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Health Policy. 2005 Sep; 73(3):339-351.This article argues that the health-related Millennium Development Goals do not appropriately address the challenges faced by the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. By ignoring adult mortality, their achievement would result in relatively small gains in life expectancy. To achieve greater impact, policies in this region must supplement the classical Millennium Development Goals with indicators of adult health, in particular cardiovascular diseases and external causes of death. In addition, countries, with support from the international community, must improve the quality of vital registration data to enable more accurate estimation of the disease burden. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. 19 p. (Statistical Papers Series A. Vol. 43, No. 2)The Statistical Office of the UN Department of International and Social Affairs compiled a population and vital statistics report with data that it had received by April 1, 1991. The report divided the world into 7 regions: Africa, North America, South America, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and the USSR. It listed population size for each country or area within a region based on the latest population census, latest official estimate, and midyear 1989 estimate. The report used registered data to list crude birth rate (CBR), crude death rate (CDR), and infant mortality rate (IMR) for each country or area. It also gave estimated rates for some countries. China had the largest population in Asia and the world (1.12 billion). Afghanistan ranked the highest in CBR (48.1), CDR (22.3), and IMR (181.6) in Asia and the world. Italy had the lowest CBR (9.7) in the world followed by Japan (9.9). Samoa had the lowest CDR (1.10) in Oceania and the world. Iceland had the lowest IMR (4). The population of the USSR stood at 287.6 million. Its CBR was 17.6, CDR 10.1, and IMR 23. Nigeria had by far the greatest estimated midyear 1989 population (105 million) in Africa. The United States had the most people in the Americas in mid 1989 (247.35 million). The report concluded with 90 footnotes that qualified much of the data. For example, the CDR and IMR for Japan were based on only Japanese people actually living in Japan. On the other hand, some countries data included nationals temporarily living outside the country.
Bethesda, Maryland, International Institute for Vital Registration and Statistics, . 20 p.The International Institute for Vital Registration and Statistics (IIVRES) is a non-governmental, international organization free from political, commercial or national affiliation. Its principal objective is to promote the improvement of civil registration of births and deaths and other vital events and the compilation of vital statistics from such registration records. National officials responsible for civil registration or vital statistics in countries that are members of the UN or UN specialized agencies are eligible for membership. International agency personnel with related responsibilities are also invited to join. The annual Directory of Members is based on information received from countries and agencies, the IIVRES Chronicle, and a series of technical papers. This Directory lists 346 national members in 150 countries, as well as 31 international officials and technical assistance advisers. The national members include 79 from Africa, 55 from North America, 40 from South America, 86 from Asia, 56 from Europe, and 30 from Oceania.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 20 p. (Statistical Papers Series A Vol. 38, No. 1; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.A/152)This report presents 1983 and 1984 estimates of world and continental population, as well as corresponding 1983 estimates for 218 countries or areas of the world, which are listed separately. Also shown for each country are the results of the latest nationwide census of population, the latest official estimate of population and, wherever possible, nationally representative statistics of live births, deaths and infant deaths for the most recent year available. A table presents UN estimates of the 1983 mid-year population of the world by continental divisions, as well as provisional estimates of the 1984 mid-year population. In 1983 the world total in millions was 4685; it was 4763 in 1984. In 1983 the total in millions was 521 in Africa, 390 in North America, 257 in South America, 2731 in Asia, 489 in Europe, 24 in Oceania, and 273 in the USSR. In 1984 the total in millions was 537 in Africa, 395 in North America, 263 in in South America, 2777 in Asia, 490 in Europe, 24 in Oceania, and 276 in the USSR.
[Unpublished] 1982. Presented at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, San Diego, California, April 29-May l, 1982. 35 p.The purpose of this paper was to consider the estimates and projections produced by the UN Population Division about infant mortality (IM) worldwide between 1950-2025. 46 countries were selected and estimates of IM were based on registered data on births and infant death. The data in developed countries posed few problems and thus IM estimates are considered to be accurate. In developing countries where vital registration is complete and where no independent sources of information are available to check completeness, registered data were used. Where adequate registration statistics were lacking, other sources of data had to be used to estimate IM. For other countries data relevant to IM were nonexistent. Direct and indirect methods have been used to estimate these rates. The direct method is characterized by measures of births and infant deaths during a given period of time; the primary indirect method transforms the proportions of children dead by age of mother into probabilities of dying before a given age. Projections of IM in the UN Infant Mortality Project (UNIMR) were based on the overall methods of mortality projections prepared at the UN Population Division. To prepare mortality projections, an estimate of life expectancy at birth is established for a given date and then assumptions are made concerning future trends. IM rates have declined dramatically; for the less developed regions it declined from 164 to 100/1000. The most rapid mortality decline was seen in East Asia. The Soviet Union had the most rapid decline among the developed nations. Projections presuppose that the 1980 ranking of countries will be maintained in the future; the likelihood, however, is that the regions will be markedly different by 2000. 5 examples are presented relevant to the substantive and methodological issues encountered in the UNIMR Project. These included: Sweden, Turkey, Tunisia, Bahrain, and Swaziland, Togo, and Kenya. Results clearly indicate that impressive declines have occurred since 1950 and these are likely to continue into the future. However, IM will remain high in certain less developed countries unless greater effort is expended in these areas to bring the rate down to 50/1000 by 2000. From a methodological perspective, the results of this project emphasize base data. Good data clearly result in more accurate estimates. Future research should examine these results and more attention should be paid to past declines in overall mortality. Also, analyses for some past trends in IM are necessary.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1982. 33 p. (WHO/HS/NAT.COM/82.373)This WHO publication contains information on the vital and health statistical activities engaged in by member countries between 1978-80. The information, received upon request by WHO, focused on the following issues: 1) changes in organization, function, and utilization of vital and health statistics information services; 2) work engaged in by the national committees on vital and health statistics or equivalent organizational bodies which coordinate and advise; and 3) current and newly undertaken activities and developments in such special areas as training and medical and health records. The U.S. section includes information on the National Center for Health Statistics, the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics; cancer and tumor registries, and the Bureau of the Census. The countries in Europe with information included are: Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Switzerland, and Turkey. Registers, national surveys, hospital morbidity, health status of populations, catalogues of official demographic and health statistics, training in health statistics, morbidity and mortality statistics, and birth statistics are some of the many activities engaged in by these countries. The Nordic Medical Statistics Commission (NOMESCO) is presented, an organization which was formed for the purpose of developing, coordinating, and standardizing health-related statistics in order to increase their inter-country use and comparability. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are represented and since 1978, NOMESCO has functioned under the Secretariat of the Minister Board of the Nordic Council with its own budget. Its working groups composed of experts from the participating countries are listed along with their appropriate subject area specializations. 13 conclusions arrived at by the Committee on "Planning of Information Services for Health, Decision-Simulation Approach" are presented. The final document should be useful to consumers and producers of such information in Scandinavian countries and it includes concrete examples of real life situations with definitions of system concept.