Your search found 252 Results
New York, New York, UN Women, . 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 1)UN Women’s project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" is a global project funded by the European Union (EU) and anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines. The project promotes women migrant workers’ rights and their protection against exclusion and exploitation at all stages of migration. One of the key results of the project has been the production of high-quality knowledge products. These have provided the foundation of the project’s advocacy and capacity building objectives. This Brief draws from the project’s knowledge products and provides an overview of the key situational and policy concerns for women migrant workers in each of the three pilot countries.
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 2014 Jun; 40(6):924-941.This article investigates the complex relationship between the practices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in the field of refugee protection and the more recent political rationality of 'migration management' by drawing from governmentality studies. It is argued that the dissemination of UNHCR's own refugee protection discourse creates certain 'figures of migration' allowing for justifying the build-up and perfection of border controls, which in turn enable any attempt to 'manage' migration in the first place. Conversely, the problematisation of population movements as 'mixed migration flows' allows UNHCR to enlarge its field of activitiy despite its narrow mandate by actively participating in the promotion, planning and implementation of migration management systems. Based on ethnographic research in Turkey and Morocco, this article demonstrates, furthermore, that UNHCR's refugee protection discourse and the emerging migration management paradigm are both based on a methodological nationalism, share an authoritarian potential and yield de-politicising effects. What UNHCR's recent embracing of the migration management paradigm together with its active involvement in respective practices then brings to the fore is that UNHCR is part of a global police of populations.
Examining Turkey and member states of European union in terms of health perspectives of millennium development goals.
Quality and Quantity. 2012 Apr; 46(3):959-978.Development is related not only to production and increase in per capita income but also to social, cultural and political improvements. The purpose of development is that individuals would live long, healthy and happy lives thanks to economic development of society. From this perspective, it is obvious that the human factor is fundamental to the concept of development. This study examines the most important element in human development-health. As health indicators, it uses the health perspectives in the United Nations millennium development goals that are "reduce child mortality", "improve maternal health" and "combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases". In the study, European Union (EU) member states and candidate country Turkey are compared in terms of health related goals among millennium development goals by using Multidimensional scaling and Cluster analysis. Initially, countries with similar and dissimilar health indicators are mapped in multidimensional space by multidimensional scaling analysis. Further, the same method is used to reveal similar and dissimilar health indicators among countries. Then, the findings are compared using Cluster analysis and are identified to be similar.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2010.  p. (ECE/INF/2010/2)This report, prepared jointly by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Regional Offices for Europe and Central Asia of the United Nations Funds, Programmes and Specialized Agencies, takes stock of progress made in reaching the MDG goals and offers decision-makers policy-oriented, operationally feasible suggestions for bolstering progress towards fully achieving these goals by 2015. It also identifies and contextualizes the greatest challenges facing human development, taking into account the specific characteristics of the UNECE region. The overall message of this report is twofold. On the one hand, most of the region’s economies have made remarkable progress towards the MDGs over the period 1995-2008, with two caveats: first, success has been greater when it is measured on the basis of global rather than national MDG definitions; second, large disparities exist among countries and subregions within the pan-European region, as well as among population groups and geographic areas within countries. On the other hand, given the huge setbacks associated with the transition recession crisis in the early 1990s and the more recent economic effects of the global financial crisis, a significant number of countries will find it difficult to fully achieve the MDGs by 2015. In order to meet the targets, these countries will have to overcome a number of specific development challenges.[Excerpts]
United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
[World Health Organization updates guidance on how to use contraceptives] OMS reactualizeaza recomandarile de practica pentru utilizarea contraceptivelor.
Targu-Mures, Romania, Institutul Est European de Sanatate a Reproducerii, 2006. 7 p. (Actualitati in planificarea familiala No. 2)The World Health Organization (WHO) issued new guidance in 2004 on how to use certain contraceptives safely and effectively, including the following: A woman who misses combined oral contraceptive pills should take a hormonal pill as soon as possible and then continue taking one pill each day. This basic guidance applies no matter how many hormonal pills a woman misses. Only if a woman misses three or more hormonal pills in a row will she need to take additional steps (see p.3). The new guidance simplifies the missed-pill rules issued by WHO in 2002. Men should wait three months after a vasectomy procedure before relying on it. Previous guidelines advised men to wait either three months after the procedure or until they had had at least 20 ejaculations, whichever occurred first. Recent studies have shown, however, that the 20-ejaculation criterion is not a reliable gauge of vasectomy effectiveness. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2007 Dec; (29):72.The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) strongly believes that the Cluster Approach holds promise for improving the international response to internal displacement. The approach represents a serious attempt by the UN, NGOs, international organisations and governments to address critical gaps in the humanitarian system. We want this reform effort to succeed and to play an active role in northern Uganda to support the work of the clusters and improve their effectiveness. (excerpt)
International Studies. 2007; 44(1):23-37.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) exemplify the enduring commitment and potential of the United Nations to serve as a catalyst for collective action in the cause of equitable and all round development of all nations and peoples. Indeed, the restructuring of the development apparatus as an important element of the larger challenge of the UN reform has acquired greater urgency in view of the manifest need to push for timely implementation of MDGs. Strengthening the role of the Economic and Social Council is a tricky issue that apparently puts the industrially advanced countries and the developing countries in opposite camps. Among the issues on which both the European developed and the Asian developing countries have showed interest, the idea of air ticket levy for raising resources for development is worthy of being pursued vigorously as part of the UN reform negotiations. Likewise, there is more than sufficient potential for old European Union countries like Germany and fast developing countries like China to bridge gaps in their policy objectives and work as partners in strengthening the multilateral mechanism dedicated to development purposes. (author's)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 8 p.For 25 years war raged in Afghanistan, destroying both the institutional fiber of the country and its justice system. Even in the period before the wars, the justice system had only managed to impose itself sporadically. Disputes that arose had to be resolved, for the most part, through informal religious or tribal systems. However acceptable some of the main laws may have been technically, they were offset by various factors: the poor training of judges, lawyers and other legal workers; decaying infrastructures; and ignorance of the law and basic rights by common citizens and even the judges themselves. The prison system had suffered even greater damages. Its infrastructure and organization were in ruins. Today enormous efforts have been mobilized to build a fair and functioning system that is respectful of human rights and international standards. It will take years for the Afghan government and people to do the job-with the help of the international community. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.When wars occur, women are usually the most abused, aggrieved and powerless. In the vast majority of countries, women play no significant role in the decision-making process of whether war is warranted or lawful. When hostilities break out, women are exposed not only to the forms of violence and devastation that accompany any war but also to forms of violence directed specifically at women on account of their gender. The use of sexual violence and sexual slavery as tactics and weapons of war remains at a high level in spite of tremendous strides made by the global community over the past decade. It is imperative to acknowledge the immeasurable injury to body, mind and spirit that is inflicted by these acts. The overall deterioration in the conditions of women in armed conflict situations is due not only to the collapse of social restraints and the general mayhem that armed conflict causes, but also to a strategic decision on the part of combatants to intimidate and destroy the enemy as a whole byraping and enslaving women who are identified as members of the other warring party. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.In 1999, I stood among a sea of 20,000 desperate people on a dirt airfield outside Skopje, Macedonia, listening to one harrowing story after another. I had come to the Stenkovec refugee camp to record those stories and to help set up a system for documenting atrocities in Kosovo. The refugees with whom I spoke described being robbed, beaten, herded together and forced to flee their villages with nothing but the clothes they were wearing. Yet, what I remember most vividly are the lost expressions on the faces of the young women and girls in the camp. At first, they did not speak a word. Their silence acted as a veil, concealing crimes that they could not emotionally recollect. However, slowly, through time and comfort in speaking to female counsellors, their stories emerged. The brutality and systematic consistency of the sexual violence perpetrated on these women were mind-numbing. The widespread practice of rape against Muslim women was more than a consequence of war, it was an instrument of war with the intent of destroying the cultural fabric of a targeted group. This experience brought home to me a truism in international and national conflict: women suffer disproportionately to the atrocities committed against civilians. (excerpt)
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Nov; 99(2):157-161.National and international courts and tribunals are increasingly ruling that although states may aim to deter unlawful abortion by criminal penalties, they bear a parallel duty to inform physicians and patients of when abortion is lawful. The fear is that women are unjustly denied safe medical procedures to which they are legally entitled, because without such information physicians are deterred from involvement. With particular attention to the European Court of Human Rights, the UN Human Rights Committee, the Constitutional Court of Colombia, the Northern Ireland Court of Appeal, and the US Supreme Court, decisions are explained that show the responsibility of states to make rights to legal abortion transparent. Litigants are persuading judges to apply rights to reproductive health and human rights to require states' explanations of when abortion is lawful, and governments are increasingly inspired to publicize regulations or guidelines on when abortion will attract neither police nor prosecutors' scrutiny. (author's)
[Paris, France], UNESCO, International Migration and Multicultural Policies Section, 2004 Jun 1. 16 p. (UNESCO Series of Country Reports on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Migrants; SHS/2004/MC/3)With the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families having entered into force on July 1, 2003, the UNESCO Central and East European Network on Migration Research (CEENOM) has got both a new focus on migrant workers and a new instrument for policy recommendations to national governments. The aim of the present research and analysis is therefore to identify, which obstacles impede the accession of Eastern European and Central Asian countries to the convention and how these could be overcome. Additionally, debate on the provisions of the convention highlights the need for protection of migrant workers and stimulates the search for feasible solutions to labour migration related problems. Finally, it strengthens the link between Central and Eastern European research institutes and policy-makers involved by concentrating on the role and consequences of this distinct legal instrument. (excerpt)
So does it mean that we have the rights? Protecting the human rights of women and girls trafficked for forced prostitution in Kosovo.
London, England, Amnesty International, .  p.Trafficking of women for forced prostitution is an abuse of human rights, not least the right to physical and mental integrity. It violates the rights of women and girls to liberty and security of person, and may even violate their right to life. It exposes women and girls to a series of human rights abuses at the hands of traffickers, and of those who buy their services. It also renders them vulnerable to violations by governments which fail to protect the human rights of trafficked women. Amnesty International considers the trafficking of women for the purposes of forced prostitution to be a widespread and systematic violation of the human rights of women. Since the deployment in July 1999 of an international peacekeeping force (KFOR) and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) civilian administration, Kosovo has become a major destination country for women and girls trafficked into forced prostitution. Women are trafficked into Kosovo predominantly from Moldova, Bulgaria and Ukraine, the majority of them via Serbia. At the same time, increasing numbers of local women and girls are being internally trafficked, and trafficked out of Kosovo. (excerpt)
[Oslo], Norway, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005. 57 p.Sudanese women like everyone else aspire towards achieving the commitments made at the Millennium Summit in 2000. What are the odds, for a country and a people in a complex conflict and post-conflict situation? The ethos of the Millennium Declaration and its emphasis on women's rights, participation of all citizens, gender equality and peace, profoundly captures the reality for women and their families in Sudan. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Sudan demands creative and extra-ordinary measures centered on women's leadership, reducing gender inequalities in all governance, service provision, and resource management while fostering strategic partnerships. Sudan is a country of multiple realities for its communities. Sudanese women and people are continuing to smile with one eye, while crying with another eye. They are living between the joys and commitment to sustain the peace ushered by the CPA and crying in search of peace in the Darfurs! The publication derives from the commitment, consistency and resilience of Sudanese women in their quest for peace, safe and secure living environment; freedom from poverty, discrimination and marginalisation. It is informed by the strategic and creative partnership created between the Government of Norway, UNIFEM and NUPI in creating space for women's voices in the international processes in support of the post-conflict reconstruction of Sudan. The Oslo Gender Symposium and Donors' Conference are cases in point. It is a simple and clear message that links peace, security and development and women's human rights, from the perspective of women's leadership in the struggle for inclusion and empowerment. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Sep. 108 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 14(A))Since mid-2005, hundreds of civilians have been killed, more than 10 thousand houses burned, and approximately 212,000 persons have fled their homes in terror to live in desperate conditions deep in the bush in northern Central African Republic (CAR). Bordering eastern Chad and war-ravaged Darfur in Sudan, this area has been destabilized by at least two major rebellions against the government of President Francois Bozize. The vast majority of summary executions and unlawful killings, and almost all village burnings, have been carried out by government forces, often in reprisal for rebel attacks. While both main rebel groups have been responsible for widespread looting and the forced taxation of the civilian population in areas they control - and rebels in the northeast have committed killings, beatings, and rape - their abuses pale in comparison to those of the Central African Armed Forces (Forces armees Centrafricaines, FACA) and the elite Presidential Guard (Garde presidentielle, GP). As the International Criminal Court (ICC) begins investigations into atrocities committed during the 2002-2003 rebellion against former President Patasse, it should also investigate possible war crimes under its jurisdiction committed in the current round of fighting. (excerpt)
London, England, ECPAT UK, 2006. 55 p.The sexual abuse of children perpetrated by foreign nationals in tourism destinations, was first formally investigated in South East Asia in the late 1980s. One of the first organizations to expose 'child sex tourism' was the Bangkok based Ecumenical Coalition On Third World Tourism (ECTWT) which had been monitoring the impacts of tourism in Asia since 1982. ECTWT researchers investigated the growth in tourism related child prostitution in several Asian countries including Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Taiwan. While largely anecdotal, this early research found that child prostitution was reaching alarming levels and that while the highest level of demand for children in prostitution was from local men, it was increasingly also coming from foreign tourists. The research findings were the impetus for a number of Asian-based non-governmental organisations to launch the international Campaign to End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism (ECPAT) in 1990. The ECPAT international movement has grown to encompass national representatives in over 70 countries. ECPAT UK was one of the first European ECPAT partners and was established in 1994 as The Coalition Against Child Prostitution and Tourism to campaign for new laws to prosecute British nationals travelling abroad to abuse children. (excerpt)
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997; 65 Suppl:1194S-1197S.The 1992 International Conference on Nutrition, new legislation in developing countries, and international trade agreements have renewed interest in food-composition data. Because of the costs involved in gathering such information and the need for it to be uniform, collaborative efforts are required. The production of new food-composition data must be viewed with respect to value gained for money spent, the need for more precise information, and the opportunity to use new analytic methods while not depending too heavily on high-technology systems. The Food and Agriculture Organization and the United Nations University have agreed to collaborate in stimulating the development of new food-composition programs. Their efforts will be directed toward promoting national, regional, and international activities in the food-composition field and will include strengthening existing laboratory facilities and programs, publishing technical manuals and documents, assisting countries to disseminate data, training workers, and sponsoring regional workshops. The Food and Agriculture Organization is well positioned to fulfill this coordinating role because of its past work in food composition, international mandates regarding its activities, its established communication system with national governments, and its ability to provide open forums for discussion of food-composition issues. (author's)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2006 Aug 26; 333(7565):410.A group of Czech Roma women who said that they were forcibly sterilised have, on 17 August, outlined their stories in person to a United Nations committee in New York. They hope this will exert pressure on the Czech government to apologise. On the same day, many Roma women staged a protest outside a hospital in the east of the Czech Republic to raise awareness for their cause. About 30 women carrying banners stating "we want children" and "sterilise gherkins not women" protested outside the municipal hospital in Ostrava in an attempt to get a public apology from the government. A report by the Czech ombudsman released several months ago found that at least 50 women had been unlawfully sterilised as recently as 2003. Eighty women had lodged complaints with the ombudsman, alleging they underwent operations to be sterilised against their will. (excerpt)
Choices. 2001 Dec; 18-19.I don't have any used syringes. Somebody has stolen all, Anka was almost begging. In a worn-out black T-shirt and torn jeans, she looked helpless and desperate, standing in the middle of a vacant square, squeezed between Warsaw's main railway station and a Holiday Inn hotel. "I really don't have any," she repeated. "You know it's an exchange. Go and find some," Grzegorz Kalata said, patiently but firmly. Kalata comes to the square -- a meeting point for local drug users -- almost every evening. He is a streetworker from Monar, Poland's leading chain of non-profit detoxification centres. Under a harm reduction programme, partly sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Kalata gives disposable syringes and needles, bandages, condoms and antiseptics to drug addicts who meet at the square. In return, he collects used syringes and needles in a plastic container, usually full by the end of his visit. After scouring the grass at the site, Anka came back with four used needles. Kalata gave her seven new ones and a package of bandages. On average, Kalata gives out some 200 needles and 150 syringes during an evening. (excerpt)
[Kyiv], Ukraine, UNDP, 2004.  p.The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) organized a series of "Leadership for Results" workshops on May 24-31 2004 to develop and boost leadership skills of several participants' categories: trade union leaders, public figures, physicians, women-leaders, Peer Education Program trainers, etc. Allan Henderson, who facilitated this workshop, pointed out that "these workshops are not meant to make leaders of those who are not leaders, but rather to provide the opportunity for people who already are leaders to step out of the day-to-day business and address their own development." The task for participants is to improve themselves and society, to get to the higher leadership level, to develop more holistic outlook and support leadership skills with more comprehensive background. The structure of this leadership workshop stipulates three meetings with three months intervals. Methods applied in the workshop are as follows: education (knowledge transfer); training (practice of skill development) and coaching (establishing new opportunities for the future). The first workshop on May 24-25 that UNDP held jointly with the International Labor Organization (ILO) welcomed over 70 leaders from four most active trade union associations in Ukraine. It was just recently that trade unions started paying attention to the problem of HIV/AIDS. For the majority of participants it was their first workshop. (excerpt)
Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, . 15 p.Ukraine is at a critical point in its response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country has the highest rate of HIV infection prevalence in Europe and the CIS, about one per cent of the adult population. At the heart of generating an effective national response on HIV/AIDS are committed, mobilized leaders who are speaking out and taking action in their respective spheres of influence. Analysis of successful responses around the globe has highlighted leadership as a key ingredient for overcoming stigma and effective action in both prevention and care. Leaders for an effective national response must come from all levels of society -- national, regional and local Government; NGOs; media; schools; youth organizations; and the household. In modern, democratic Ukraine, citizens enjoy unprecedented freedoms and choices. Each leads his or her own life in a very personal way. Faced with the present onslaught of HIV/AIDS such individuals need basic information and support for their safe behaviour choices to avoid infection, for their compassion for those living with the virus and for their inclusion in the nationwide response. (excerpt)
Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, 2003. 36 p.Ukraine is a young nation on the move. The national response to HIV/AIDS is also gathering pace. It is bringing together fresh coalitions of people, leaders and institutions who want to stop the further spread of this virus and to ensure care for those who are in need. The good news for all is that there are now known ways of preventing the spread of the virus and treatment is increasingly available. The challenge remains immense -- to some overwhelming. The insidious nature of the virus is that it attacks men and women in the prime of their life -- between the ages of 15 and 40. It robs children of their parents, and society of its productive citizens. Limited budgets and ungrounded stigma have severely hampered a scaled-up nationwide response. Positive rhetoric is helpful, but it needs to be matched by personal commitment and concrete actions. With the infusion of new resources, now is the time to remove the log jams and unleash a broad-based national effort to change the current course of the epidemic. As the Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan recently said, "We have come a long way, but not far enough. Clearly, we will have to work harder to ensure that our commitment is matched by the necessary resources and action." (excerpt)