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  1. 1

    [The European Fertility and Family Planning Survey in Hungary] Europai Temekenysegi es Csaladvizsgalat Magyarorszagon.

    Kamaras F

    DEMOGRAFIA. 1995; 38(4):309-39.

    During December 1992 and November 1993 data were collected in Hungary in accordance with a questionnaire developed by the Population Unit of the European Economic Committee of the UN consisting of 10 chapters. A total of 3554 women aged 18-41 and 1919 men aged 20-44 completed the questionnaires which were processed by using the Integrated System of Survey Analysis package. 14% of the women and 10% of the men had been raised without one or both parents up to age 15. In the cohorts under age 25, twice as many children experienced the divorce of their parents than in the cohorts over age 40. 57% of the women left the family home by age 24 versus 27% of the men. Only 21% of women aged 20-24 were married by the age of 20, while 41% of women had been married by that age. 17% of women aged 20-24 lived in consensual union as opposed to 4% of women aged 40. Notwithstanding these findings, marriages that were not preceded by cohabitation were more stable. One-third of women aged over 25 gave birth to the first child by age 20 and two-thirds by age 24; only one-fourth of women aged 20-24 had their first child by age 20 and two-fifths by age 24. The average number of children is 1.9. Women's use of oral contraceptives is most popular up to age 40, while over that age the use of IUDs is increasing. The number of women under 25 using condoms makes up only one-fifth of the number of women relying on OCs. 25% of women over age 40 versus 7-8% of adolescents had undergone at least one abortion. The average number of children wanted by women was 2.1; only 1-2% of young people wanted no children during their lifetime; and 80% of both men and women disagreed that the institution of marriage was an outdated concept.
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  2. 2

    World population projections, 1989-90 edition: short-and long-term estimates.

    Bulatao RA; Bos E; Stephens PW; Vu MT

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. lxxiii, 421 p.

    The World Bank's Population and Human Resources Department regularly publishes a set of world population projections based on its data files. This 1989-90 report has projections for the world and for regions, income groups of countries, and 187 countries. World Bank staff made projections to the point where populations reach stability. In almost all cases, they made only 1 projection. Projection tables for 1985-2030 exist for each country's population. Each country also has tables on birth rate, death rate, net migration, natural increase, population growth, total fertility rate, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, and dependency ratio. The report shows that from 1985-90 population growth was 1.74%, and projected 1990 world population size was 5.3 billion. By 2025, 84.1% of the world's population will be living in developing countries. 58% of the population now lives in Asia. The population of Africa is growing faster than that of Asia, however, (3 vs. 1.9%). By 2000, the population of Africa will be second only to that of Asia, yet in 1989-1990, it is behind that of Asia, Europe and the USSR, and the Americas. The current dependency ratio (67) is expected to decline to 53 by 2025. The highest current dependency ratio belongs to Kenya (120). In developed countries with aging populations, the dependency ratio will rise from 50-58. China will most likely to continue to be the most populous country for about 200 years. India will continue to contribute more to population growth than any other country in the world. Yet the Federal Republic of Germany loses 100,000 people yearly. Total fertility rates are the greatest in Rwanda, the Yemen Arab Republic, Kenya, Malawi, and the Ivory Coast (all >7.2). Afghanistan and 3 western African countries have the shortest life expectancies (about 40 years). These trends illustrate the need to alter population growth.
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  3. 3

    Maternal mortality ratios and rates: a tabulation of available information. 3d ed.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme

    [Unpublished] [1991]. 100 p. (WHO/MCH/MSM/91.6)

    The Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme under WHO's Division of Family Health has compiled maternal mortality data in its 3rd edition of Maternal Mortality Ratios and Rates. The report contains data up to 1991. These data come from almost all WHO member countries. 1988 estimates reveal that 509,000 women die each year from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Most die from preventable causes such as aseptic abortions and lack of adequate health care. 4000 of these maternal deaths occur in developed countries. Thus developing countries, where 87% of the world's births occur, experience 99% of maternal deaths. In fact, the lifetime risk of death from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth in developing countries is 1:57 compared to 1:1825 in developed countries. Women in countries of western Africa have the greatest risk (1:18) and those in North America the smallest risk (1:4006). Even though the maternal mortality ratio for developing countries fell from 450-520 per 100,000 live births between 1983-1988, it increased in western African countries (700-760). This report consists mainly of tables of maternal mortality estimates for each country and in some cases certain areas of each country, for the world and various regions and subregions, and changes in maternal mortality since 1983 for the world and various regions and subregions. The world comparison table includes live births, maternal deaths, maternal mortality ratios and rates, lifetime risk, and total fertility. Country tables list year, data sources, maternal mortality ratio, indication if abortion deaths were included or not, and reference.
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