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In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 105-9. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)In 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, romania, WHO discusses degradation of the environment and population. In developing countries, poor sanitary conditions and communicable diseases are responsible for most illnesses and deaths. Physical, chemical, and psychosocial factors, as well as pathogenic organisms, cause disease and death in developing countries. Variations in individuals and between individuals present problems in determining universally valid norms relating to environment and health. Researchers must use epidemiological and toxicological methods to identify sensitive indicators of environmental deterioration among vulnerable groups, e.g., children and the aged. Changes in demographics and psychosocial, climatic, geographical, geological, and hydrologic factors may influence the health and welfare of entire populations. Air pollution appears to adversely affect the respiratory tract. In fact, 3 striking events (Meuse valley in France , Donora valley in Pennsylvania [US], and London  show that air pollution can directly cause morbidity, especially bronchitis and heart disease, and mortality. Exposure to lead causes irreparable brain damage. Water pollution has risen with industrialization. Use of agricultural chemicals also contribute to water pollution. Repeated exposure to high noise levels can result in deafness. Occupational diseases occur among people exposed to physical, chemical, or biological pollutants at work which tend to be at higher levels than in the environment. Migrant workers from developing countries in Europe live in unsafe and unhygienic conditions. Further, they do not have access to adequate health services. Nevertheless, life expectancy has increased greatly along with urbanization and industrialization. A longer life span and environmental changes are linked with increased chronic diseases and diseases of the aged.
Alternative approaches to meeting basic health needs in developing countries: a joint UNICEF/WHO study.
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1975. 116 p.Based on the failure of conventional health services and approaches to make any appreciable impact on the health problems of developing populations, this study examined successful or promising systems of delivery of primary health care to identify the key factors in their success and the effect of some of these factors in the development of primary health care within various political, economic, and administrative frameworks. In the selection of new approaches for detailed study, emphasis was placed on actual programs that are potentially applicable in different sociopolitical settings and on programs explicitly recognizing the influence of other social and economic sectors such as agriculture and education on health. Information was gathered from a wide range of sources; including members, meeting reports, and publications of international organizations and agencies, gathered country representatives, and field staff. The 1st section, world poverty and health, focuses on the underprivileged, the glaring contrasts in health, and the obstacles to be overcome--problems of broad choices and approaches, resources, general structure of health services, and technical weasknesses. The main purpose of the case studies described in the 2nd part was to single out, describe, and discuss their most interesting characteristics. The cases comprised 2 major categories: programs adopted nationally in China, Cuba, Tanzania, and, to a certain extent, Venezuela, and schemes covering limited areas in Bangladesh, India, Niger, and Yugoslavia. Successful national programs are characterized by a strong political will that has transformed a practicable methodology into a national endeavor. In all countries where this has happened, health has been given a high priority in the government's general development program. Enterprise and leadership are also found in the 2nd group of more limited schemes. Valuable lessons, both technical and operational, can be derived from this type of effort. In all cases, the leading role of a dedicated individual can be clearly identified. There is also evidence that community leaders and organizations have given considerable support to these projects. External aid has played a part and apparently been well used. Every effort should be made to determine the driving forces behind promising progams and help harness them to national plans.
Federal Council for Family Planning, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1975. 112 p.Add to my documents.
In: [Ford Foundation] Conference on Social Science Research on Population and Development, Ford Foundation, 1974. [New York, Ford Foundation], 1975. 251-2.To date the SIDA (Swedish International Development Authority) has been minimally involved in supporting social science research in the population area; however, the organization has the potential for allocating funds for this type of research in the future. SIDA is particularly interested in furthering innovative research at the micro-level, especially in the area of motivational research. SIDA would be interested in pursuing this type of research in a collaborate mode with other funding agencies. Social science projects supported by SIDA in the past included: 1) a mass communication evaluation project in Pakistan; 2) a hospital based family planning education and service program in Sri Lanka; and 3) institution building in Korea.
In: Tabah L, ed. Population growth and economic development in the Third World. Vol 2. Dolhain, Belgium, Ordina Editions, 1975. 741-82.The effects that the accelerating rate of population growth has had on the development process within the context of the international economic system is examined. Discussion covers the following: international transfer of medical technology -- chief cause of the population explosion; aid for population activities (origins of organized family planning, early moves in the 3rd world, the role of nongovernmental organizations, the United Nations and the population question, bilateral donors, the United States program, the Swedish program, the role of foreign aid, prospects for future resources, problems with foreign assistance, research and development, the future, and the reasons for emphasis on aid to family planning); population explosion -- dependency problems and their international dimension (implications for the balance of payments, the burden of education, employment); growth of population and increasing international inequalities; and employment problems and foreign technology. The attempt is made to show both the process of high population growth as well as its consequences for the developing economies of the 3rd world can and must be placed in an international perspective. This perspective suggests certain measures which the developed countries could and should adopt in order to help developing countries to mitigate some of the more serious byproducts of rapid population growth. Some family planning programs seem to be oversubscribed with foreign exchange from donors who give enthusiastically to family planning while other development projects in the same country suffer from undersubscription. The shortage of local operating costs is the primary problem facing population activities.
New York, FPIA, 1975. 13 pFPIA promotes family planning in the developing world by providing money, materials, and know-how to the local agencies which need them most and use them best. The organization works through agencies people know and trust, using methods that will work in areas where the need is greatest. This approach gives the program exceptional reach and leverage. In its 1st 3 years of operation, the FPIA Program built a unique international delivery system through which tools people need for family planning can reach them promptly. Work is done through 400 carefully chosed constituent agencies in 64 countries. Most of these agencies are church-related, and a growing number are Catholic. The work of FPIA is based on the premise that a worldwide delivery system through which family planning can be provided already exists. Essential to the program is continuing discovery of new ways of working through its constituent agencies. Brief reports are provided of the help provided by FPIA to Colombia, Nepal, Ghana, the Philippines, Haiti, Indonesia, Peru, Manila, and Kenya. FPIA is careful to focus its resources on areas of greatest need. It distributes its services according to a comprehensive profile of comparative need.
The United Nations World Population Conference: article published in Medunarodna politika (Review of International Affaire), Nr. 590, November 1974, Belgrade.
In: Tomsic, V. A selection of articles and speeches on the status of women and family planning in Yugoslavia. Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, CGP Delo, 1975. p. 99-105The U.N. World Population Conference met in 1974 in response to international demand that population problems be discussed on a political level, and the resulting draft of the World Population Plan of Action attempted to place world population problems in a socioeconomic context. Countries participating in the conference can be placed roughly into 2 groups; a group of politically and economically powerful countries felt that excessive population growth is the principal concern, stressing the need for birth control to curb rising birthrates. Another group, primarily composed of nonaligned and developing countries, saw the population situation as proof of the inadequacy of international political and economic relations. Yugoslav delegates pointed out that it was not possible to solve demographic problems without consideration of changes which must be made by progressive social systems and reforms in the equation of resources, environment, and people. The widely varying demographic situations and different practical measures of population policies in various countries were responsible for these differences in emphasis, but all were agreed on a joint approach to the fundamental problem of development and the interdependence of progress in the world.
London, IPPF, November 1975. 28 p.This is a reference book for individuals working in family planning, population, and related fields. It lists 120 associations and 74 officially established government programs with 16 additional governments providing some services in family planning. 38 countries, mostly in Africa, Still have no organized family planning services available. Demographic and family planning information is given for Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania, and each country in all 5 of these regions. The nature of family planning services available is indicated for each country.
London, IPPF, 1975. 47 p.Family planning has been increasingly oriented towards young people. In 1975 the Family Planning Associations will have to deal with 2 problems: 1) as a result of rapid and increased expansion of youth projects, workers have difficulty in keeping current with news and developments; and 2) as there have been many changes in the approaches, concepts, and attitudes toward youth, the ideas need to be put into context. The objective of "Where next?" is to resolve these problems. It is directed particularly to the information and education officers in family planning associations but will generally be of interest to those working in the area of youth and development. The function of the bulletin is twofold - to provide information on activities of interest involving the International Planned Parenthood Federation and Family Planning Associations and to stimulate new thoughts and ideas. The publication is divided into 5 sections. The 1st section presents information on activities in international youth nongovernmental organizations and family planning associations along with a summary of the different types of youth involvement and youth oriented activities. This is followed by a history of International Planned Parenthood Federation activities and a summary of policy. In the 3rd section attention is given to youth representation and how it works along with the issue of target groups and problems encountered in the effort to reach them. The 4th section concentrates on ideas for action and is followed by a discussion of available resources which include films and audio visuals, source books, educational materials, and information packages.