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Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2008 Oct; 34(4):269-70.User choice is central to contraceptive practice, as opposed to therapeutic care where the view of the prescriber tends to prevail. Provider organisations have to make difficult decisions in selecting the methods of contraception that are offered, particularly with the multitude of new products and the controversies that have surrounded the value of some of them. The World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines is a valuable tool in strengthening the provision of contraceptive commodities as part of international development efforts.
Using formal consensus methods to adapt World Health Organization Medical Eligibility Criteria for contraceptive use.
Contraception. 2008 Oct; 78(4):300-308.Most contraceptive users are medically fit and can use any available method. Some medical conditions are associated with theoretical safety concerns when certain contraceptives are used. Nevertheless, most contraceptive clinical trials exclude subjects with chronic medical conditions, and direct evidence on which to base sound contraceptive prescribing is limited. The World Health Organization (WHO) Medical Eligibility Criteria provide recommendations on the safe use of contraception. This document is aimed at policymakers and program managers working in less developed countries in which the risks of pregnancy usually far outweigh the risks associated with contraceptive use. The Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare used formal consensus methods to adapt the WHO document to reflect clinical practice and health care systems in the United Kingdom. This structured group consensus method adds authority, rationality and scientific credibility to the UK version, which makes best use of publishedevidence and captures collective expert knowledge. Not all clinicians will agree with the recommendations made in the UK version of the Medical Eligibility Criteria, but for the vast majority, they will be a valuable reference to guide clinical practice for women with many conditions that theoretically affect contraceptive use. (author's)
United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2008 Mar; 13(1):58-70.Acceptance of sexual and reproductive health as fundamental to the sustainable development of societies has allowed for creation of new reproductive health programmes and policies. WHO sexual and reproductive health (SRH) strategies were developed in the WHO Regional Office for Europe (2001), as well as globally (2004). Adolescent SRH is important in both strategies. Despite these commitments, adolescents remain vulnerable to poor reproductive health. The goal of this paper is to analyse the current status of SRH of adolescents in Europe. Key reproductive health indicators were chosen. Information was obtained from published studies, databases and questionnaires sent to WHO reproductive health counterparts within the health ministries in the Member States of the WHO European Region. Pregnancy rate, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive use at first and last intercourse, contraceptive prevalence, HIV knowledge, and STI rates vary widely according to the population considered. Gender difference and lack of information pertaining to SRH of all adolescent populations are other key findings. While the SRH of most European adolescents is good, they remain a vulnerable population. Lack of standardized reproductive indicators and age specific aggregate data make it difficult to accurately assess the situation in individual countries or perform cross country comparison. (author's)