP) of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropic (HCG) couples with a diphtheria toxoid (DT) and mixed with a muranyldipeptide (MDP) adjuvant called 109-145-CPT-beta- HCG:DT mixed with MDP. When given to baboons, the pregnancy rate fell to 4.6% vs. the 70% rate in untreated animals. Out of 15 women with previous tubal ligations, 14 showed production of specific antibodies: in Group A, 80 ug beta-HCG antigen was injected 4 times 2 weeks apart, while Group B received 240 ug only twice, 1 month apart. Side effects included edema, adnexal pain, DNA-antibody increase, plasmacortisone fluctuations, and liver enzyme changes. Later refinements eliminated blood chemistry changes, and injection 4 times produced specific antibody formation after 500 days. Immunization against follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) produced reversible sterility in rhesus monkeys after 4 and 1/2 years; however, the controversial role of testosterone in spermatogenesis terminated this approach. The inactivation of LDH-C4-lactatedehydrogenase produced only reduction of fertility in rabbits and baboons. However, 25 guinea pigs immunized twice, 1 month apart, with PH 20, a sperm-coating antigen, exhibited 100% infertility compared to the fact that 94% of untreated controls had a litter. Zona-pellucida antigens affected not only the egg cells but also the ovarian follicles. Among embryonal antigens, F-9-oncofetal antigens reduced fertility in mice but produced teratocarcinoma. Passive immunization by mono- and polyclonal antibodies against early- pregnancy factor terminated pregnancy in mice, suggesting another possible avenue for immunocontraception.
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  13. 13

    [In Africa as a nurse] Als krankenschwester in Afrika.

    Haag M

    KRANKENPFLEGE JOURNAL. 1992 May; 30(5):204-6.

    The author relates her experience in Benin during a 3 and 1/2 year tenure as a nurse under the aegis of the German Development Agency. In Malanville, she was responsible for starting the operating room, caring for hygiene, sterility, and the related training of domestic staff. A septic and aseptic operating room was set up along with a storage room for instruments, a sterilization room, and a changing room. For the operating and surgical station, the following personnel were available: 2 nurses with 3 years of training, 1 nurse with 2 years of training, and 3 orderlies without training. A nurse with 3 years of training was assigned to the author to carry on the project after her departure. The standard of operating care was very low. It took a month to teach the staff what was not sterile. There was a even problem with putting on sterile gloves which required an exercise in patience. There were an average of 5 relatives per patient taking care of the patient and cooking. The undernutrition center for infants had 6 beds with 2 German nurses who administered Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), diphtheria, polio, and tetanus vaccinations. Their activity was strengthened by nutrition counselling and plans for underweight and malnourished children. Abrupt weaning that resulted in harmful diarrhea and vomiting was prevalent. Clinical signs of marasmus and kwashiorkor were frequent. In the middle of 1990, AIDS educators informed students of the public school as well as registered prostitutes about condom use. In the hospital, there were about 900 births per year, and women were asked to follow recommendations for prenatal care, especially to achieve anemia prevention by getting iron tablets. They were urged to deliver in the clinic, not at home assisted by untrained midwives. Oxytocin and syntometrin were available as was a hand-driven, vacuum evacuation pump. This experience made a lasting impression on the author who has resolved to go to another developing country to train traditional birth attendants in midwifery.
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  14. 14

    [WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP). A summary] WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP). Eine zusammenfassende Darstellung.

    Janisch CP; Schubert A


    The WHO's Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP) has been involved in a global research and development program since 1972 in the are of human reproduction with special regard to the needs of developing countries. HRP set up a worldwide network of cooperating institutes and organized task forces for carrying out priority research objectives/assignments. The goals of HRP include reducing population growth in developing countries by improving health care and by increasing the availability of contraceptives. HRP training and research activities have encompassed workshops, seminars, and training courses. Research and development have been concerned with contraceptive prevalence and use; risks of contraceptives (carcinogenicity, cardiovascular effects, and subdermal implants' side effects); the development of new and safe methods (1-2 month depot preparations; and the levonorgestrel-releasing vaginal ring); and efficacy of contraceptive methods (lactation for birth spacing and natural family planning). A multicentric study in 25 countries has examined infertility caused by infections and sexually transmitted diseases. The extension of research capacity in developing countries was enabled by long-term institutional development grants, capital grants, labor cost financing, training of scientists, and improvement of management. The social and individual determinants of family planning aims at increasing contraceptive prevalence from 11% in Africa, 24% in Southeast Asia, and 43% in Latin America to the level of industrial countries 68%. The structure and management, goal setting and priorities, international cooperation, and finances of HRP are further detailed.
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  15. 15

    [Making a case for a program of sexual culture] Pladoyer fur ein Programm sexueller Kultur.

    Thoss E

    PRO FAMILIA MAGAZIN. 1992 Mar-Apr; (2):12-4.

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) enjoy regular attention in the wake of the misfortunes and failures of international family planning (FP) programs, since these are market-oriented management and knowledge organizations. Development assistance administrations increasingly rely on cooperation with NGOs because of their grass-roots orientation. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) verified in a 1990 study on reproductive rights of women that only 50% of UN members had a functional FP service. In Eastern Europe there has been a clear rejection of centralized bureaucracies making nonstate FP organizations consider their future orientation. For 20 years the IPPF sensitized UN organizations and governments to the idea of FP, being the first NGO in FP. At present hundreds of organization compete with IPPF, among them nonstate FP organizations (FPOs), research and educational outfits, lobby groups, and international women networks (International Women's Health Coalition, FINRAGE, ISIS, Women's Global Network of Reproductive Rights) with differing size, ideology, and influence. Critics are afraid of increasing bureaucratization and remoteness from human beings of such NGOs. The causes of meager success of institutionalized FP include lack of cultural modification, lagging practice of male contraception, sexual violence and discrimination against women, no halt to the spread of AIDS especially among heterosexuals, and feeble programs. A program of sexual culture integrates good and bad sexuality recognizing various life styles that men and women choose. It includes sexual emancipation. The elimination of exploitation of children and women requires further efforts. In view of the poverty and environmental destruction in developing countries, the program of sexual culture is necessary, since it will reestablish the sexual basis of family planning.
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  16. 16

    [The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.

    Schmid J

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.

    This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
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  17. 17

    [Population policy and family planning in the third world] Bevolkerungspolitik und Familienplanung in der Dritten Welt.

    Schubnell H

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 274-95.

    Beginning with the observation that the idea of the 3rd World is an artificial creation of western development economists, the author analyses the effects of family policy goals and processes toward the improvement of welfare and opportunities for children and mothers in African, Asian and South American countries and particularly the effects of programs aimed at decreasing fertility. He points out that two opposing points of view have dominated the development of family planning policies: "Development is the best pill" implies that when a country has become economically developed to European standards that fertility will decrease of its own accord; the opposing view: "No development without a pill" holds that economic development and modernization cannot take place without prior control of the rate of population growth. The author reviews UN General Assembly resolutions concerning the fundamental human right to development and sketches the background of UN actions based on that assertion. The author then traces the historical roots of community-based family planning from early times to more recent times, marked by national drives to limit the number of conceptions. He presents statistics on government policies regarding family planning, the populations affected by those policies and the demographic situations under which these policies operate. He itemizes the ethical issues involved in government and organizational activities in family planning and includes many examples of government activities in developing countries in which these principles have been involved.
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  18. 18

    [Population growth, development work, and family planning (the church's experience in the third world)] Bevolkerungswachstum, Entwicklungsarbeit und Familienplanung (kirchliche Erfahrung in der Dritten Welt).

    Schoop W

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 308-15.

    This paper approaches the problem of population growth, development and family planning from the point of view of Christian church activities in the 3rd World. It is an oversimplification of the situation to believe that development policy in a country can be guided only by population considerations. The challenge of population growth must be seen in the context of many barriers to development in the 3rd World which are closely associated with population trends. Thus, birth control measures will succeed only when they are part of a unified multi-sector development aid that is integrated into the life of the country taking into consideration cultural and ecological factors. The author traces the evolution of viewpoints among development specialists since the Bucharest conference of 1974 in which contraception was no longer accepted as the basic principle in development aid, unless it is integrated into a complete system of satisfying the basic needs of a population. The target group for this strategy is primarily the family, representing as it does the smallest unit of human society in village and urban communities. The author lists and discusses a number of general criteria for acceptability of methods of contraception. Development leaders trained in the western churches can accept methods of natural family planning (NFP) such as rhythm methods but in many societies local cultures unquestionably accept richness in children as a blessing. The use of NFP requires the acceptance of a new life style by both husband and wife.
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  19. 19

    ["Census" in the twentieth century: on the indispensability of the census] Zensus im 20. Jahrhundert: uber die Unverzichtbarkeit einer Volkszahlung

    Esenwein-Rothe I

    Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium. 1984 May; 13(5):253-7.

    This article focuses on the uses and limits of a population census from a scientific statistical viewpoint, with a geographic emphasis on the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparisons are made among the minimum census program recommended by the United Nations and the U.S. and German census programs. The role of the census in relation to population registers and surveys is also discussed. Finally, the indispensability of the census for economic and social policy is noted. (ANNOTATION)
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  20. 20

    [Clitorectomy: female circumcision] Klitorektomie: weibliche Beschneidung.

    Homuth I; Rethemeier A

    Pro Familie Informationen. 1979 Dec; 5:19-21.

    The Pro Familia organization published a declaration that the International Planned Parenthood Federation do all it could to prevent the incidence of female circumcision. Studies showed that this practice is followed in Africa, Asia, and Latin America by Muslims as well as members of animist religions. The clitoris and part of the labiae minorae are removed; this is meant to remove the source of sexual pleasure and prevent premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse. In some cultures the labiae minorae are sewn together, with a small opening left to accommodate menstrual bleeding. This practice has caused death by bleeding and blood poisoning and today is sometimes performed in clinics to avoid these dangers, often without success. Male and female circumcision are still seen in many cultures as necessary prerequisities to the maturation process.
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  21. 21

    [Developments in the IPPF. 3. IPPF recommendations of guidelines for the distribution of contraceptives for protection of the users' rights] Entwicklungen in der IPPF. 3. IPPF Empfehlungen von Richtlinien fuer die Verteilung von Kontraeptiva zum Schutz der Rechts der Vebraucher.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Governing Board

    Profamilia Informationen, December 1975-January 1976. p. 20-21.

    The Central Medical Committee and the law Board of the IPPF have suggested that the following 5 guidelines, concerning the distribution of contraceptives, presented by the Community Based Distribution Programs, be accepted and enforced. 1) The distributor should obtain adequate information from and about the user, to ensure that he will be able to use the contraceptives properly and to judge the effects use or nonuse of a particular contraceptive will have on the health of the user. 2) The distributor should function as much as possible in a framework where information concerning and services providing various methods of birth control are available, so that the user may choose the most suitable alternative. 3) The distributor should see that appropriate information concerning proper use of a contraceptive method chosen by the user is available to him or her. 4) The distributor should have on hand information concerning doctors or agencies for consultation, if further help is needed. 5) The distrubutor should supervise, control, and judge the continuing use of the contraceptive technique by the user and maintain a system of referrals to ensure the user's right to adequate care. These guidelines should be modified by family planning organizations to conform to national exigencies. Furthermore, the legitimate relationship between doctor, distributor, and user may be partially formalized by application of standing regulations, use of brochures about contraceptives and their effects, questionnaires, printed statements of consent, and other measures.
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  22. 22

    [Developments in the IPPF. 1. Results of the meeting of the Governing Body November 1975] Entwicklungen in der IPPF. 1. Ergebnisse der Ratssitzung November 1975.


    Profamilia Information en, December 1975-January 1976. p. 19.

    The Governing Body of the IPPF, which meets every 2 years with 6 representatives from each of its 8 regions, devoted its 1975 session to a 1-day seminar on the relationship of governments to private family planning organizations and the future development of these organizations. In another proceeding, the Central Medical Committee and the Law Board presented guidelines for laws and regulations governing access to contraceptives. Other important topics of the meeting were the inner structure and functioning of the IPPF. A new model was passed for the central agencies - a meeting of all member organizations every 3 years to elect the president, approve any rule changes, and discuss and pass a 3-year plan for programs of the organization. The present Governing Body is to be reduced in size (4 rather than 6 representatives from each region), but will meet annually. Further topics concerned standardization and division of responsibility between the staffs of the main office and the regional bureaus of the IPPF.
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  23. 23

    [The tasks of family planning in the European Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation - IPPF] Aufgaben der Familienplanung in der europaischen Region der Internationalen Foderation fur geplante Elternschaft - IPPF.

    Braestrup A

    In: Mehlan, I.H., ed. Arzt und Familienplanung. (The doctor and family planning.) (Proceedings of the Third Rostock Continuing Education Convention on the Problems of Marriage and Sex Counseling, October 23-25, 1967. Rostock-Warnemunde). Berlin, Veb Verlag, Volk und Gesundheit (People and Health), 1968. p. 177-178

    The summary of an address on the historical development of the problem of family planning in Eastern Europe is presented. The task is not only limitation of family size, but also child development, marital harmony, and maternal and child health. The German Democratic Republic, the youngest member country of IPPF, sent the speaker to the 1967 Congress, where she participated in the ''Marriage and Family'' workshop. As president of the European and Near Eastern region, she gave an instructive summary of their specific problems. Taboos must be dispelled, from physicians as well as laymen. Doctors must have a positive attitude toward family planning as well as technical expertise. The minister of health in East Germany is involved in these problems. The speaker summarized the work of IPPF in holding international congresses, training personnel, publishing instructions in many languages, and its relationships with other organizations such as WHO and UNESCO. She concluded with the thought that family planning will not only benefit the individual family, but also the family of the world.
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  24. 24

    [Family planning: Organization, experiences, suggestions] Familienplanung: Organisation, Erfahrungen, Vorsclage.

    Hobbing E

    In: Staemmler, H.-J., ed. Geburtenplannung. Statistik, Erfahrungen und Konsequenzen. (Birth control. Statistics, experiences and results.) Stut tgart, Georg Thieme Verlag, 1974. p. 81-85

    The activities of Pro Familia, the West German Society for Sexual Co unseling and Family Planning, are described. The Society participates in the activities of many international organizations of medical and social interest as a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. In Germany, Pro Familia offers courses for physicians, counselors and day people, and a variety of educational progrmas for all ages. Physicians working with Pro Familia receive a 5-day training course, and are encouraged to complete deficient aspects of their education in sexuality, family planning, and reproduction. The Society maintains 45 centers and several mobile units to carry programs to underprivileged neighborhoods. The age of clients has declined steadily from a minimum of 16 5 years ago to 13-14 years now; 12-year-olds are sometimes seen. Help is sought not only in questions of fertility and contraception, but also in marital, sexual, and emotional problems of all types.
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