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  1. 1

    Experiences from the field: HIV prevention among most at risk adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    UNICEF. Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, [2013]. [122] p.

    This document shares experiences in an effort to support programmers, policymakers, and donors to carry out and strengthen further programming among most-at-risk-adolescents (MARA) and other vulnerable adolescents in the Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States Region and beyond. It presents programming experiences from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine. The overarching goal of these programs has been to promote HIV prevention among MARA and to ensure their integration into national HIV / AIDS program strategies and monitoring and evaluation frameworks.
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  2. 2

    Panel 4. Introductory remarks.

    McDougall G

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.

    When wars occur, women are usually the most abused, aggrieved and powerless. In the vast majority of countries, women play no significant role in the decision-making process of whether war is warranted or lawful. When hostilities break out, women are exposed not only to the forms of violence and devastation that accompany any war but also to forms of violence directed specifically at women on account of their gender. The use of sexual violence and sexual slavery as tactics and weapons of war remains at a high level in spite of tremendous strides made by the global community over the past decade. It is imperative to acknowledge the immeasurable injury to body, mind and spirit that is inflicted by these acts. The overall deterioration in the conditions of women in armed conflict situations is due not only to the collapse of social restraints and the general mayhem that armed conflict causes, but also to a strategic decision on the part of combatants to intimidate and destroy the enemy as a whole byraping and enslaving women who are identified as members of the other warring party. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Public report. First meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, January 23-24, 2003, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2003. 13 p.

    There is more than 20 years of experience showing that the promotion and protection of human rights is critical to mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on peoples lives. However, the integration of human rights into HIV/AIDS work is increasingly under attack by governments and public health officials. The field is therefore now at an important juncture of it's history. There is a growing and crucial need for efforts that would highlight the effectiveness of the diverse ways in which the connections between HIV/AIDS and human rights are being understood and worked on. It is most critical to continue to keep abreast of and address current human rights issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. It is also essential to consider what is needed to collect the evidence of what has been effective; and to develop better ways to ensure that rights are genuinely integrated into the HIV/AIDS work happening within countries. To help meet these goals, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) established a Global Reference Group on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights (Reference Group). This technical group has been put together to serve as an independent advisory body to UNAIDS, including Secretariat and Cosponsors and other organizations involved in policy, advocacy, programme development, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, research and training related to a rights-based approach to HIV/AIDS. In fulfilling its mandate, the Reference Group will liaise closely with other UNAIDS Reference Groups, namely, HIV/AIDS Estimates, Modeling and Projections; the International AIDS Economic Network; the Reference Group on Injection Drug Use; and the Reference Group on Epidemiology. The Reference Group will cover a wide range of topics including, but not limited to the following: 1. Stocktaking of standards and approaches to integrating human rights in the response to HIV/AIDS leading to a common methodology for analysis and terminology. 2. The development of rights-based indicators, including those to monitor HIV/AIDS risk, vulnerability and impact reduction. 3. The development of human rights and legal guidelines and methods to support countries in the design of national AIDS strategies, policies, and legislation. 4. The development of a strategic approach for integration of HIV/AIDS-related issues in UN human rights treaty bodies, charter-based bodies and other human rights mechanisms. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Romania declares victory in fight against AIDS.

    McNeil DG Jr

    New York Times. 2004 Feb 11; [6] p..

    After a long, clumsy war against AIDS, Romania has finally declared itself the winner. "Yes — at this moment, we have a victory," said Dr. Adrian Streinu-Cercel, president of the National AIDS Committee. "Everyone who needs triple therapy is getting triple therapy." The country, which became infamous in 1990 for the squalid orphanages and babies dying of AIDS that marked the final years of Nicolae Ceausescu's dictatorship, is now being cited as a model of how governments, drug companies and international agencies can bring AIDS under control by ensuring that the necessary three-drug anti-retroviral cocktails are available and paid for. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Croatia. Broken promises: impediments to refugee return to Croatia.

    Ivanisevic B

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Sep. 61 p. (Croatia Vol. 15, No. 6(D))

    Between 300,000 and 350,000 Serbs left their homes in Croatia during the 1991-95 war. This report describes the continued plight of displacement suffered by the Serbs of Croatia and identifies the principal remaining impediments to their return. The most significant problem is the difficulty Serbs face in returning to their pre-war homes. Despite repeated promises, the Croatian government has been unwilling and unable to solve this problem for the vast majority of displaced Serbs. In addition, fear of arbitrary arrest on war-crimes charges and discrimination in employment and pension benefits also deter return. Human Rights Watch believes that these problems are a result of a practice of ethnic discrimination against Serbs by the Croatian government. The report concludes with a list of recommendations to the government of Croatia and the international community to deal with these persistent problems and finally make good on the promise of return. (author's)
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  6. 6

    The new lepers. HIV-positive people are treated as social outcasts while the government fails to cope.

    Osokina A

    London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting [IWPR], 2003 Aug 8. 3 p. (Belarus Reporting Service No. 28)

    More and more people in Belarus are finding themselves in her position – 50 or 60 new HIV cases are recorded every month. At the beginning of August, the number of people carrying the virus reached 5,150, and experts fear that the figure will be more than double that in 2005. More worryingly, some say the recorded figures should be multiplied by a factor of three or more since they fail to capture drug users who have not been seen by the health authorities. Although HIV and AIDS are advancing rapidly, neither the government nor society in general appear able to come to terms with it. A survey conducted jointly by the United Nations and the Centre for Sociological and Political Research in Minsk found that three quarters of the people polled thought people with HIV should not be allowed to care for their own children, and more than 40 per cent said they should not be allowed to travel around the country or choose where they want to live. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Unintended consequences: drug policies fuel the HIV epidemic in Russia and Ukraine. A policy report prepared for the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs and national governments.

    Malinowska-Sempruch K; Hoover J; Alexandrova A

    New York, New York, Open Society Institute, International Harm Reduction Development program, 2003. 16 p.

    Taking action now to reduce HIV transmission rates and treat those already infected is critical. With the goal of avoiding adverse effects on social welfare and public health, the Russian and Ukrainian governments should reconsider how they interpret international treaties. Policy changes should be made in the following areas: Harm reduction. The governments should play an active role in establishing and supporting a large, strategically located network of harm reduction programs that provide services for IDUs, including needle exchange, HIV transmission education, condom distribution, and access to viable treatment programs such as methadone substitution. Similar services should be available in all prisons. Education. Simple, direct, and dear information about HIV transmission should be made available to all citizens-especially those most at risk. Similarly, society at large should be educated about the realities of drug use and addiction as part of an effort to reduce stigma. Discrimination and law enforcement abuse. Public health and law enforcement authorities should take the lead in eliminating discrimination, official and de facto, toward people with HIV and marginalized risk groups such as drug users. Authorities must no longer condone or ignore harassing and abusive behavior, including physical attacks, arrest quotas, arbitrary searches, detainment without charges, and other violations of due process. HIV-positive people, including IDUs, should be included in all policy discussions related to them in the public health and legal spheres. Legislation. Laws that violate the human rights of people with HIV and at-risk groups should be repealed or restructured to better reflect public health concerns. Moving forward with the above strategies may make it appear that the governments are backing away from the goals and guidelines of the UN drug conventions. They may be criti- cized severely by those who are unable or unwilling to understand that meeting the goals of the conventions, some of which were promulgated more than 40 years ago, is far too great a price to bear for countries in the midst of drug use and HIV epidemics. Governments ultimately have no choice, though, if they hope to maintain any semblance of moral legitimacy among their own people. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    A force for change.

    Renaud T; Mogapi M; Connolly M

    WORLD HEALTH. 1998 Nov-Dec; 51(6):26-7.

    Young people must be given opportunities to participate in decision-making at all levels. Some UN organizations have acknowledged the importance of such participation in a wide range of activities, including caring for the environment, teaching each other about life skills, and encouraging peers to adopt healthy behaviors. A direct commitment to young people's participation is also clear in international conferences where young people have been asked to speak. However, youth participation in such conferences is far from enough, for young speakers are typically limited to only telling about their own experiences. Rather, young people need to be encouraged and allowed to make recommendations which will be given serious consideration. Especially to reduce new HIV infections and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS, young people need to be involved in planning, making decisions, and conducting and evaluating relevant policies and programs at the local, national, and international levels. Examples are presented of political, media, and sexual and reproductive health programs involving youth in Zambia, the UK, the US, Malawi, and Thailand.
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  9. 9

    Workers, [with] Family Responsibilities Convention. [Status].

    International Labour Organisation [ILO]

    In: Multilateral treaties, index and current status, Tenth Cumulative Supplement, compiled by M.J. Bowman and D.J. Harris. Nottingham, England, University of Nottingham Treaty Centre, 1993. 289.

    On 9 June 1992, Slovenia became a party to this Convention. The Convention requires that parties accept as their national policy that men and women with family responsibilities should be able to exercise their right to work without discrimination against them because of these responsibilities. The Convention applies to workers with dependent children and workers with other family responsibilities.
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  10. 10

    Global AIDS into the 1990s.

    Mann JM

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the 5th International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4-10, 1989. 7 p. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.2)

    Based on AIDS statistics reported to WHO, as of June 1, 1989, 149 nations reported 157,191 AIDS cases. 69% of these cases lived in 43 countries in the Americas, 16% in 47 countries in Africa, 14% in 28 European countries, and 1% in 31 countries of Asia and Oceania. Yet WHO estimated that the actual number was probably 480,000. Further, a Delphi study showed that >3 times the number of new HIV infections will occur during the 1990s than did in the 1980s. The global AIDS epidemic followed 3 courses in the 1980s. The 1st consisted of markedly rising HIV infection cases in areas already affected by HIV. In 1987, HIV seroprevalence among intravenous drug users stood at almost 1% in Bangkok; in 1988, 20%, and in June 1989, >40%. The 2nd involved the appearance of AIDS in areas that either had not been affected or only slightly so. In Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, HIV-1 seroprevalence rose to 4% form <1% within 2 years. Finally, complex and diverse social, economic, and cultural situations at national, provincial, and community levels served to further the extent of AIDS. The proportion of AIDS cases related to intravenous drug use jumped from 3%-13% in 1 year in Brazil and from 6%-34% in 4 years in Europe. To prevent the spread of AIDS, WHO founded the Global Programme on AIDS in 1987. As of June 1, 1989, it gave >US$60 million to 127 nations and arranged technical support for >1000 assignments to assist nations in developing national AIDS programs. WHO expected such programs to be developed in all the world's 187 countries by the end of 1989. To prevent the spread of AIDS, these programs must form linkages with other health and social programs. They also need to concentrate their efforts on health and social problems unique to their nation. They must take the lead in finding new approaches to prevent the spread of AIDS, caring for AIDS patients, and to guarantee equity in the provision of services.
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  11. 11

    Progress report number 5.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989 May. [3], 79 p. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.4)

    In February 1987, WHO established the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) to direct and coordinate global AIDS prevention, control, research, and education. GPA is under the Office of the Director with 2 administrative divisions (management, administration, and information and national program support) and 5 scientific and technical divisions (Epidemiological support and research, health promotion, social and behavioral research, biomedical research, and surveillance, forecasting and impact assessment). It coordinates worldwide AIDS surveillance and receives statistics from WHO collaborating Centres on AIDS, Member Countries ministries of health, and WHO Regional offices. From 1985- 1989, the total number of AIDS cases worldwide rose >15 times. As of March 1, 1989, 145 countries reported a total of 141,894 cases with the Americas reporting the highest number of cases (99, 752). This total is, however, an underestimate since AIDS cases are often not recognized or reported to national health authorities. GPA cosponsors international conferences and policy related meetings, such as the annual International Conference on AIDS. Further, GPA collaborates with other UN organizations and other WHO activities, e.g. UNFPA and Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme, regarding the effect of HIV infection on their programs. Some initiatives that GPA spearheaded and coordinates include protecting the global blood supply from HIV, developing a strategy for distribution of condoms and viricides in national AIDS programs, and strengthening research capability. This report also lists regional and intercountry activities, e.g. WHO joined a French organization in producing a film about AIDS in Africa.
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  12. 12

    [Policies of European countries concerning the education of immigrant children] La politica dei paesi europei in materia di formazione scolastica dei figli degli emigrati.

    Falcinelli Di Matteo F; Marcuccini AM

    Studi Emigrazione. 1980 Mar; 17(57):44-60.

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