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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Gonorrhoea surveillance, laboratory diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 11 countries of the eastern part of the WHO European region.

    Unemo M; Shipitsyna E; Domeika M

    APMIS Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Et Immunologica Scandinavica. 2011 Sep; 119(9):643-649.

    Quality-assured worldwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is crucial for public health purposes. In the countries of the eastern part of the WHO European region the knowledge regarding gonococcal AMR is limited, and antimicrobials of many different types, sources and quality are used for gonorrhoea treatment. This study surveyed gonorrhoea incidence, laboratory diagnosis and gonococcal AMR testing in 11 independent countries of the former Soviet Union. The national gonorrhoea incidences remain mainly high. In general, gonococcal culture and AMR testing were rarely performed, poorly standardized and rarely quality assured. To establish a gonococcal AMR surveillance programme in Eastern Europe, i.e. the geographical area of the former Soviet Union, several actions have recently been undertaken by the Eastern European Sexual and Reproductive Health (EE SRH) Network and the WHO. The information provided herein will be useful in this respect.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Comparative performances, under laboratory conditions, of seven pyrethroid insecticides used for impregnation of mosquito nets. [Performances comparées, dans des conditions de laboratoire, de sept insecticides à base de pyréthroïde utilisés pour l'imprégnation des moustiquaires]

    Hougard JM; Duchon S; Darriet F; Zaim M; Rogier C

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 May; 81(5):324-333.

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of seven pyrethroid insecticides for impregnation of mosquito nets, six currently recommended by WHO and one candidate (bifenthrin), under laboratory conditions. Methods: Tests were conducted using pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Knock-down effect, irritancy and mortality were measured using standard WHO cone tests. Mortality and bloodfeeding inhibition were also measured using a baited tunnel device. Findings: For susceptible A. gambiae, alpha-cypermethrin had the fastest knock-down effect. For resistant A. gambiae, the knockdown effect was slightly slower with alpha-cypermethrin and much reduced following exposure to the other insecticides, particularly bifenthrin and permethrin. For susceptible C. quinquefasciatus, the knock-down effect was significantly slower than in A. gambiae, particularly with bifenthrin, and no knock-down effect was observed with any of the pyrethroids against the resistant strain. Bifenthrin was significantly less irritant than the other pyrethroids to susceptible and resistant A. gambiaebut there was no clear ranking of pyrethroid irritancy against C. quinquefasciatus. In tunnels, all insecticides were less toxic against C. quinquefasciatusthan against A. gambiaefor susceptible strains. For resistant strains, mortality was significant with all the pyrethroids with A. gambiaebut not with C. quinquefasciatus. Inhibition of blood-feeding was also high for susceptible strains of both species and for resistant A. gambiaebut lower for resistant C. quinquefasciatus; bifenthrin had the greatest impact. Conclusions: Efficacy for impregnation of mosquito nets against A. gambiae was greatest with alpha-cypermethrin. Bifenthrin is likely to have a significant comparative advantage over other pyrethroids in areas with pyrethroid resistance because of its much stronger impact on the nuisance mosquito, C. quinquefasciatus, despite its slower knock-down effect and irritancy. Selection of pyrethroids for mosquito vector control and personal protection should take into account the different effects of these insecticides, the status of pyrethroid resistance in the target area, and the importance of nuisance mosquitoes, such as C. quinquefasciatus. (author's)
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