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Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013 Apr.  p.To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. This report describes two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
Road-mapping a total market approach for family planning and reproductive health commodity security. Workshop materials.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013.  p.To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. These workshop materials are from two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 8 p.For 25 years war raged in Afghanistan, destroying both the institutional fiber of the country and its justice system. Even in the period before the wars, the justice system had only managed to impose itself sporadically. Disputes that arose had to be resolved, for the most part, through informal religious or tribal systems. However acceptable some of the main laws may have been technically, they were offset by various factors: the poor training of judges, lawyers and other legal workers; decaying infrastructures; and ignorance of the law and basic rights by common citizens and even the judges themselves. The prison system had suffered even greater damages. Its infrastructure and organization were in ruins. Today enormous efforts have been mobilized to build a fair and functioning system that is respectful of human rights and international standards. It will take years for the Afghan government and people to do the job-with the help of the international community. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.In 1999, I stood among a sea of 20,000 desperate people on a dirt airfield outside Skopje, Macedonia, listening to one harrowing story after another. I had come to the Stenkovec refugee camp to record those stories and to help set up a system for documenting atrocities in Kosovo. The refugees with whom I spoke described being robbed, beaten, herded together and forced to flee their villages with nothing but the clothes they were wearing. Yet, what I remember most vividly are the lost expressions on the faces of the young women and girls in the camp. At first, they did not speak a word. Their silence acted as a veil, concealing crimes that they could not emotionally recollect. However, slowly, through time and comfort in speaking to female counsellors, their stories emerged. The brutality and systematic consistency of the sexual violence perpetrated on these women were mind-numbing. The widespread practice of rape against Muslim women was more than a consequence of war, it was an instrument of war with the intent of destroying the cultural fabric of a targeted group. This experience brought home to me a truism in international and national conflict: women suffer disproportionately to the atrocities committed against civilians. (excerpt)
The introduction of confidential enquiries into maternal deaths and near-miss case reviews in the WHO European region.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2007 Sep; 15(30):145-152.Most maternal deaths can be averted with known, effective interventions but countries require information about which women are dying and why, and what can been done to prevent such deaths in future. This paper describes the introduction of two approaches to reviewing maternal deaths and severe obstetric complications in 12 countries in transition in the WHO European Region - national-level confidential enquiries into maternal deaths and facility-based near-miss case reviews. Initially, two regional meetings involving stakeholders from 12 countries were held in 2004-2005, followed by national meetings in seven of the countries. The Republic of Moldova was the first to pilot the review process, preceded by a technical workshop to make detailed plans, provide training in how to facilitate and carry out a review, finalise clinical guidelines against which the findings of the confidential enquiry and near-miss case review could be judged, and a range of other preparatory work. To date, near-miss case reviews have been carried out in the three main referral hospitals in Moldova, and a national committee appointed by the Ministry of Health to conduct the confidential enquiry has met twice. Several other countries have begun a similar process, but progress may remain slow due to continuing fears of punitive actions against health professionals who have a mother or baby die in their care. (author's)
Guidelines for adaptation of the WHO Orientation Programme on Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers in Europe and Central Asia.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], Division for Arab States, Europe and Central Asia, 2006. 25 p.The Orientation Programme on Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers (OP) was developed by the Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, WHO in 2003. The aim of the OP is to orient health care providers to the special characteristics of adolescence and to appropriate approaches in addressing some adolescent-specific health needs and problems. The OP aims to strengthen the abilities of the health care providers to respond to adolescents more effectively and with greater sensitivity. The OP can significantly contribute to building national and regional capacity on adolescent health and development. (excerpt)
WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy. Trip report: May 17-20, 2006.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 May 29. 33 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-499; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO-Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority of whom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which will allow RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. (excerpt)
[Kyiv], Ukraine, UNDP, 2004.  p.The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) organized a series of "Leadership for Results" workshops on May 24-31 2004 to develop and boost leadership skills of several participants' categories: trade union leaders, public figures, physicians, women-leaders, Peer Education Program trainers, etc. Allan Henderson, who facilitated this workshop, pointed out that "these workshops are not meant to make leaders of those who are not leaders, but rather to provide the opportunity for people who already are leaders to step out of the day-to-day business and address their own development." The task for participants is to improve themselves and society, to get to the higher leadership level, to develop more holistic outlook and support leadership skills with more comprehensive background. The structure of this leadership workshop stipulates three meetings with three months intervals. Methods applied in the workshop are as follows: education (knowledge transfer); training (practice of skill development) and coaching (establishing new opportunities for the future). The first workshop on May 24-25 that UNDP held jointly with the International Labor Organization (ILO) welcomed over 70 leaders from four most active trade union associations in Ukraine. It was just recently that trade unions started paying attention to the problem of HIV/AIDS. For the majority of participants it was their first workshop. (excerpt)
Odessa workshop helps build capacity among Ukrainian clinicians who care for people living with HIV / AIDS.
Connections. 2004 Jan;  p..A recent Anti-retroviral Therapy Training Workshop held in Odessa, Ukraine, marked the start of an ongoing collaboration between AIHA and the Los Angeles-based AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF). It was the first training hosted under the aegis of the newly established World Health Organization Regional HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Knowledge Hub for which AIHA is the primary implementing partner. This Knowledge Hub was created in response to the burgeoning HIV/AIDS pandemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to serve as a crucial capacity-building mechanism for reaching WHO's "3 by 5" targets for the region. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2001 Oct.  p. (Literacy, Gender and HIV / AIDS Series)This booklet is one of an ever-growing series of easy-to-read materials produced at a succession of UNESCO workshops partially funded by the Danish Development Agency (DANIDA). The workshops are based on the appreciation that gender-sensitive literacy materials are powerful tools for communicating messages on HIV/AIDS to poor rural people, particularly illiterate women and out-of-school girls. Based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is simultaneously a health and a social cultural and economic issue, the workshops train a wide range of stakeholders in HIV/AIDS prevention including literacy, health and other development workers, HIV/AIDS specialists, law enforcement officers, material developers and media professionals. Before a workshop begins, the participants select their target communities and carry out needs assessments of their potential readers. At the workshops, participants go through exercises helping them to fine tune their sensitivity to gender issues and how these affect people's risks of HIV/AIDS. The analysis of these assessments at the workshops serves as the basis for identifying the priority issues to be addressed in the booklets. They are also exposed to principles of writing for people with limited reading skills. Each writer then works on his or her booklet with support from the group. The booklets address a wide-range of issues normally not included in materials for HIV/AIDS such as the secondary status of girls and women in the family, the "sugar daddy" phenomenon, wife inheritance, the hyena practice, traditional medicinal practices superstitions, home-based care and living positively with AIDS. They have one thing in common- they influence greatly a person's safety from contracting HIV/AIDS. We hope that these booklets will inspire readers to reflect on some of life's common situations, problems and issues that ordinary women and men face in their day-to-day relationships. In so doing, they might reach a conclusion that the responsibility is theirs to save their own lives and those of their loved ones from HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Me, you and AIDS. Kenya. A product of a UNESCO-DANIDA workshop for preparation of post-literacy materials and radio programmes for women and girls in Africa.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2000 Jan.  p.Though the booklets are intended for use with neo-literate women and out-of-school girls, the messages in the stories and the radio programme scripts that accompany them are also relevant for use as supplementary reading materials in formal schools for readers of both sexes. The subjects of the booklets, based on the needs assessments, reflect a wide range of needs and conditions of African women - from Senegal to Kenya, from Mali to South Africa, from Niger to Malawi. A list of common concerns has emerged. These include: HIV-AIDS, domestic violence, the exploitation of girls employed as domestic servants, the lack of positive role models for women and girls, the economic potential of women through small business development, the negative consequences of child marriage, and the need for a more equal division of labour between men and women in the home. Each booklet describes one way of treating a subject of high priority to African women. In the process, the authors have attempted to render the material gender-sensitive. They have tried to present African women and girls and their families in the African context and view the issues and problems from their perspective. We hope these booklets will inspire readers, as they did their authors, to reflect on some of life's common situations, problems and issues that ordinary women and men face every day. The questions accompanying each booklet will help readers ask questions and find answers to some of the issues which also touch their own lives. How the characters in these booklets cope with specific situations, their trials and tribulations, can serve as lessons for women and men living together in 21st Century Africa. (excerpt)
Short-term training in the demographic aspects of population ageing and its implications for socio-economic development, policies and plans. Report of the Expert Group Meeting held in Malta, 6-9 December 1993.
Valletta, Malta, United Nations, International Institute on Ageing, 1994. 127 p.The International Institute on Aging (INIA), an autonomous body within the UN, was established by the UN Secretary General in 1988 in order to fulfill the training needs on aging within developing countries. INIA developed training courses on Social Gerontology, Geriatrics, Income Security, and Physical Therapy and has trained 485 persons from 76 countries. This INIA expert group meeting report presents background papers and presentations from a workshop held on December 6-9, 1993, and recommendations. Nine papers by separate authors are reported in this article. The topics include 1) demographic aspects of population aging and the implications for socioeconomic development, 2) demographic trends in aging and economic conditions in Poland, 3) consideration of aging issues among a young population in Mexico, 4) the demographic and socioeconomic implications of aging in China, 5) the demographic implications of aging among Mediterranean countries, 6) the social implications of aging in developing countries, 7) the demography of aging and economic implications, 8) selected aspects of population aging and the implications for socioeconomic development, and 9) essentials of short-term training in the demography of aging. Training courses should be directed to anyone involved in planning, formulating, and implementing national/regional policy and in research design on population aging. Courses should also apply to those who directly influence socioeconomic decision making processes related to aging issues. Applicants for training should have a statistical or demographic background, working knowledge of computers, work in or planned work in the field of aging, and proficiency in the language in which the course is taught. It is recommended that courses offer a variety of educational techniques and off-site visits and that the training group not exceed 20 persons. Participants should represent no more than two geographic regions, and the materials used in the course should be compiled and given to INIA upon course completion.
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 383-9.The European Association of Population Studies (EAPS) was founded in 1993 to disseminate information and organize workshops with affiliated individuals and institutions. The priority topics are international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation. Within each of these broad areas, workshops and conferences have taken place, and proceedings have been published. This article summarizes the nature of conferences held in each of the five topic areas. For example, joint institutional responsibility among Dutch and European groups, including EAPS, resulted in a 1991 international symposium on the demographic consequences of international migration. In 1985, a symposium was held in Belgium on one parent families. In 1989, a workshop was held on female labor market behavior and fertility. In 1990, a workshop was held on mortality and health care systems in developed countries. Methods of European mortality analysis were discussed at a 1990 international seminar in Lithuania. The impact of policies without explicit demographic goals was discussed at an international conference held in Germany in 1986. Kinship and aging research were discussed in 1988 in Hungary. A workshop was held in Germany in 1993 on pension, health care, labor market, and birth control policies. Data comparability issues in Europe were reviewed in 1991. The first European Population Conference was held in 1987 in Finland; the second was held in 1991 in France.
Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Perspectives and Prospects, April 20-21, 1998, Paris, France.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Social Development Department, Post-Conflict Unit, 1998 Aug. 44 p.As part of a global workshop series on the transition from war to peace, the World Bank Post-Conflict Unit, in collaboration with the World Bank's Paris Office, held a workshop focusing on conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction in Paris, France, April 20-21, 1998. The meeting involved two distinct but interrelated efforts to bring together existing thinking about the area of post-conflict reconstruction. The first day was dedicated to exploring ways that development assistance and private investment can address the root causes of conflict. The second day of the Paris conference was planned as a follow-up to an October 1997 conference sponsored by the US Agency for International Development's Office of Transition Initiatives. The 1997 conference brought together donor agencies' newly-created post-conflict offices, with the aim of gaining a clearer vision of how governments and multilateral organizations are moving forward to address the operational needs that have emerged since the end of the Cold War.
The management of childhood illness: rationale for an integrated strategy, July 14-19, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997.  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)Childhood illnesses such as diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles, malaria and malnutrition continue to be major contributors to child mortality in the year 2020 unless significantly more effort is applied to their control. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm is considered by the WHO to be one of the most effective strategies in the control of these diseases. A workshop was conducted in July 14-19, 1997, which brought together clinical experts from the concerned countries to discuss the practical aspects of IMCI adaptation as well as to continue the discussion on the feasibility of implementation of the IMCI algorithm in the selected region. This report summarizes the outcome from the workshop discussions based on the information collected through the circulated questionnaires and data from other available sources. These include possible adaptations of IMCI guidelines to consider, identification of areas where additional information is needed, technical points to consider in individual country adaptations, recommendations of the meeting in this regard, and recommendations for steps to be taken with regard to implementation of IMCI strategy. Overall recommendations for the further action for IMCI course adaptation and implementation are presented at the end of this report.
HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):24.The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.
WHO informal consultation meeting for IMCI preservice training, Geneva, Switzerland, January 28-30, 1998.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998.  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-3031-00)This trip report pertains to a consultant visit to WHO offices in Geneva, Switzerland, during January 28-30, 1998. The purpose was to participate in informal consultation meetings with WHO's Division of Child Health and Development. Discussion focused on pre-service training for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) in medical, nursing, and other health provider teaching institutions. The skills and knowledge taught in IMCI courses would be suitable for inclusion in pre-service training programs. Although it was expected that recommendations would result from the meetings, this did not occur. The appendices provide summary documents from small group discussions. It was generally agreed that WHO should continue to support the development of a strategy to and materials for incorporating IMCI into pre-service training for health providers. The referral care guidelines are nearly complete and should be included in any training materials. Participants considered it very important to include core inpatient content, even for providers working in outpatient facilities. Participants thought that pre-service trainers must have someone designated as an effective focus person who can link the child health and community health departments. Change to IMCI-based curricula within schools will be difficult to achieve, but worthwhile. All providers of sick children should be trained to provide standard IMCI care. An adaptation guide for pre-service training materials may be needed. IMCI introductory activities should be implemented country-wide. Experience integrating IMCI into training will indicate how to implement this approach.
TURKISH JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS. 1994 Apr-Jun; 36(2):93-6.The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to development. 1) Hospitals do not mean health. 2) National wealth does not make health. 3) 75% of child mortality is attributable to a small number of controllable causes of death. 4) Mobilization of all sectors of society is a necessary strategy to combat child death and illness. UNICEF and the World Health Organization are prepared to provide support, if countries are willing to follow the example of Turkey in mobilizing against these deaths.
PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1989 Spring; 18(1):5-6.On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.
Paris, France, Centre International de l'Enfance, 1992. 96 p.The risk-taking and sexual experimentation norms of adolescence place adolescents at risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases of increasing prevalence. Young people experience high rates of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and others prostitute themselves and/or are sexually abused by adults and/or peers. While it is imperative that the reproductive and sexual health needs of youths be addressed and met, most societies around the world fail to meet service demand. Moreover, adults typically fail to convey clear and unbiased messages to adolescents about sexuality. Adolescents need to be empowered to make their own decisions about their individual sexuality. Messages and care about sexuality should realistically endorse sex as a natural and enjoyable part of life. A 4-day workshop on youth and sexuality was jointly organized by the French Foundation International Children Center (CIE), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ). It was held as a forum in which experiences from projects involving or addressing youths in various countries with different economic, cultural, and religious environments and in various settings could be shared and analyzed. It is hoped that workshops proceedings will ultimately help in the development of strategies to expand and improve services for youths worldwide. This publication of workshop proceedings includes abridged versions of the 14 papers presented, main issues addressed in the plenary and working group discussions, participant recommendations, and open questions which will require further research in the future. Youth, culture, and sexuality, baseline research, service delivery, sexuality education, evaluation, and policy issues of program development are considered, followed by a description of the organizations and a participant list. Authors may be contacted directly for additional information should the reader be so inclined. Furthermore, CIE, IPPF, and GTZ invite reader feedback on the publication.
Estimating the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Report of a workshop on methodological issues, Ghent (Belgium), 17-20 February 1992.
AIDS. 1993 Aug; 7(8):1139-48.A meeting was held in 1992 in Ghent, Belgium, under the auspices of the European Economic Community AIDS Task Force in collaboration with the WHO Global program on AIDS and UNICEF. THe objective were: 1) to address methodological issues in the estimation of the rate of mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of HIV-1, with special reference to developing countries, and 2) to present a critical evaluation of selected perinatal studies using a standardized methodological approach. The discussions and recommendations made during the workshop are summarized. In the previous 8 years, numerous studies had been conducted to estimate the rate of MTCT of HIV. Many of these had encountered problems in data collection and analysis, making it difficult to compare transmission rates between studies. 14 teams of investigators participated, representing studies from central (5) and eastern Africa (3), Europe (2), Haiti (1), and the US (3). A critical evaluation of the projects was carried out under 4 headings: 1) enrollment and follow-up procedures, 2) diagnostic criteria and case definitions, 3) measurement and comparison of MTCT rats, and 4) determinants of transmission. The different estimations of the rate of HIV MTCT reported ranged from 13-32% in industrialized countries and from 26-48% in developing countries. For the purpose of calculating the rate of HIV MTCT, it is important to establish whether a child who dies before 15 months is HIV-infected. 3 definitions were proposed for children who died before their infection status could be determined by serology. Factors identified as possible risk factors for HIV MTCT included impaired maternal clinical and immunological status, HIV-seroconversion during pregnancy, shortened duration of pregnancy, choriamnionitis, vaginal delivery, prolonged and/or complicated labor, and breast-feeding. Maternal age and parity did not appear to be associated with MTCT in most studies.