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[Quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou of Henan province].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2016 Apr; 50(4):339-45.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of life and its related factors among HIV/AIDS patients from HIV serodiscordant couples in Zhoukou city of Henan province. METHODS: During January to May in 2015, by the convenience sample, World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) (Chinese version) and a self-edited questionnaire were used to investigate 1 251 HIV/AIDS patients who were confirmed with HIV positive by local CDC, registered in"HIV serodiscordant family" and agreed to participate in a face-to-face interview with above 18 year-old based on the local CDC , township hospitals and village clinics of 9 counties and 1 district of Zhoukou city, excluding the HIV/AIDS patients who were in divorce, death by one side, unknowing about his HIV status, with mental illness and disturbance of consciousness, incorrectly understanding the content of the questionnaire, and reluctant to participate in this study. The scores of quality of life of physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were calculated. The related factors of the scores of different domains were analyzed by Multiple Two Classification Unconditioned Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The scores of investigation objects in the physical, psychological, social relations, and environmental domain were 12.00+/- 2.02, 12.07 +/- 2.07, 11.87 +/- 1.99, and 11.09 +/- 1.84, respectively. The multiple Unconditioned Logistic Regression analysis indicated that age <40 years, on ART and no other sickness in last two weeks were beneficial factors associated with physical domain with OR (95%CI): 0.61 (0.35-1.06), 0.52 (0.30-0.90), and 1.66 (1.09-2.52), respectively. The possibility of no poverty and no other sickness in last two weeks increased to 0.15(0.09-0.26) and 1.57(1.06-2.33) times of those who was in poverty and with other sickness in last two weeks in physical domain. The possibility of participants who were below 40 years old and with children increased to 0.58 (0.34-0.98) and 0.37 (0.23-0.57) times of who were above 40 years old and without children in psychological domain. The factors of with AIDS related symptoms, no children and with other sickness in last two week were found to be significantly associated with environmental domain with OR (95%CI): 0.65 (0.48-0.88), 0.66 (0.51-0.85), and 0.65 (0.51-0.84), respectively . CONCLUSION: The scores of every domain of quality of life in HIV serodiscordant couples of Zhoukou city were good. Age, whether having AIDS related symptoms, whether to accept ART , children, status of poverty, and whether suffering from other diseases in last two weeks were the main factors associated with the quality of life.
Hu Li Za Zhi the Journal of Nursing. 2013 Feb; 60(1):23-8.The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), developed by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to promote breastfeeding in maternity facilities worldwide, has had a global impact on breastfeeding outcomes. However, further interventions are necessary before and after hospital discharge to meet the initiative's recommended 6-month targets. The Baby-Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI), a multifaceted program for community based breastfeeding promotion designed to complement BFHI, addresses this challenge. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the origin of BFCI and its current implementation status in several countries as a reference for effective BFCI promotion in Taiwan.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2007 Mar; 36(2):203-6.OBJECTIVE: To compare children's growth patterns and estimates of malnutrition using the WHO standards versus the NCHS reference in China. METHODS: Data originated from China children nutrition surveillance in 2005, Z-scores and prevalence of malnutrition were compared between standards. RESULTS: There was substantial difference in Z-scores between standards in rural (P < 0.0001). According to the WHO standards, prevalence of underweight in rural was lower than that of underweight based on the NCHS reference (6.1% . vs. 8.6%, P < 0.0001). Except for children under 6 months, all age groups underweight rates were lower according to the WHO standards. Prevalence of stunting in rural was higher based on the WHO standards (16.3% . vs. 13.0%, P < 0.0001), prevalences of stunting under 6 months were 2.1 times of that based on NCHS reference. As for wasting, there were no differences between standards, but wasting was substantially higher during the first half of infancy. Overweight rates based on the WHO standards were higher than those based on NCHS reference in urban (6.7% . vs. 5.4%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In comparison with NCHS reference, population estimates of malnutrition would vary by age, growth indicator based on WHO standards. The WHO standards could provide a better tool to monitor the rapid and changing rate of growth in early infancy, further analysis on existing data was needed.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi / Chinese Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 Oct; 18(5):309-311.Global HIV infection and AIDS: according to WHO estimates, by mid 1996 there were 7 million cumulative AIDS cases. Today the number of people infected with HIV is even more alarming: roughly 21.8 million, of those 42% are women. By the year 2000 there will be between 40 and 50 million cases. Each day about 8,500 additional people are infected with AIDS; one can say the situation is grim. Currently, the AIDS and HIV epidemic regions are shifting, they have gradually moved from the original sites of North America and West Europe toward the mass populations of developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In the Asian region which contains about 60% of the world's population, beginning in 1988, with Thailand and India at the center, an exploding epidemic has taken shape. Recent materials indicate, those infected with HIV in Thailand exceed 700,000, over 2 million in India, and the HIV epidemic has already spread to the near neighbors Burma, southern China, Cambodia, Malaysia and Vietnam. With the accumulation of molecular epidemiology research materials, the complete picture of the causes and characteristics of this massive epidemic happening in the Asian region is gradually becoming clear. (excerpt)
Chinese Primary Health Care. 2002; 16(4):33-34.The authors analyzed expenses of Poverty Medical Alleviation for Poor Maternal of Health VI Project Loaned by World Bank, which is based on some of the project counties in five years. The main results are: (1) The Poverty Medical Alleviation Project had improved the utilization equity of Maternal and Child Health in poor areas. (2) Project counties should strengthen the management and sustainability of Poverty Alleviation Fund. (3) Information system should be improved. (author's)
Chinese Primary Health Care. 2000; 14(9):11-14.To set up the research priorities for the broader reproductive health programmes, the World Health Organization (WHO) has given a high priority to planning and programming for reproductive health, which aims at improvement of the delivery of reproductive health services. In 1998, with a financing support by Ford Foundation, the Foreign Loan Office of the China Ministry of Health (MoH) initiated a program in poor rural areas of China entitled reproductive health improvement project (RHIP) in 4 of the 71 World Bank/MoH of China "Health VIII Project" Counties. This paper reports the approaches and entry points of RHIP: (1) Participatory planning; (2) Operations research; and (3) Listening to women's voice at the rural communities. It is expected that these approaches and entry points will be useful for improvement of reproductive health services in other rural areas of China. (author's)
Chinese Journal of Health Education. 2003 Jun; 19(6):457-458.The concept of reproductive health is a new one first advanced by World Health Organization (WHO) human health research plan chairman Barzelatto in 1988. In 1994 the WHO Global Policy Council formally adopted a definition of reproductive health; in 1995 the World Health Congress again stressed the importance of the WHO’s global reproductive health strategy, and proposed an international health struggle goal of “universal access to reproductive health by 2015.” The definition and scope of reproductive health. Reproductive health is a physical, mental and social state of well being, but not only a lack of sickness or debilitation. The particular scope includes having a healthy and harmonious sexual physiology and a regular sex life, free from worry of sexually transmitted disease or unwanted pregnancy; people having the ability to have children, but also having scientific adjustments and control of their own reproduction, to freely decide whether to have children, when to have children and how many to have. It requires that the sexes have equal rights to knowledge to make safe, effective and responsible choices; access to methods of reproductive control; use of appropriate health services; safe and comfortable pregnancy and childbirth, with the best opportunity for the mother and infant’s health. Important contents of reproductive health: sexually mature sperm, ovum, pregnancy, period of nursing after birth, regulation of fertility, cure of infertility, reproductive infection and prevention of disease. (excerpt)
Chung-Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih / Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996 Mar; 31(3):131-133.The quality of obstetric care is critical for maintaining the safety and health of mothers and their children. In 1989, the World Health Organization announced four priorities in terms of promoting the safety and health of mother and child: (1) improving the social status of women; (2) making prenatal health care available to all mothers; (3) providing necessary obstetric care to all high risk pregnant women; and (4) making it possible for all couples to practice family planning. In September 1990, the World Summit Meeting on Children published two important documents: the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children and the Action Plan for the 1990's. Prime Minister Li Peng of China demonstrated our commitment by signing the two documents in March 1991. It has been four years since March 1992, when China's State Council issued the Development Plan for Chinese Children in the 1990s. It is essential to further improve the quality of obstetric care throughout China for the sake of maintaining the safety and health of mothers and their children. (excerpt)
Journal of Chinese Sexology. 1993 Mar; (1):26-27.It is widely known that viral hepatitis is transmitted through intestinal tract infection or blood infection. However, it has not aroused much attention that the disease can be transmitted through sexual behavior. WHO has listed this disease as one of sexually transmitted diseases. Blocking the infectious link of sexual behavior is an essential tool in preventing and curing hepatitis B. This article intends to detect signs of Hepatitis B through vaginal secretion of 51 pregnant and postnatal women of childbearing age and to discuss the relationship between sexual behavior of people with Hepatitis B and clinical infection. Discussion: In China, the positive rate of surface antigen in pregnant and postnatal women is 2% to 7%, depending on the region. 1. It is 6.5% in Shenyang, lower than that in men. Pregnant and postnatal women who are surface antigen negative and who exhibit Hepatitis B symptoms people account for 22% of all surface antigen-negative people. 2. According to statistics, this study holds that 100% vaginal secretions of people with indication of Hepatitis B carry the Hepatitis B virus, and 6.6% (1/6) is strongly infectious. This indicates that chances of vaginal secretions of average women of childbearing age carrying Hepatitis B virus are high. The link between sexual behavior and the transmission of the Hepatitis B virus must be cut. (excerpt)
Chung-Hua Fu Chan Ko Tsa Chih / Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1993 Aug; 28(8):457-459.Perinatal medicine is a new branch of medicine related to pregnancies that has developed during the past 30 years in the world. It was first introduced to China at the end of the 1970s. In 1981, the Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Chinese Medical Association organized the first academic meeting on perinatal science in China. With the help of the World Health Organization, China invited experts in this field to hold seminars in China, training key personnel from various provinces, cities and autonomous regions, who then spread the knowledge all over the country. The development of perinatal medicine in China has been characterized by the following. (excerpt)
REPRODUCTION AND CONTRACEPTION. 1990 May; 10(2):6-9.Contraceptive research is a time-consuming and expensive endeavor. It takes 15 to 25 years and 15 million US dollars to develop a new contraceptive method. Such an expensive investment made it inhibitive for developing countries to have their own contraceptive research. Most of them have to use foreign currency to import contraceptives. Besides a few pharmaceutical companies, there are 7 important organizations and agencies in the world that are engaged in sponsoring or organizing contraceptive research. Among these organizations, WHO/HRP and UNFPA have had more involvement in contraceptive research in China. The emphasis of funding from HRP in recent years has switched from supporting organizational building of research institutes to finding specific research projects. HRP has 10 task forces which reviews research proposals from over the world and funding is provided to the projects approved. UNFPA has allocated 4.5 million US dollars in contraceptive research in its 1990-1994 assistance programs to China. 3 important issues that need basic research are 1. male contraceptives 2. male infertility and 3. mechanism of female menstrual disturbance. In the past number of years, international organizations have placed great emphasis on social and behavior research related to contraceptive practice. Attention has also been given to the development of management skills in the research institutes so that the scarce resources could be used efficiently. Training of personnel has also been a major component of assistance from both HRP and UNFPA. It has been suggested that a training center be established in China to serve the need of China and Asia and Pacific region.
RENKOU YANJIU / POPULATION RESEARCH. 1987 Sep; (5):43-8.The question of how to measure the influence of family planning in fertility has been addressed by numerous international scholars. Highlighted briefly here are some of the methods endorsed by United Nations publications and recognized by scholars of various countries: 1) Standardization; 2) John Bongaarts model; 3) Trend analysis; 4) Wishik model; 5) Converse model of Dorothy Nartman; 6) Potter model; 7) Nathan Keyfitz model; 8) "Plural model"; 9) Model analysis.
RENKOU YANJIU. 1985 Mar 29; (2):31-5.A comparative study and detailed analysis of various standard model life tables are presented. After examining the development of various methods by which demographic factors and weighting techniques are applied, the reasons for the existence of vast discrepancies among the model life tables for various world regions are discussed. It is argued that the 1955 UN model life tables and others developed in Europe and in the United States theoretically apply to Western populations, thus the so-called Chilean, Far East, Southern Asia, and Latin American models, all of which are extensions of Western models, are not totally applicable. Nonetheless, it is concluded that the UN's model population tables 90, 95, and 100 (published in 1955) closely approximate China's 1982 census statistics for life expectancy.
JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1986 Jun; (9):193-212.Population studies have been well developed in many countries of the world, but not so in Taiwan. Many academic people and general citizens in the Taiwan area are still not very familiar with the significance of population research within and outside of the nation. The purpose of this paper is to help readers understand the importance and development situation and trend of the field of population studies, so that they can be motivated to carry out population research and can become more knowledgeable of institutions and organizations both in Taiwan and abroad. Important concepts of the development and trend of population studies presented in this paper are developed by the author after many years of population study. Most sources used in this paper are secondary, and appear in various population references and documents of population organizations. The paper includes 3 main parts: the importance of population studies, the development of population studies in Taiwan, and international population research and sponsoring organizations and agencies. In the 1st part, the important need for population studies has been comprehensively discussed. In the 2nd part, discussions are extended to 3 subjects government's role on data collection and data analysis, teaching and research developments in acdemic institutions, and the role of private organizations in the promotion and application of population studies. In the 3rd part, more than 70 international institutions and agencies of population studies have been introduced and examined. Partticular attention has been paid to characteristics and functions of 3 organizations: UN Population Divisions, IUSSP, and CICRED. In addition, many other international public and private agencies in different countries have been listed and their locations mentioned. In this paper, discussion has not focused on the development of population in the US. It is because the development status in the US is unusually important and requires a separate, special report. The author has made such a report on population studies in the US a decade ago, and it will not be repeated here. (author's modified) (summary in ENG)
Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1984.  p.This 1983-84 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong lists council and executive members as well as subcommittee members and volunteers for 1983 and provides information on the following: administration of the Association; clinical services; education; information; International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) activities; laboratory services; library service; motivation; personnel resource development and production; the Sexually Assualted Victims Service; studies and evaluation; subfertility service; surgical service; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; women's clubs; the Youth Advisory Service; and youth volunteer development. In 1983, there was a total of 45,384 new cases; total attendance at clinics was 261,992. A series of thirteen 5-minute segments on sex education was produced as part of a weekly television youth program. An 8-session sexual awareness seminar continued to receive a very good response. To meet the increasing demand of young couples for better preparation towards satisfactory sexual adjustment in marriage, a 3-session seminar on marriage was regularly conducted every month during 1983. 13 seminars were held, reaching a total of 374 participants. Other education efforts included a family planning talk, the Kwun Tong Population and Family Life Education Week, and 39 sessions of talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. The year-long information campaign was organized in response to the 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice findings that many couples still fail to recognize the concept of shared responsibility in family planning. Laboratory services include hepatitis screening, premarital check-up examinations, pap smear, the venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), and seminal fluid examinations. Throughout the year, 256 interviews were given to sexually assaulted victims. To arouse the awareness of the public with regard to preventing rape through education, counselors conducted talks and gave radio and television interviews on the Sexually Assaulted Victims Service. The records of the 3 sub-fertility clinics showed that altogether in 1983 there were 1355 new cases and 561 old cases, with a total attendance of 6682. 144 pregnancies also were recorded. Training programs included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for teachers and social workers.
Hong Kong, Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, 1983.  p.This 1982-83 Annual Report of the Family Planning Association (FPA) of Hong Kong reports on the following: program administration; activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); personnel; clinical services; surgical services; laboratory services; affiliated volunteer groups; education; information; library services; motivation and promotion; statistics and evaluation; training; the Vietnamese Refugees Project; and the Youth Advisory Service. The Association's services are managed by 133 full-time and 21 part-time staff. The clinic attendance figures quoted are for the 1982 calendar year; otherwise, the report refers to the current financial year. There were 43,818 new cases and 51,031 old cases making a total clinic attendance figure of 257,185. Of the 772 female applicants for sterilization, 599 female clients were treated for sterilization in 1982, 502 having mini-laparotomy and 97 having culdoscopic sterilization. 367 vasectomies were performed, representing an increase of 8.6% over the previous year. Educational efforts took the form of Working Youth's Programs, Sexual Awareness Seminars, Sex in Marriage Seminars, Family Planning Talks, and talks and lectures on various topics related to family planning and sex education. Information activities included exhibitions, columns in newspapers and magazines, media coverage and advertisements, and talks by Association staff to various service clubs and community organizations and universities. Resource development efforts took the form of the production of new family life education resources as well as other resource materials; film, slide, and video production; and audiovisual services. The 1982 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey revealed that 59.2% of the 1403 currently married women interviewed approved, with or without reservation, of the provision of a contraceptive services to the unmarried. 30.5% disapproved of it, and 10.4% had no idea or gave no answer. Studies of the termination of pregnancy and a family life education survey also were conducted. Training efforts included sex education seminars for social workers, a sex education course for secondary school teachers, a sex education seminar for student guidance officers, and an advanced course on human sexuality for social workers and teachers. Total clinic attendance recorded for the Vietnamese Refugees project was 2680; 580 were new cases. The Youth Advisory Service recorded a big increase in the number of new clients (1723), old clients (270), with a total attendance of 3901.