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  1. 1
    141015

    Final report of the NGO Forum on ICPD Plus 5.

    NGO Forum on ICPD Plus 5 (1999: The Hague)

    [Unpublished] 1999 [35] i.

    This paper reports on the national and regional consultations and the 2-day debate at The Hague. This nongovernmental organization (NGO) Forum final report was presented at the Hague Forum to the Commission on Population and Development in March, and to the UN General Assembly Special Session in New York. The report related clearly what NGOs believe should be included in their own agendas, and those of others, for future action. The debate at the NGO Forum was divided into five substantive areas. These included the discussions on the current situation, examples of good practice, obstacles to resource mobilization, obstacles to effective advocacy, and recommendations for future actions.
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  2. 2
    142055

    Statement.

    UNESCO

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [2] p.

    This is a statement concerning the UNESCO monograph "Education and Population Dynamics: Mobilizing Minds for a Sustainable Future" as an important contribution to the fifth anniversary of International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The monograph focuses on the achievement of balance between population/development and the capacity of the social/natural environment and on the issue of the impact of education on women. The international community is called to mobilize resources and talent toward the goal of allowing every person to live a peaceful and productive life. UNESCO invites all governments, UN institutions, and NGOs to analyze its contribution and to reinforce the international social contract on education as a force of the future.
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  3. 3
    075982

    Poland: health system reform.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xxi, 140, [7] p. (World Bank Country Study)

    Health status and life expectancy in Poland have seriously declined since the 1970s. Increases in life expectancy gained in the 1950s and 1960s have in fact reversed. Further, postneonatal mortality is higher in Poland than in most European countries, and urban men and women actually suffer worse health than rural populations. The Polish health system operates from public funds. The Polish government, however, has found it increasingly difficult to provide for the health needs of the country. Hampered by inadequate financing and an inefficient delivery system, health status and service infrastructure continue to deteriorate. This report draws largely from a 5-week visit to Poland by World Bank Health Sector missions in May/June and September, 1990. The Polish government is aware that they must take steps to provide for the health financing and health of the country over the short, intermediate, and long terms. This report closely examines the system and its financing, with hopes that insights will be gained into how the Polish government might reformulate policy and adopt reform measures to implement over the next 5 years. Reviewed are: health outcomes, population health needs, resource mobilization strategies for disease prevention and health promotion; health planning, organization, delivery, and management; health care financing. The government's Health Services Development Program is also considered.
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  4. 4
    071962

    Norway.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 222-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Norway's 1985 population of 4,142,000 is projected to grow to 4,261,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 20.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 21.1% were over the age of 60. 16.9% and 27.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 1.8 to -0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.7 to 12.2, while,e infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 11.4. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 71.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.0 years. Urban population will increase from 72.8% in 1985 to 79.9% overall by the year 2025. All of these levels and trends are considered acceptable by the government. Norway does not have an explicit population policy. A population committee was, however, created in 1981 to consider population and development, especially in the face of ongoing demographic aging. The government works to provide health for the population, maintain the level of immigration, and improve women's status. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  5. 5
    071957

    Netherlands.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 202-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Netherlands' 1985 population of 14,500,000 is projected to grow to 14,691,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 16.5% were over the age of 60. 15.1% and 30.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.8 to -2.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.7 to 13.0, while infant mortality will decline from 8.3 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.6 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 10.4. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 72.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.2 years. Urban population will increase from 88.4% in 1985 to 89.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high immigration and low emigration are not. The Netherlands has an explicit population policy. Fertility should be 15-30% below replacement level over several years in order to stop population growth, the level of immigration should be restricted, and a stationary population should ultimately be smaller than that presently realized. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  6. 6
    071947

    Malta.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Malta's 1985 population of 383,000 is projected to grow to 459,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 23.9% of the population was ages 0-14 years, while 13.8% were over the age of 60. 19.5% and 23.7% are projected to be in these prospective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 7.3 to 1.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase fROm 71.7 to 76.9 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.1 to 11.2, while infant mortality will decline from 12.9 to 6.6. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 2.0 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 17.4 to 13.0. Urban population will increase from 85.3% in 1985 to 92.4% overall by the year 2025. All levels and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. In turn, Malta does not have an explicit population policy. Despite the lack of governmental intervention to influence the birth rate, the government recognizes the need keep rates low. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  7. 7
    071890

    Germany, Federal Republic of.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 14-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The Federal Republic of Germany's 1985 population of 60,877,000 is projected to shrink to 53,490,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 15.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 20.0% were over the age of 60. 16.0% and 31.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from -0.2 to -0.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.7 to 77.33 years, the crude death rate will increase from 12.3 to 15.4, while infant mortality will decline from 10.6 to 5.5. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.4 to 2.0, with a corresponding increase in the crude birth rate from 10.1 to 11.1. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 77.9, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.6 years. Urban population will increase from 85.5% in 1985 to 88.6% overall by they year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. The Republic does not have an explicit population policy. A pro-natalist program launched, however, in 1984 to encourage an additional 200,000 births/year. The government hopes to realize steady population growth, improve the situation of families, provide for individuals' health, and improve spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  8. 8
    071889

    German Democratic Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 10-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The German Democratic Republic's 1985 population of 16,766,000 is projected to grow to 17,570,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 18.1% were over the age of 60. 19.0% and 25.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to 0.11 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 72.1 to 77.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.1 to 12.5, while infant mortality will decline from 11.1 to 5.4. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.4 to 12.6. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage from 21.5 years. Urban population will increase from 77.0% in 1985 to 84.0% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth and fertility are not. The Republic has an explicit population policy. The government encourages families to have at least 2 or 3 children to effect population replacement. Promoting the family and maternal-child care, supporting large families and newly-wed couples, lowering mortality, and reducing differentials in living and working conditions are stressed. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  9. 9
    071886

    France.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 218-21. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    France's 1985 population of 54,621,000 is projected to grow to 58,431,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 21.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.7% were over the age of 60. 17.8% and 25.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to 0.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.5 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.2 to 11.8, while infant mortality will decline from 9.2 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.5 to 12.1. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 79.0, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.3 years. Urban population will increase from 73.4% in 1985 to 77.3% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. France has an explicit population policy. Concerned over the low growth rate of the native-born population, policy aims to increase fertility an population growth by improving the socioeconomic status of families, lowering the mortality rate, and restricting most types of immigration. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  10. 10
    071885

    Finland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 214-7. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Finland's 1985 population of 4,891,000 is projected to grow to 4,994,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.2% were over the age of 60. 16.5% and 28.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to -2.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.8 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.9 to 13.3, while infant mortality will decline from 6.2 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 10.9. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 80.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.6 years. Urban population will increase from 64.0% in 1985 to 83.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Comparatively high morbidity and mortality among males, however, is of concern. Causes for such excess mortality include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents, and suicide. Finland does not have an explicit population policy. Attention is presently directed toward morbidity and mortality, promoting and supporting the family, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  11. 11
    071852

    Bulgaria.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 82-5. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Bulgaria's 1985 population of 9.071,000 is projected to grow to 10,070,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 22.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.33% were over the age of 60. 20.0% and 22.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 4.7 to 1.9 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 71.6 to 76.8 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.0 to 11.6, while infant mortality will decline from 17.6 to 7.2. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.2 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.7 to 13.5. The 1976 contraceptive prevalence rate was 76.0, while the 19890 female mean age at 1st marriage was 221.6 years. Urban population will increase from 66.5% in 1985 to 83.4% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while too low population growth and fertility are not. Bulgaria has an explicit population policy. Demographic policy aims to maintain moderate and stable population growth, provide for individual health, increase job opportunities, and improve living conditions and spatial distribution. Higher fertility and subsequent population growth are encouraged. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discusses, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  12. 12
    071951

    Monaco.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 178-81. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Monaco's 1985 population of 27,000 is projected to grow to 35,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 29.0% of the population was over the age of 60, and the crude birth and death rates were 20.0. The growth rate was 0.8, with no rate of natural increase over the period 1980-85. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth and fertility are not. Monaco does not have an explicit population policy. The government does, however, hope to stem future immigration and realize higher rates of fertility. Social welfare, family allowances, and assistance to young married couples are provided to meet this letter objective. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  13. 13
    070214

    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 186-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland's 1985 population of 56,618,000 is projected to grow to 57,464,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 20.7% were over the age of 60. 17.2% and 27.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 1.3 to -0.1 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.0 to 79.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 11.7 to 11.5, while infant mortality will decline from 11.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.8 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.0 to 11.4. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 83, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.8 years. Urban population will increase from 91.7% in 1985 to 95.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, spatial distribution, and low emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality and high immigration are not. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland does not have an explicit population policy. Recent legislation has, however, been enacted to stem the flow of immigrants into the country. The government considers decisions on fertility and child-bearing best left to individuals and limits itself to providing family planning and health information and services. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  14. 14
    070208

    Turkey.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Turkey's 1985 population of 50,345,000 is projected to grow to 89,646,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 36.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.4% were over the age of 60. 22.9% and 13.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 20.8 to 9.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 61.6 to 74.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 9.4 to 6.7, while infant mortality will decline from 92.0 to 19.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 30.2 to 16.3. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 51.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.7 years. Urban population will increase from 45.9% in 1985 to 69.8% overall by the year 2025. Significant immigration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, fertility, mortality, and low emigration are not. Turkey has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth and fertility through family planning programs and family welfare provisions, reduce mortality through expanded, local-level public health services, and reduce migration to urban areas. Policy supports increased emigration. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  15. 15
    070201

    Switzerland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 134-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Switzerland's 1985 population of 6,470,000 is projected to shrink to 6,118,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 16.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 19.6% were over the age of 60. 14.3% and 33.7% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 2.3 to --4.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.3 to 80.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.3 to 13.5, while infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.5 to 1.7, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 11.6 to 9.3. The 1980 contraceptive prevalence rate was 71.2, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 25.0 years. Urban population will increase from 58.2% in 1985 to 69.5% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, mortality, morbidity, spatial distribution, and international migration levels are considered to be acceptable by the government, while the low fertility level is not. Switzerland has an explicit population policy. Indirect measures will be applied in attempts to raise fertility. These would include improving the situation of families and children, and imposing more stringent regulations on immigration. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  16. 16
    070200

    Sweden.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 130-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sweden's 1985 population of 8,350,000 is projected to shrink to 8,136,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 17.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 23.6% were over the age of 60. 15.6% and 30.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to -2.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.3 to 80.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.0 to 12.7, while infant mortality will decline from 7.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 11.3 to 10.4. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 78.1, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 27.6 years. Urban population will increase from 83.4% in 1985 to 90.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these indicators and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government while only spatial distribution is marginally not. Sweden does not have an explicit population policy. Population policies are part and parcel of broader socioeconomic policy, with, nonetheless, an interest in limiting future levels of immigration and adjusting urban-rural spatial imbalance. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  17. 17
    070184

    Spain.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 110-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Spain's 1985 population of 38,602,000 is projected to grown to 42,530,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 22.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.1% were over the age of 60. 16.6% and 26.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.6 to 0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 75.8 to 80.3 years, the crude birth death rate will increase from 7.7 to 10.3, while infant mortality will decline from 11.0 to 6.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.8 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 11.0. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 59.4, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.1 years. Urban population will increase from 75.8% in 1985 to 88.8% overall by the year 2025. All of these indicators and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. Spain, therefore, does not have an explicit population policy. The government considers the country's demographic situation to be stable, and deems fertility to be an individual matter. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken regarding the above-mentioned demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  18. 18
    070170

    Romania.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 46-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Romania's 1985 population of 22,725,000 is projected to grow to 25,745,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 24.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 14.4% were over the age of 60. 18.4% and 20.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.6 to 1.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.6 to 77.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.2 to 10.4, while infant mortality will decline from 26.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.2 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.8 to 12.2. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.0, while the 1977 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.1 years. Urban population will increase from 49.0% in 1985 to 60.9% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, mortality, international migration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while too low fertility is not. Romania has an explicit population policy. Fully-integrated in socioeconomic policy, it aims to increase population growth rates to achieve a target total population of 30 million by the year 2000. The government will encourage higher fertility, lower mortality, a consolidated family, an adjusted age structure, and affirm the role of women as active participants in social development. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  19. 19
    070167

    Portugal.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 34-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Portugal's 1985 population of 10,157,000 is projected to grow to 10,935,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 23.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.0% were over the age of 60. 17.1% and 24.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.1 to 0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 72.2 to 78.8 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.6 to 10.6, while infant mortality will decline from 20.0 to 6.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.0 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.7 to 11.4. The 1979/80 contraceptive prevalence rate was 66.3, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.1 years. Urban population will increase from 31.2% in 1985 to 57.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality and spatial distribution are not. Portugal does not have an explicit population policy. Socioeconomic measures are, however, in place to address spatial distribution, and support emigration and the return of emigrants, education, social security, health, and family planning. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data system are also explored.
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  20. 20
    070166

    Poland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 30-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Poland's 1985 population of 37,203,000 is projected to grow to 45,066,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 25.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 13,8% were over the age of 60. 19.6% and 22.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 9.6 to 3.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 70.9 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.6 to 9.8, while infant mortality will decline from 20.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.3 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 19.2 to 13.1. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 75.0, while the 1984 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.8 years. Urban population will increase from 61.0% in 1985 to 71.0% overall by the year 2025. Population size and growth, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population age structure, mortality, morbidity, and too high emigration are not. Poland has an explicit population policy. Aiming to establish a stable population, policies control internal migration while governing efforts to improve mortality and living conditions. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  21. 21
    034328

    Health development planning.

    Mahmoud SH

    In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)

    Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.
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  22. 22
    032601

    Family planning program funds: sources, levels, and trends.

    Nortman DL

    New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)

    This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
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  23. 23
    267814

    Population, resources, environment and development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)

    Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
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