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  1. 1

    Arab women in ESCWA member states: statistics, indicators and trends.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1994. vi, 301 p. (E/ESCWA/STAT/1994/17)

    This volume provides a compilation of statistics for specific Arab countries on population, education and training, health and childbearing, housing and public health, women's work and economic activity, and women's political participation. Data were compiled from the UN database of censuses for 1960-90, surveys, national reports, and UN population estimates. The Arab countries include Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, the West Bank (Palestine), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates (UAE), the former Arab Republic of Yemen, and the former Democratic Republic of Yemen. Country-specific sources are indicated for each data set and the year of observation. The total fertility rates for 1990-95 were 4.19 (Bahrain), 4.55 (Egypt), 5.25 (Iraq), 5.6 (Jordan), 6.51 (Kuwait), 7.84 (Oman). 6.19 (West Bank), 4.49 (Qatar), 6.46 (Saudi Arabia), 5.91 (UAE), and 7.6 (Yemen). Contraceptive usage among currently married women aged 15-49 years was, in the most recent year available, 53.8% (Bahrain), 47.1% (Egypt), 18.0% (Iraq), 40.0% (Jordan), 34.6% (Kuwait), 57.0% (Lebanon), 8.6% (Oman), 32.3% (Qatar), 29.5% (Syria), and 11.2% (Yemen). The percentage of women in the labor force engaged in agriculture, in the most recent year available, was 0.21% (Bahrain), 61.03% (Egypt), 14.26% (Iraq), 4.36% (Jordan), 0.08% (Kuwait), 5.40% (Lebanon), 0.02% (Qatar), 2.07% (Saudi Arabia), 50.39% (Syria), 0.06% (UAE), 93.90% (Yemen, AR), and 30.24% (Yemen, DR). The proportion of economically active females, in the most recent year available, was 29.26% (Bahrain), 2.94% (Egypt), 10.47% (Iraq), 14.06% (Jordan), 34.33% (Kuwait), 12.21% (Lebanon), 10.99% (Oman), 27.51% (Qatar), 7.29% (Saudi Arabia), 17.60% (Syria), 24.22% (UAE), and 27.30% (Yemen, AR). An executive summary was not included.
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  2. 2

    Laws and policies affecting fertility: a decade of change. Leis e politicas que afetam a fecundidade: uma decada de mudancas.

    Isaacs SL; Cook RJ; Pile JM; Smit L; Levitt L; Cairns G; Heckel N

    Population Reports. Series E: Law and Policy. 1984; (7):E105-E151.

    In the last decade over 50 countries have strengthened laws or policies relating to fertility. Approximately 40 developing countries have issued explicit statements on population policy emphasizing the relationship to national development. In several countries constitutional amendments have been passed reflecting a more positive attitude toward family planning. High-level units, e.g. small technical units, interministerial councils and coordinating councils have been established to formulate policies or coordinate programs. Other actions relating to fertility include: increased resources for family planning programs, both in the public and in the private sector; elimination of restrictions on family planning information, services and supplies; special benefits for family planning acceptors or couples with small families, and measures to improve the status of women, which indirectly affects childbearing patterns. The recognition that policies, laws and programs to influence fertility are an integral part of efforts to promote social and economic development was reaffirmed at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. 147 governments expressed their support for voluntary programs to help people control their fertility. Governments cite at least 4 reasons for increased attention to policies affecting fertility and family planning. Some of these are the desire to slow population growth to achieve national development objectives, concern for maternal and child health, support for the basic human right to determine family size, and equity in the provision of health services. In addition to the strongest laws and policies to lower fertility in Asia, legal changes are occurring in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. Family planning programs, laws on contraceptives and voluntary sterilization, compensation, incentives and disincentives, the legal status of women and fertility and policy-making and implementation are reviewed, as well as equal employment, education, political and civil rights and equality of women within marriage and the family.
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  3. 3

    Kilimanjaro programme of action on population. Programme d'action de Kilimanjaro concernant la population.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa

    [Addis Ababa, Ethiopia], ECA, [1984]. 32, [19] p. (ST/ECA/POP/1 UNFPA PROJ. NO. RAF/83/P02)

    The 2nd African Population Conference organized by the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and financially supported by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was convened in Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, from 9-13 January, 1984. The Conference reviewed progress so far achieved in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) adopted in Bucharest in 1974 and the recommendations of the Regional Post-World Population Conference Consultation held in Lusaka, Zambia, in April, 1975 and identified actions to be taken in the future. The Conference reviewed conclusions and recommendations of previous populaton meetings in the region and the impact of these on the development of population work in Africa and the implementation of the WPPA. The Conference assessed the demographic situation in Africa and future trends, progress achieved in conducting population censuses and surveys in Africa countries, the formulation of national population policies in the context of national development plans and strategies, the formulation and implementation of nat population programs for integrated rural development, reduction in mortality and fertility levels and enhancing women's status in development. The Conference observed that the African population of about 500 million was likely to double by 2010. Although the continent's population remained a small % of world population, the current high levels of fertility and mortality give rise to great concern about the region's ability to maintain even living standards already attained since independence. The rapid increase in urban population demands careful and balanced socioeconomic planning. Principles and objeectives are listed, as are recommendations to governments of member ECA states, international organizations, and donor governments and agencies.
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  4. 4

    Strengthening rural health service delivery project. First progress review meeting on the Diarrheal Disease Control Study.

    Egypt. Ministry of Health

    Mansura, Egypt, [Westinghouse Health Systems], 1980 Jun 2. 38 p.

    This is the report on a study into the availability, utilization, effectiveness, and cost of sucrose/salt rehydration mixtures and prepackaged rehydrant solutions of glucose, potassium, and bicarbonate. A WHO-sponsored program was established in Egypt in 1977 to distribute prepackaged electrolytes for use in cases of diarrhea. Results have been unsatisfactory because there is distrust and, consequently, underuse of the product. In addition, it is only available at clinics, which are also underutilized by the population. Therefore, since 1978, the Ministry of Health has been conducting a pilot project to distribute the oral rehydrants through rural health care delivery. This program involves teaching home preparation and administration of a salt/sugar solution to mothers, providing packets through medical personnel at clinics, and intravenous treatment in hospitals in severe cases. A comparative study will be undertaken in 2-3 districts of the pilot project to assess the relative benefits of the home-prepared salt/sugar solutions and the prepackaged oral rehydrants. The methodology of the study, plus specific research outputs expected, are outlined. The 2 preparations will be compared as to effectiveness, availability, safety, acceptability, cost, and principal advantages.
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