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Report of the European Region on Immunization Activities. (Global Advisory Group EPI, Alexandria, October 1984). WHO/Expanded Immunization Programme and the European Immunization Targets in the Framework of HFA 2000.
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, Egypt, 21-25 October 1984. 3 p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.4)Current reported levels of morbidity and mortality from measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis in most countries in the European Region are at or near record low levels. However, several factors threaten successful achievement of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) goal of making immunization services available to all the world's children by the year 2000, including changes in public attitudes as diseases pose less of a visible threat, declining acceptance rates for certain immunizations, variations in vaccines included in the EPI, and incomplete information on the incidence of diseases preventable by immunization and on vaccination coverage rates. To launch a more coordinated approach to the EPI goals, a 2nd Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe is scheduled to be held in Czechoslovakia. Its objectives are: 1) to review and analyze the current situation, including achievements and gaps, in immunization programs in individual countries and the European Region as a whole; 2) to determine the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous measles, poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, congenital rubella, and diphtheria; 3) to consider appropriate policies regarding the control by immunization of other diseases of public health importance; 4) to strengthen existing or establish additional systems for effective monitoring and surveillance; 5) to formulate actions necessary to improve national vaccine programs in order to achieve national and regional targets; 6) to reinforce the commitment of Member Countries to the goals and activities of the EPI; and 7) to define appropriate activities for the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization to achieve coordinated action.
Contraception. 1984 Dec; 30(6):505-22.The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a randomized comparative trail of th effects of hormonal contrception on milk volume and infant growth. The 341 study participants, drawn from 3 obstetric centers in Hungary and Thailand, were 20-35 years of age with 2-4 live births and previous successful experience with breastfeeding. Subjects who chose oral contraception (OC) were randomly allocated to a combined preparation containing 150 mcg levonorgestrel and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (N=86) or to a progestin-only minipill containing 75 mcg dl-norgestrel (N=8). 59 Thai women receiving 150 mg depot medroxyprogesterone (DPMA) intramuscularly every 3 months were also studied. An additional 111 women who were using nonhormonal methods of contraception or no contraception served as controls. Milk volume was determined by breast pump expression. No significant differences in average milk volume were noted between treatment groups at the 6 week baseline visit. However, between the 6th and 24th weeks, average milk volume in the combined OC group declined by 41.9%, which was significantly greater than the declines of 12.0% noted in the progestin-only group, 6.1% among DMPA users, and 16.7% among controls. The lower expressed milk volume among combined OC users did not impair infant growth. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of average infant body weight or rate or weight gain. Users of combined OCs may have compensated for their decreased milk volume by providing more extensive supplementary feeding or more prolonged suckling episodes. These results suggest that the estrogen content of combined OCs adversely affects the capacity of the breast to produce milk; thus, family planning programs should make nonestrogen-containing methods available to breastfeeding mothers. Although no effects on infant growth were noted in this study, the possibility of such efects cannot be excluded in populations where infant growth largely depends on the adequacy of unsupplemente d lactation.
[Unpublished] 1984. 51 p.This listing of research projects funded since 1980 by WHO's Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, is arranged by project title, investigator and annual budget allocations. Project titles are listed by Scientific Working Grouping (SWG) and include research on bacterial enteric infections; parasitic diarrheas; viral diarrheas; drug development and management of acute diarrheas; global and regional groups and research strengthening activities. SWG projects are furthermore divided by geographical region: African, American, Eastern Medierranean, European, Southeast Asian and Western Pacific. The priority area for research within each SWG is specified.
[Statistical country yearbook: members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1984] Statisticheskii ezhegodnik stran--chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi, 1984.
Moscow, USSR, Finansy i Statistika, 1984. 456 p.This yearbook presents general statistical information for member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. A section on population (pp. 7-14) includes data on area and population; population according to the latest census; average annual population; birth, death, and natural increase rates; infant mortality; average life expectancy; marriages and divorces; urban and rural population; and population distribution by social group. (ANNOTATION)
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the Second Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe, Karlovy Vary, 10-12 December 1984. Issued by the World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]. 8 p. (EPI/GEN/84/9)This discussion of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) presents some background history and discusses current program status, some linkages between the global EPI and immunization programs in Europe, and the use of vaccines. In the early 1970s, as confidence grew that the global smallpox eradication program would achieve its goals, policy advisers within and outside of the World Health Organization (WHO) looked for an initiative which could become its successor. Representatives from industrialized nations and particularly from European countries were influential in selecting childhood immunization, as such programs had been such an early and successful element of their own health systems. Thus, the EPI was born. The resolution creating the EPI was passed by the World Health Assembly in 1974. Program policies were formalized by the World Health Assembly in 1977. It was at that time that the goal of providing immunization services for all children of the world by 1990 was set and that WHO's priority attention to developing countries was specified. The European Region takes pride of place in establishing the EPI and in supporting its work in developing countries and is itself a full-fledged member of the program with respect to immunization challenges which remain within its own countries. When the EPI began, no global immunization information system existed, and it is likely that coverage in developing countries was less than 5%. It now is on the order of 30% for a 3rd dose of DPT. Given the high dropout rates persisting in many developing countries, coverage for a 1st dose of DPT may be on the order of 50%, reflecting the delivery capacity of present immunization programs. Coverage for measles and poliomyelitis in infants and for tetanus toxoid among women of childbearing age is considerably less than 30%, reflecting the perception until the last 3-4 years that measles was a problem only in Africa, that poliomyelitis was not a problem in countries with poor levels of sanitation, and that neonatal tetanus was simply not a problem. While the EPI is working at the global level to help strengthen routine disease reporting systems, particularly in developing countries, it also has had to take refuge in estimates to obtain a picture of actual morbidity and mortality. A table presents a summary of such estimates. Not all countries of the Region are yet making optimal use of existing vaccines. Countries of the Region might want to recommit themselves to the EPI goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization services for all children by 1990.
Management and structure of health policy research: report on a WHO meeting, Rome, 18-20 October 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 17 p. (ICP/RPD 012 (2); 5907L)The Working Group on Management and Structure of Health Policy Research convened during October 1983 to study the model for setting up relevant research studies, conveying results, and securing policy change as well as to consider what action was needed and which research subjects should be pursued. The participants, who represented 12 Member States of the European Region, had differing perceptions of the types of research most relevant to their countries' health needs and to policymakers seeking a better basis on which to make decisions. There was general agreement that health services research was thought to deserve more attention than fundamental or clinical research, since it was still a developing science. The definition of health services research eventually favored by the Working Group was "research aimed at improving the quality, efficiency, and effectiveness of the health service." "Health policy research" was thought to suggest work financed by governments or departments. The participants felt that, while health services research was still a neglected area of the research spectrum and needed more attention, the purpose of the meeting would not be served by concentrating totally on such research. Other types of research which were concentrated on specific problem areas also were important in providing data on which services could be based in the most effective way. Some problems and solutions regarding research related to health policy and practice were identified, including: lack of appreciation of the benefits of policy-related research on the part of government departments and ministries, the scientific community, and those responsible locally for the provision of health services; prejudice against both health services research and other targeted research; and shortage of people suitably trained and experienced in the conduct of health services research. The problem of the interaction between government and the scientific community frequently arose as policy-related research was discussed from various perspectives. The Working Group considered that the task of implementing research findings was worth every effort. The methods of publicizing the results should not be confined to written reports but should include meetings convened to arrive at a consensus.
Health planning and management--requirements for HFA2000 development: report on a working group, Athens, 26-29 September 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 18 p. (ICP/SPM 028(1))The purposes of the Working Group, composed of temporary advisers and consultants from 12 Member States of the European Region, were as follows: to examine how the existing health management and planning systems in the European Member States comply with the requirements of Health for All 2000 (HFA2000); and to identify critical areas in the development of health systems and ways of promoting change. In this context, the Group was asked to discuss: existing health planning structures and processes in European Member States, specifically with a view toward longterm outcome and strategic planning; levels of decisionmaking in planning and the balance between centralization and decentralization; the involvement of providers and consumers in the decisionmaking process of health planning; mechanisms for intersectoral involvement and leadership in health development issues; how existing financial mechanisms and budget availability meet the needs of problem-oriented issues and program budgeting; and the consequences of management and planning for health, taking the present economic situation into consideration. In the opinion of the Working Group, the broad policy basis, the strategic goals, and the majority of targets of the HFA2000 strategy for the European Region are widely accepted, but this general agreement does not exclude marked differences in emphasis placed on various aspects of the HFA2000 message in the countries represented at the meetings. A wide variety of steering, planning, and management approaches to the health sector exists in the European Region. Actual management practice varies according to the different balances between formal planning mechanisms and more informal steering and negotiating mechanisms. Issues of centralization and decentralization play an important role in the majority of health planning and management mechanisms and systems in the European Region. These issues contain an essential dilemma of value conflicts that are receiving more and more attention. Basic need orientation, innovative capacity, sufficient flexibility, and community as well as user and provider participation in health development require health planning and management to be closely related to the expressed needs of the population in local communities, in regions, or other "peripheral" levels. The involvement of users, providers, and decisionmakers as well as community participation can contribute considerably to the responsiveness of health planning and management to local needs. Health protection and health development are major objectives in all countries of the European Region. In the Eu ropean Region, the variety of financing mechanisms, budgetary processes, and pricing procedures reflects the various countries' general governmental features. The majority of Member States are at this time passing through a period of economic stringency with zero or even negativve growth tendencies some cases.
["Census" in the twentieth century: on the indispensability of the census] Zensus im 20. Jahrhundert: uber die Unverzichtbarkeit einer Volkszahlung
Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium. 1984 May; 13(5):253-7.This article focuses on the uses and limits of a population census from a scientific statistical viewpoint, with a geographic emphasis on the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparisons are made among the minimum census program recommended by the United Nations and the U.S. and German census programs. The role of the census in relation to population registers and surveys is also discussed. Finally, the indispensability of the census for economic and social policy is noted. (ANNOTATION)
Implementation of action area four ("Meeting the Needs of Young People") of the IPPF three year plan 1985-87.
[Unpublished] 1984 Dec. 11,  p. (PC/3.85/4)The objective of this paper is to assist the Central Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in monitoring the implementation of the IPPF 1985-87 plan. Baseline information is provided on all 1985 youth projects proposed by grant receiving family planning associations (FPAs) in their 1985-87 Three Year Plans. Detailed analysis was confined to the 67 FPA 1985-87 Three Year Plans received at the International Office by September 1984. This number covers most of the Associations in the region; the exception is the Western Hemisphere where several of their plans arrived in London too late to be included in the analysis. For nongrant receiving Associations, summary information was extracted from regional bureau sources and a list of youth activities in these countries is shown in an appendix. A summary of 1985 youth activities supported by the IPPF Secretariat at both regional and international level is shown in a 2nd appendix. To provide the necessary background to an analysis of 1985 youth projects, all strategies proposed by FPAs in their 1985-87 Plans were examined. A total of 360 strategies were classified according to their main purpose. A further classification into 14 categories was then used to demonstrate their relationship to the IPPFs 1985-87 Action Areas. Information about the purpose of youth projects, the types of activity carried out, and whether the project was new or ongoing was also extracted from the FPA Plans. For the 67 FPAs whose Three Year Plans were reviewed, a total of 360 strategies were proposed for the 1985-87 period. The largest number of strategies were concerned with providing family planning services; male involvement was the least mentioned. A total of 34 FPAs specifically mentioned young people in their list of strategies. A further 17 FPAs proposed youth projects but did not as yet devote a special youth strategy for them. Taking into account all regions, a total of 51 Associations in 1985 intended to spend almost $2 million implementing 169 youth projects. The projects fell into 4 main types: family life and population education; training; increasing awareness of issues affecting young people; and family planning services. The number of new youth projects in 1985 varies from region to region, the highest number being in Africa. FPAs still have much to do to meet the new objective of involving parents and the community in preparing young people for responsible sexuality and family life.
Women At Work. 1984; (2):1-71.This document describes the current status of maternity protection legislation in developed and developing countries and is based primarily on the findings of the International Labor Organization's (ILO's) global assessment of laws and regulations concerning working women before and after pregnancy. The global survey collected information from 18 Asian and Pacific countries, 36 African nations, 28 North and South American countries, 14 Middle Eastern countries, 19 European market economy countries, and 11 European socialist countries. Articles in 2 ILO conventions provide standards for maternity protection. According to the operative clauses of these conventions working women are entitled to 1) 12 weeks of maternity leave, 2) cash benefits during maternity leaves, 3) nursing breaks during the work day, and 4) protection against dismissal during maternity. Most countries have some qualifying conditions for granting maternity leaves. These conditions either state that a worker must be employed for a certain period of time or contributed to an insurance plan over a defined period of time before a maternity leave will be granted. About 1/2 of the countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the Americas, Africa, and in the Europe market economy group provide maternity leaves of 12 or more weeks. In all European socialist countries, women are entitled to at least 12 weeks maternity leave and in many leaves are considerably longer than 12 months. In the Middle East all but 3 countries provide leaves of less than 12 weeks. Most countries which provide maternity leaves also provide cash benefits, which are usually equivalent to 50%-100% of the worker's wages, and job protection during maternity leaves. Some countries extend job protection beyond the maternity leave. For example, in Czechoslovakia women receive job protection during pregnancy and for 3 years following the birth, if the woman is caring for the child. Nursing breaks are allowed in 5 of the Asian and Pacific countries, 30 of African countries, 18 of the countries in the Americas, 9 of the Middle East countries, 16 of European market economy countries, and in all of the European socialist countries. Several new trends in maternity protection were observed in the survey. A number of countries grant child rearing leaves following maternity leaves. In some countries these leaves can be granted to either the husband or the wife. Some countries have regulations which allow parents to work part time while rearing their children and some permit parents to take time off to care for sick children. In most of the countries, the maternity protection laws and regulations are applied to government workers and in many countries they are also applied to workers in the industrial sector. A list of the countries which have ratified the articles in the ILO convenants concerning maternity benefits is included.
In: Demographic trends in the European region: health and social implications, edited by Alan D. Lopez and Robert L. Cliquet. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1984. 5-67. (WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 17; Project RMI/79/P05)This chapter presents an overview of recent demographic trends in Europe and discusses the implications of these trends for health and social services. The discussion is based on reports received from 15 of the 33 Member States of the European Region of the World Health Organization. The components of demographic change analyzed included population growth and structure, family formation, fertility, mortality, and population movement. Increases in the number and proportion of the elderly were noted and the traditional excess of births over deaths is expected to change in future years. Population aging is expected to continue to be a principal concern for the social services sector. The increasing emphasis on caring for rather than attempting to cure chronic illnesses among the aged suggests a need for more nursing homes and home-help services. Anticipation of future morbidity and mortality patterns implies a need to focus on specific risk groups, e.g. migrants, adult males, and those from lower socioeconomic groupings. With regard to fertility, adolescent sexual activity and the low use levels of contraception among teenagers comprise areas where greater service provision is necessary. In addition, there is a need for more vocational training for women, improved child care facilities, and full-time employment opportunities better suited to the needs of workers with dependent children. As a result of smaller families, increased divorce rates, the discrepancy between male and female survival, and greater regional mobility, markedly higher numbers of single individuals can be expected. Rapidly evolving changes in family formation, social norms, and underlying demographic trends will continue to alter European societies in the years ahead. The interrelationships between health and demographic phenomenon must continue to be probed to form a basis for future health and social planning.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
In: Population distribution, migration and development. New York, N.Y., Dept. of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, 1984. 484-505.Add to my documents.
London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.
British Journal of Family Planning. 1984 Jul; 10(37):37.This editorial takes a broad, international look at the worldwide implications of decisions taken in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the US with regard to family planning. National authorities, like the U.K. Committee for Safety of Medicines (CSM) of the US Food and Drug Administration, address issues concerning the safety of pharmaceutical products in terms of risk/benefit ratios applicable in their countries. International repercussions of US and U.K. decision making must be considered, especially in the area of pharmaceutical products, where they have an important world leadership role. Much of the adverse publicity of the use of Depo-Provera has focused on the fact that it was not approved for longterm use in the U.K. and the US. It is not equally known that the CSM, IPPF and WHO recommeded approval, but were overruled by the licensing agencies. The controversy caused by the Lancet articles of Professors with family planning doctors. At present several family planning issues in the U.K., such as contraception for minors, have implications for other countries. A campaign is being undertaken to enforce 'Squeal' laws in the U.K. and the US requiring parental consent for their teenagers under 16 to use contraceptives. In some developing countries, urbanization heightens the problem of adolescent sexuality. Carefully designed adolescent programs, stressing the need for adequate counseling, are needed. Many issues of international interest go unnoticed in the U.K. International agencies, like the WHO and UNiCEF, have embarked on a global program to promote lactation both for its benficial effects on an infant's growth and development and for birth spacing effects. It may be of benefit to family planning professionals in the U.K. to pay attention to international activity in such issues.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Europe Region, 1984 Jun. 122 p.Reflections, speculations, and partial evaluations of work already undertaken in the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Europe Region concerning migrants and planned parenthood are presented. This project, initiated by the Federal Republic of Germany Planned Parenthood Association (PPA), PRO FAMILIA, stemmed from the practical experiences and problems of 1 family planning association in the Europe region. The original substantive framework, consisting of data collection and correspondence, plenary meetings, and subworking group meetings on specific areas of interest, was not altered. Throughout the project, as the work was accomplished, the emphasis shifted to different aspects to migrant work. The 1st questionnaire was intended to provide a sociodemographic profile of the participating countries, a show European migratory movements, and ascertain the ethnicity of the target groups in the different countries. The 2nd questionnaire was related specifically to PPA and/or other family planning center's data and activities and attempted to explore PPA attitudes toward migrant clients, when special facilities for migrants were provided, and whether PPAs felt there was a particular need for such services. The report provides a sociodemographic background of migration in Europe. In addition it includes information from donor countries and recipient countries, examining family planning services in the Federal Republic of Germany and the UK. It also covers training; information, education, and communication; adolescence and 2nd generation migrants; and migrant work. It is necessary to be particularly aware of political sensitivities in treating immigrant fertility regulation. Ideally, the aim is to provide an integrated service for migrants and natives both, catering to individual needs. Until this is feasible, the goal must be to work toward an integrated service, recognizing the needs and providing special services where possible if this is judged tobe the best approach to catering to those needs. Migrant needs must be discovered rather than assumed. Better use should be made of the available printed material, which should be utilized to complement oral information where possible. Experience has shown that family planning personnel working with migrants need additional training. The main components of this training should include self-awareness, insight, and knowledge.
Tellus. 1984 Jul; 5(2):8-11, 25-8.Since the formulation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in Bucharest in 1974, about 80% of governments have endorsed family planning and fertility control. There has been a growing awareness by governments that population planning must be an integral part of general policy formulation. This article describes the issues of central concern to the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico, highlighting those which result from new global developments over the past decade. Immigration, particularly by exiles and refugees from political persecution, are contributing much more to population instability than foreseen by the WPPA. Internal migration and massive population shifts from rural to urban areas are of increasing concern to governments in developing nations. In developed countries, there has been an emergence of anxiety over zero population growth. The role of privately sponsored programs for population control is much less prominent, as governments take more responsibility for formulating population policy. A report from a meeting of 90 such nongovernmental organizations held in 1983 was reluctantly accepted as an official document at the conference in Mexico. The Canadian Task Force on Population has identified 5 issues of special concern: status of women, the environment, aging, immigration, and family planning. The Task Force includes among its objectives the encouragement of a comprehensive population policy for Canada, focussing both on Canada's special concerns and on its place in the global community. For example, acid rain and improper soil conservation are threatening Canada's status as one of the few viable "bread baskets" for the world. The growing bulge in the population over age 65 will impose economic strain in the future. Sex education for adolescents in inadequate, with only 1/2 of Canadian schools addressing sex and sexuality in the curriculum.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note presented to the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 4 p.The United Kingdom's birth rate has been below replacement level since 1973. Average family size is becoming smaller; the most popular size is 2 children. Women are postponing births to a later date, and age at marriage has risen. Problems of providing support and services for the growing number of very elderly are being studied by the government. Size of population is of less concern than well-being to the government. They provide assistance with family planning through the National Health Service, but believe that decisions about fertility and childbearing are each couple's to make. Population figures are taken into account in making economic and social policy, but there is no attempt to influence overall size and components of change except in the area of immigration where they lose more people by emigration than they gain from immigration.
Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.
New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
[Contribution of Hungarian demographic science and Hungarian demographers to the work of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population] A magyar demografiai tudomany es a magyar demografusok hozzajarulasa a Nemzetkozi Nepessegtudomanyi Unio munkajahoz
Demografia. 1984; 27(1):51-76.The author describes the development of demography in Hungary from 1928 to the present, with a focus on the contribution of Hungarian demographers to the activities of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP). This paper is part of an IUSSP project that deals with the history of the Union and involves the preparation of papers on such activities in several countries. (summary in ENG, RUS) (ANNOTATION)
New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1984. 160 p.This expanded voters' guide to important foreign policy issues facing the US is intended to provide voters, information they need to take part in the national foreign policy debate and reach their own informed conclusions. The approach is nonpartisan and impartial and the style is telegraphic. Each of the 18 topics includes a list of significant questions, a presentation of essential background, an outline of policy choices and the pros and cons of each, and a brief bibliography. The book covers 5 major themes: leadership, national security, economic and social issues, critical regions, and the UN. The chapters cover: 1) president, congress, and foreign policy; 2) the arms race and arms control; 3) defense budget and major weapons systems; 4) nuclear proliferation; 5) jobs and international trade; 6) oil and energy; 7) the international debt crisis; 8) immigration and refugees; 9) Soviet Union; 10) the Atlantic alliance; 11) Lebanon, the Arabs, and Israel; 12) the Iran-Iraq war; 13) Central America; 14) Japan; 15) China and Taiwan; 16) South Africa and Namibia; 17) Third World: population, food, and development; and 18) the US and the UN.
Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(2):83-5.For some time the Regional Office for Europe has supported the development of comprehensive smoking control activities in Member States. Recently, it has recognized the need for a coordinated European smoking control policy. A 1st step was a workshop on Smoking and Heath held during September 1983 in order to give the socialist countries an opportunity to exchange ideas and develop a strategy for further action and to provide a setting for an exchange of experience between their delegates and invited experts from selected Western European countries. It was hoped that the meeting would provide the World Health Organization (WHO) with a network of contacts in socialist countries that could be of value for future activities in the smoking and health programs. From the country reports presented it became evident that the factors affecting smoking control were broadly similar throughout the Region. In fact, there appeared to be more differences between some Western countries than between some Western and socialist states. There was a consensus that smoking control programs must become a major component of the regional stategy for attaining health for all by the year 2000. To be effective, programs must be as broadly based as possible, involving education, legislation, fiscal, and curative measures. Education was identified as the 1st priority since legislation and fiscal measures are unlikely to be enacted until high levels of awareness have been realized. There was much discussion about prioity groups. Some delegates felt that children should be the key group; others believed that children's smoking could not be controlled in isolation. In some parts of the Region women's smoking is now a cause of considerable concern. Workshop participants agreed that smoking education must be conducted along scientific lines and its effectiveness in each population group measured. Delegates noted the need to offer support to those who want to stop smoking. In view of the gravity of the problem, the delegates asked WHO to develop a scientifically based model for anti-smoking education. Also careful tests of smoking control methods are required on a regional or subreginal basis. Finally, delegates believed that only the wholehearted implementation of these recommendations throughout the Region could make a major impact on this serious threat to public health.
New York, N.Y., United Nations, 1984. 85 p. (Population Studies, No. 83; ST/ESA/SER.A/83)Upon a recommendation of the Population Commission, at its 20th session in January 1979, the Secretary General of the United Nations convened an Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Demographic Projections from 16 to 19 November 1981 at the UN Headquarters to discuss the methodology used for demographic projections and to consider the relationship of demographic projections to development change and population policies. The expert Group was also requested to provide guidelines and make recommendations to the Secretary-General on how to incorporate demographic changes into the methodology to be used for the next round of world population projections to be prepared by the UN Population Division in collaboration with the regional commissions. The papers prepared by members of the Expert Group as well as those prepared by the Population Division are reproduced in this publication. The recommendations of the Expert Group and a summary of the papers and discussion are also included. The topics addressed in this publication are: 1) problems in making population projections; 2) integration of socioeconomic factors in population projections; 3) population projections as an aid to the formulation and implementation of population policies; 4) current projection assumptions for the United Nations demographic projections; 5) expectations and progressive analysis in fertility prediction; 6) use of the intermediate factors in fertility projections; 7) family planning and population projections; 8) progress of work on a fertility simulation model for population projections at the UN Secretariat; 9) mortality trends and prospects in developing countries: some "best data" indications; 10) the urban and city population projections of the UN: data, definitions and methods; 11) a critical assessment of urban-rural projections with special reference to UN methods; and 12) projections in Europe: some problems.
Lancet. 1984 Jan 7; 1(8367):23-4.The epidemic of tobacco smoking is quickly spreading to developing countries with the encouragement of UK- and US-based companies. A 1983 World Health Organization (WHO) report catalogues the evidence that the smoking diseases have already arrived in the developing countries. High death rates for lung cancer are reported from India, China, Hong Kong, and Cuba, and in the Bantu of Natal. Coronary heart disease associated with cigarette smoking is a major feature in India, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Perinatal mortality rates are doubled in Bangladesh women who smoke. WHO makes a strong appeal for effective change. The question is whether governments and health ministries will face up to this challenge any more than they did to 2 earlier WHO reports on smoking. Developing countries are now urged to give high priority to smoking control activities. Although malnutrition and infectious diseases may seem to be more pressing, only action now can prevent their exacerbation by smoking-related diseases. Each country should establish a central agency with responsibility for smoking control action. Special steps should be taken to safeguard the health of children through educational programs. The sale of cigarettes to minors should be prohibited. Particular attention should be paid to traditional smoking materials as a cause of ill health, and advertising and promotion of tobacco products should be banned. Where tobacco is a commercial crop, every attempt should be made to reduce its role in the national economy and to investigate alternative use of land and labor. The UK bears considerable responsibility for the present situation. Yet, far from discouraging exports to developing countries, the reverse is true. Britain offers no overseas assistance for anti-smoking programs. Instead, it has provided funds for the development of tobacco industries. Individual doctors in Britain can provide an example by pressing for smoking control policies in all hospitals and health service premises. They can voice their concern at the activities of the tobacco companies both at home and abroad, and they can consider the propriety of holding tobacco shares either themselves or via the universities or institutions with which they are associated.