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Consultation on strategic information and HIV prevention among most-at-risk adolescents. 2-4 September 2009, Geneva. Consultation report.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2010. 65 p.The Consultation on Strategic Information and HIV Prevention among Most-at-Risk Adolescents (MARA) focused on experiences in countries where HIV infection is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), and those who sell sex. The meeting facilitated the exchange of information across regions on country-level data collection regarding MARA; identified ways to use strategic information to improve HIV prevention among MARA; and suggested ways to build support for MARA programming among decision-makers.
Investing in young people: UNFPA’s commitment to advancing the rightsof adolescents and youth in the eastern Europe and central Asia (EECA)Region.
Entre Nous. 2009; 69:4-5.Investing in young people is an investment in the future. Yet more than half of young people throughout the globe live in poverty. Impoverished youth are particularly at risk of gender discrimination, poor schooling, unemployment and poor access to health services. They are also less likely to know of, claim and exercise their rights to reproductive health information and services.
School. School Intervention Impact Model. Version 2.0, December 1999. A tool to estimate the impact of HIV prevention activities focused on youth in school.
London, England, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1999 Dec. 48 p.A collaborative research project between the UNAIDS and the Health Economics and Financing Programme at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine has been working since 1994 to develop methodologies to determine the costs and likely impact of five HIV prevention strategies - the strengthening of blood transfusion services, condom social marketing projects, school education, the strengthening of sexually transmitted infections (STI) treatment services, and interventions working with sex workers and their clients. 'HIV Tools: a cost-effectiveness toolkit for HIV prevention' is currently being developed. HIV tools consists of: 1) a set of five simulation models that estimate the impact on HIV and STD transmission of different HIV prevention activities; and 2) guidelines for costing different HIV prevention activities. HIV Tools aims to be a flexible and easy to use product, designed for policy makers, programme managers and AIDS Service Organisations working to address HIV and ST1 transmission. It can be used to estimate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of different HIV prevention strategies in different settings. (excerpt)
Global Consultation on the Health Services Response to the Prevention and Care of HIV / AIDS among Young People. Achieving the Global Goals: Access to Services. Technical report of a WHO consultation, Montreux, Switzerland, 17-21 March 2003. A WHO technical consultation in collaboration with UNAIDS, UNFPA, and YouthNet.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2004.  p.Young people (10-24 years) are at the centre of the HIV epidemic in terms of transmission, impact, vulnerability and potential for change. The global goals on young people and HIV/AIDS that have now been endorsed in a wide range of fora reflect both the strong public health, human rights and economic reasons for focusing on young people, and also the concern and commitment of governments around the world to direct resources to the prevention and care of HIV/AIDS among adolescents and youth. In order to contribute to the growing clarity about what needs to be done to achieve these global goals, and to strengthen the collaboration between a range of UN and NGO partners committed to accelerated health sector action, WHO organized a technical consultation on the health services response to HIV/AIDS among young people, in collaboration with UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, and YouthNet, in Montreux, from 17 to 21 March 2003. The consultation sought to obtain consensus around evidence-based health service interventions for the prevention and care of HIV among young people; effective strategies for delivering these interventions, the essential characteristics of successful programmes; and the strategic partnerships and actions at global and regional levels that will be required to stimulate and support action in countries. It is now widely accepted that the prevention and care of HIV/AIDS among young people will require a range of interventions from a range of different sectors. The health sector itself will be responsible for a number of different interventions, through a range of health system partners. The consultation brought together UN, NGO and academic partners, and provided the opportunity for these diverse actors to review the evidence for action: what was understood by “evidence”, the available evidence about increasing young people’s access to priority services, and what could reasonably be inferred or extrapolated from the available evidence from other age groups. (excerpt)
Romania: AIDS time bomb. The authorities are struggling to deal with rising levels of HIV infection.
London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting [IWPR], 2003 Oct 31. 4 p. (Balkan Crisis Report No. 466)A combination of fear, ignorance and poor health care is threatening to spark an AIDS epidemic in Romania. The ministry of health and family last year estimated that more than 12,500 people were either HIV-positive or living with full-blown AIDS - the majority of them young people. While the health care system has improved over the last decade, it remains in need of reforms and investment - public expenditure on health is the lowest in the region. Aware of the looming threat of an epidemic, the Bucharest authorities have declared prevention and treatment a priority. They launched an Action Plan for Universal Access to HIV/AIDS Treatment in 2001 as part of a UN initiative to combat the virus, allocating 25 US million dollars for the project. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002.  p. (UNICEF Fact Sheet)The world’s young people are threatened by HIV/AIDS. Of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS, more than a quarter are aged 15 to 24. Half of all new infections now occur in young people. Young people are a vital factor in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS, and many of them are playing a significant role in the fight against it. But they, and children on the brink of adolescence, urgently need the skills, knowledge and services to protect themselves against becoming infected with HIV. (excerpt)
Laren, Netherlands, World Population Foundation, 1992. 20 p.The World Population Fund is a non-profit organization created in 1987 to increase awareness of the nature, size, and complexity of rapid population growth and to support population projects in developing countries. The foundation hopes that its efforts will improve global standards of living. Projects emphasize the collection, analysis, and dissemination of population information; the formulation and implementation of population policies; maternal and child health care and family planning (FP); and improving the position of women. Collaborating regularly with the Dutch government, the UN, and other international organizations, the World Population Fund is the only organization in the netherlands which concerns itself specifically with problems of world population growth. This report outlines the consequences of world population growth; fund activities in 1991 in information, education, and training; project fundraising; family planning efforts in Burkina Faso, India, and Tanzania; and collaboration with the Consultancy Group for maternal health and FP. Fund accounts are presented. Teenage pregnancy, population pressures and environmental degradation, urbanization, and economic development are discussed. If present population growth trends continue, world population will triple within the next century to 18 billion with 90% of the growth in developing countries. Widespread poverty, malnutrition, disease, and early mortality will be the consequences of such growth. While experience shows that FP programs can help lower population growth rates, demand for FP is greater than supply in most developing countries. In fact, 300 million couples, the majority of whom live in developing countries, are being denied the universal right to freely decide the number and spacing of their children. The persistence of social and political controversy over funding family planning in developing countries, funding shortages, and inadequate policies and programs continue to result in teenage and child pregnancies, abortions, unwanted births, malnourished mothers and children, and maternal mortality. Balanced population policies and programs integrated within development plans are called for. To that end, the World Population Fund in 1992 will emphasize interactions between population growth and environment while also focusing upon the needs of and services for youth.
[Unpublished] 2001 Dec 2 p.In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, a rapid increase of HIV infections occurs due to unsafe drug-injecting practices. Statistics from the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reveal an estimated 250,000 new infections in 2001, bringing to 1 million the number of people living with HIV in the region. According to experts, the causes and consequences of the epidemic in the region are interwoven with other development challenges, including widespread unemployment, economic uncertainty, migration, gender inequity, and the steady collapse of public health services. However, with the epidemic still at a relatively early stage in the region, massive prevention efforts to reduce needle sharing among injecting drug users and to discourage risky sexual behavior among young people could rein in the epidemic. UNAIDS states the region also needs to employ vigorous prevention efforts to provide young people with such services as HIV information, condoms, and life-skill training. Hence, special steps are needed to include HIV-related information in school curricula and to extend peer education to young people who are out of school and without employment.
[Sexually abusive behavior. IPPF's Daphne project] Comportamiento sexual abusivo. Proyecto Daphne de IPPF.
DIALOGOS. 2000 Jul-Sep; 44(24):21-4.A 1999 joint study by the Family Planning Associations of Italy, Estonia, and the Flemish region of Belgium in collaboration with the Department of Criminology of the University of Louvain to determine the prevalence and nature of sexually abusive behavior in youth residences and develop protective strategies is described. The Daphne Initiative was created in 1996 by the European Parliament to promote participation by nongovernmental organizations and private associations in prevention of sexual violence against children, adolescents, and women. In this context, the European Network of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1999 initiated a study of sexual abuse in residences for youth. Its objective was to explore the possibility of developing strategies oriented to educators and directors for prevention of sexually abusive behavior in residences. Several experimental studies in Europe have indicated that 15 to 20% of sexual aggressors had spent part of their youth in residential institutions. The report describes the activities and philosophy behind the joint study. The work began with an analysis of related legislation in each of the three countries and interviews with directors and educators at residences. The work ends by discussing several elements of secondary prevention that should be included in a plan of action: training in sexuality and sexually abusive behavior, selection of residents, selection of residence personnel, development of the plan of action by parents and institutional personnel as well as residents, sharing information, respect for the victim and the accused, identification of all the parties involved, team decision making, the juridical principle of reparation, and adequate contact with police and other authorities.
Youth and Reproductive Health in Countries in Transition: report of a European regional meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 23-25 June 1997.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1997. vii, 70 p.A report of a European meeting is presented in this document. The youth and reproductive health meeting held in Copenhagen, Denmark, June 23-25, 1997, was one of the regional meetings organized by the UN Population Fund to enhance the active participation of young people in discussing issues and formulating reproductive and sexual health programs. 67 participants attended the meeting, representing the countries of central and eastern Europe, countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States; government and nongovernmental organizations from the aforementioned areas; and the national youth organization. This document is subdivided into 6 parts: 1) introduction; 2) opening session; 3) summary of presentation, which includes challenges to adolescent reproductive health; 4) key issues in reproductive and sexual health, which includes unprotected sexual relations and their consequences, sexual abuse, exploitation and violence against young women, lack of clear policies and programs, inadequate social support system, lack of knowledge and skills, lack of sound and relevant information services, lack of human and financial resources, and concluding observations; 5) strategies for action, which include the framework, and the proposed interventions; and 6) concluding remarks.
ENTRE NOUS. 1999 Spring; (42):9.The exposure of Albania to the popular culture of the modern world has paved the way for the emergence of STDs that were practically unknown some 20 years ago. Ever since the first cases of HIV and syphilis were diagnosed in 1994 and 1995, respectively, physicians have had difficulty in assessing patients due to their lack of knowledge of STDs. Together with emerging health concerns, traditional stereotypes of individuals with STDs have also surfaced in Albania; these usually associate STDs with prostitutes and refugees. Lack of STD knowledge, lack of anonymity in health care centers, current myths about STD transmission, and the return of Albanian refugees are among the challenges which Albanian youth have to overcome. In response to this, the UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund), WHO and the Academy for Educational Development are launching a project that will educate Albanians about the risks of STDs and HIV, in addition to its maternal health projects. A recent information, education, and communication (IEC) roundtable participated in by over a hundred Albanian professionals has discussed problems and priorities that will facilitate a national IEC strategy. STDs, HIV, AIDS, maternal mortality, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion are the problems of greatest concern. The roundtable identified young people, women and service providers in rural areas as target groups with the greatest need of IEC interventions.
INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):6-7.Everyone has a role to play in realizing the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. The concerns of young people presented at the Youth Forum will hopefully be kept at the forefront of Cairo+5 deliberations. Innumerable women around the world in every country struggle daily to care for and education their children, to gain greater control over their lives, and to contribute to the progress being made in their communities and countries. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) and youth fora of the Cairo+5 proceedings demonstrate that the discussions about global challenges and their solutions are no longer being held and decided upon solely by government officials and policy-makers behind closed doors. Rather, NGOs have finally taken their proper place in the debate, to help ordinary citizens be heard on the critical issues which affect their lives. Efforts must also continue to be made to reach out to young people, as well as fathers, sons, and husbands.
INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):8.The client first, informed choice, and quality of care approach to reproductive health is being applied around the world, energized by individuals, communities, and organizations. There has been unprecedented support during the Cairo+5 global review process of the centrality of youth in the process, for by 2000, approximately 1 billion people aged 15-24 years will either be in or entering their reproductive years, the largest generation ever in this age cohort. These young people face considerable reproductive health risks and poor access to information and services. In addition, 25% of children are assaulted or abused, and 20% live in poverty. The Youth Forum recommendations will help to ensure that the reproductive health and social development needs of the world's youth are properly met. However, to fully implement the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action, donor governments need to meet their funding commitments.
INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):9-10.Almost 20% of the world's population is aged 15-24 years. Since young people's needs are different from those of adults, they should play a key role in population and development issues. In an attempt to ensure that young people are involved in all stages of the implementation of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action, the Youth Forum was held in The Hague, Netherlands, during February 6-7, 1999, just before the Hague Forum. Bringing together 132 young people from youth and other organizations from 111 countries, the Youth Forum provided young people with the opportunity to review achievements made since the ICPD, express their views and concerns, and offer recommendations to governments, the UN system, other intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and other young people. Key themes and issues considered during the forum were education, individual development, sexual and reproductive health, violence, human rights, gender, governments and democracy, and youth participation. Young people have been sharing their experiences and innovative ideas to strengthen their ability to contribute to the implementation of the ICPD program of action at the grassroots level.
CONSCIENCE. 1999 Spring; 20(1):34-6.There are currently more than 1 billion people aged 15-24 years, the largest ever number of people in this age group. Each year, close to 17 million teenagers give birth, with most of these pregnancies being unplanned. Many adolescents are also at serious risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), with more than half of all new HIV infections occurring among 15-24 year olds. Realizing that development and population policies poorly address the needs of young people, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) included youths in a series of meetings reviewing the implementation of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Program of Action. The first of these "Cairo+5" meetings was held in The Hague, Netherlands, in February 1999. The 3 participating fora were youth. nongovernmental organizations, and governments. The youth forum was held to formally integrate youth into the review process to ensure that young perspectives were considered in developing future national, regional, and international actions, especially those which deal directly with young people. The author, one of 132 young leaders, describes her experience at the conference.
WORLD HEALTH. 1998 Nov-Dec; 51(6):26-7.Young people must be given opportunities to participate in decision-making at all levels. Some UN organizations have acknowledged the importance of such participation in a wide range of activities, including caring for the environment, teaching each other about life skills, and encouraging peers to adopt healthy behaviors. A direct commitment to young people's participation is also clear in international conferences where young people have been asked to speak. However, youth participation in such conferences is far from enough, for young speakers are typically limited to only telling about their own experiences. Rather, young people need to be encouraged and allowed to make recommendations which will be given serious consideration. Especially to reduce new HIV infections and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS, young people need to be involved in planning, making decisions, and conducting and evaluating relevant policies and programs at the local, national, and international levels. Examples are presented of political, media, and sexual and reproductive health programs involving youth in Zambia, the UK, the US, Malawi, and Thailand.
Implementing Cairo conference goals tough task, says Jamaica's Population Unit Manager Easton Williams.
PEOPLE. 1998 Feb; 7(1):13.Some countries which have tried to implement the action program approved by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) report having only limited success. Jamaica is in the process of redefining its national plan of action for population programs to make it more consistent with the ICPD consensus, despite having some difficulty classifying under which sector issues such as maternal care or children's health fall. Meanwhile, programs are being created to address adolescent fertility. An overall shortage of funds for development is, however, frustrating the implementation of population programs in Jamaica. While population programs are better funded than social programs, they are less funded than economic development programs. Mexico has been working to integrate family planning with health care, and is also integrating population education into the basic school curriculum and creating special counseling programs for teenagers. A forum to be held in the Netherlands in February 1999 will have participants from 120 countries discussing adolescent reproductive health, reproductive health and rights, the involvement of civil society in implementing the Cairo Program of Action, and population and microeconomic linkages.
The urban generation: heirs to the new urban future, youth plan to make their presence felt in Istanbul.
COUNTDOWN TO ISTANBUL: HABITAT II. 1996 May; 1(7):19.UN statistics indicate that youth comprise up to 30% of the world's population. As almost one-third of humanity, youth deserve to actively participate in debates which will influence the future of their world. Accordingly, a large group of youth has been working with the Habitat II Secretariat, governments, and nongovernmental organizations to create channels for youth participation and involvement in Habitat II. Youth can also bring a great deal more to the Habitat process than just sheer numbers, both now and in the future. Their energy, commitment, and ability to do much with few resources can bring vitality to the process of creating and implementing the Habitat Agenda and Global Plan of Action. Youth bring unique perspectives which need to be taken into account. The key youth issues in need of action of Habitat II include sustainable approaches to the environment, including education; children and adolescents living in poverty; the provision of adequate shelter; employment opportunities; and access to resources, especially for rural youth. A lack of access among adolescents to essential resources such as shelter, education, and employment can prevent youth from developing into contributing members of society. Youth participants at the Istanbul conference are expected to make a commitment to taking responsibility for their own development, fostering youth awareness, and becoming involved in the implementation of Habitat II.
JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT RESEARCH. 1997 Oct; 12(4):421-53.Sexuality education for children and young adults is one of the most heavily debated issues facing policy-makers, national AIDS program planners, and educators, provoking arguments over how explicit education materials should be, how much of it there should be, how often it should be given, and at what age instruction should commence. In this context, the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS' Office of Intervention Development and Support commissioned a comprehensive literature review to assess the effects of HIV/AIDS and sexuality education upon young people's sexual behavior. 52 reports culled from a search of 12 literature databases were reviewed. The main purpose of the review is to inform policy-makers, program planners, and educators about the impact of HIV and/or sexuality education upon the sexual behavior of youth as described in the published literature. Of 47 studies which evaluated interventions, 25 reported that HIV/AIDS and sexuality education neither increased nor decreased sexual activity and attendant rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 17 reported that HIV and/or sexuality education delayed the onset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sex partners, or reduced unplanned pregnancy and STD rates Only 3 studies found increases in sexual behavior associated with sexuality education. Inadequacies in study design, analytic techniques, outcome indicators, and the reporting of statistics are discussed.
Washington, D.C., CEDPA, . 20 p.This 1996 annual report of the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) opens with a message from CEDPA's board, which notes that the organization's activities have continued to expand through efforts to improve health, development, human rights, and gender equality in Africa, Asia, eastern Europe, and Latin America. In particular, CEDPA worked with nongovernmental organizations and funding agencies to achieve continued growth of women's advocacy, activism, and leadership. During 1996, CEDPA used participatory processes to provide technical assistance and training to 73 community organizations that acted as policy advocates, advanced women's rights, extended media impact, and mobilized interfaith action. Also during 1996, CEDPA's gender-focused family planning and reproductive health projects were expanded; CEDPA conducted a Democracy and Governance Initiative, which involved leading women's groups in an effort to build civil society in Nigeria; family planning, reproductive health, and maternal/child health were promoted in Nepal; and maternal health services were strengthened in Romania. In the area of youth and leadership, CEDPA provided training, funding, and technical assistance to 40 partners in 20 countries and sponsored conferences in the US and India. The Better Life Options for Girls and Young Women program flourished, and adolescent reproductive health was promoted in Africa and Latin America. Girls in Egypt received education and training, and youth rights were promoted in Africa and Asia. CEDPA's capacity-building training program reached 841 people representing 54 countries, and CEDPA partners moved to attain program sustainability and increase gender equity in programs, projects, and institutions. Regional networks strengthened training and advocacy efforts. In addition to describing these activities, this annual report lists CEDPA's training participants by region, sponsors of the global training program, training mentors, partners, supporters, board and staff members, publications, and offices and provides a financial statement for 1996.
JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1990 Sep; 60(7):370-8.The UN and its family of operational agencies have existed for almost 5 decades. For school health personnel, to understand how these agencies operate--in particular, the World Health Organization (WHO)--is worthwhile. To understand how WHO influenced the practice of health education for school aged youth, some critical events that have occurred during the past 5 decades are reviewed and several current and future activities are identified and described. Austria, England, Norway, and Finland designed and conducted the WHO Cross-National Survey: Health Behavior of School aged Children. A core survey was set up and each country could add optional questions according to its own needs. The 2nd round of survey was done during the 1985 school year with 11 countries taking part. In May, 1989, more than 17 European nations and Canada decided to take part in the 3rd round, conducted during the next academic year. WHO has been working on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)/Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS) education. In 1988, the WHO Division of Health Education and Health Promotion was established. WHO is working with the US Centers for Disease Control's Division of Adolescent and School Health to set up a collaborating center emphasizing school health education. Recently in 3rd world countries, there has been a dramatic drop in infant mortality through the expanded program of immunization, increases in breast feeding, improvement of weaning practices, and oral rehydration therapy. This is the Child Survival Revolution. These efforts should be continued beyond infancy. This is known as the Child Development Revolution. An Action- Oriented Prototype Curriculum has been developed. It is used in teacher training and contains material on diarrheal disease control, expanded immunization programs, breast feeding, AIDS, and family planning. The strategy is to learn by action and discovery. (author's modified)