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  1. 1

    United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)

    In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Forgotten refugees and other displaced population. Réfugiés et autres personnes déplacées oubliés.

    Spiegel PB; Qassim M

    Lancet. 2003 Jul 5; 362(9377):72-74.

    The wars in Afghanistan in 2002 and Iraq in 2003 have focused the world’s attention and siphoned much funding away from other humanitarian crises. Emergencies such as those in Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and southern Sudan are equally or more serious in respect of human suffering and lives lost. Governments’ provision of aid to Afghanistan and Iraq, irrespective of the motives underlying it, is laudable and indicates that with sufficient political will there are enough resources to assist in refugee situations. However, in 2002, many refugee programmes, especially in Africa, were forced to cut up to a third of their budgets, with serious consequences in their capacity to provide basic lifesaving services. Further cuts are likely for 2003. These tragedies are on a second- tier in terms of political or media attention and funding. However, a third tier of protracted refugee and internally displaced person (IDP) situations receives even less attention. Consequently, such situations are chronically underfunded and often have little hope of resolution in the near future. It is difficult to quantify the health, human rights, and economic consequences for these forgotten refugees. In this report, we consider a few of these populations and call on the international community to address them properly and equitably. (excerpt)
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  3. 3


    Gonzalez Marquez F

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 146.

    The 1974 World Population Conference held at Bucharest contributed significantly to global awareness of the seriousness of population problems. Significant gains have been made since the Bucharest Conference. However, problems such as poverty, maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, ignorance and hunger still plague the international community as a whole. One of the more pressing problems plaguing the government of Spain is widespread migration such as rural to urban movements. This migration has had an enormous effect on the population and on the resources and social facilities provided by the government. In addition to others, this topic will be discussed in depth at the 1984 Population Conference being held in Mexico. A better understanding of these issues will help the international community deal more effectively with changing population trends.
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  4. 4

    Why people move: comparative perspectives of the dynamics of internal migration

    Balan J

    Paris, France, Unesco Press, 1981. 342 p.

    This work is the outcome of an international symposium held in Cuernavaca, Mexico, September 18-21, 1978. The symposium, organized jointly by Unesco and the Latin American Social Sciences Council's Committee on Population and Development, was concerned with the relationship between migration and development. The causes and consequences of rural migration are first explored, and case studies on the relationship between internal migration and development are presented for Italy, Argentina, Turkey, Chile, and Poland. Next, some behavioral aspects of internal migration and development are examined for Mexico and the Republic of Korea. Finally, some policy aspects and alternatives to rural-urban migration are considered, with examples from Peru, Brazil, Argentina, and Tropical Africa.
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