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Public report. First meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, January 23-24, 2003, Geneva, Switzerland.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2003. 13 p.There is more than 20 years of experience showing that the promotion and protection of human rights is critical to mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on peoples lives. However, the integration of human rights into HIV/AIDS work is increasingly under attack by governments and public health officials. The field is therefore now at an important juncture of it's history. There is a growing and crucial need for efforts that would highlight the effectiveness of the diverse ways in which the connections between HIV/AIDS and human rights are being understood and worked on. It is most critical to continue to keep abreast of and address current human rights issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. It is also essential to consider what is needed to collect the evidence of what has been effective; and to develop better ways to ensure that rights are genuinely integrated into the HIV/AIDS work happening within countries. To help meet these goals, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) established a Global Reference Group on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights (Reference Group). This technical group has been put together to serve as an independent advisory body to UNAIDS, including Secretariat and Cosponsors and other organizations involved in policy, advocacy, programme development, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, research and training related to a rights-based approach to HIV/AIDS. In fulfilling its mandate, the Reference Group will liaise closely with other UNAIDS Reference Groups, namely, HIV/AIDS Estimates, Modeling and Projections; the International AIDS Economic Network; the Reference Group on Injection Drug Use; and the Reference Group on Epidemiology. The Reference Group will cover a wide range of topics including, but not limited to the following: 1. Stocktaking of standards and approaches to integrating human rights in the response to HIV/AIDS leading to a common methodology for analysis and terminology. 2. The development of rights-based indicators, including those to monitor HIV/AIDS risk, vulnerability and impact reduction. 3. The development of human rights and legal guidelines and methods to support countries in the design of national AIDS strategies, policies, and legislation. 4. The development of a strategic approach for integration of HIV/AIDS-related issues in UN human rights treaty bodies, charter-based bodies and other human rights mechanisms. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Sep. 61 p. (Croatia Vol. 15, No. 6(D))Between 300,000 and 350,000 Serbs left their homes in Croatia during the 1991-95 war. This report describes the continued plight of displacement suffered by the Serbs of Croatia and identifies the principal remaining impediments to their return. The most significant problem is the difficulty Serbs face in returning to their pre-war homes. Despite repeated promises, the Croatian government has been unwilling and unable to solve this problem for the vast majority of displaced Serbs. In addition, fear of arbitrary arrest on war-crimes charges and discrimination in employment and pension benefits also deter return. Human Rights Watch believes that these problems are a result of a practice of ethnic discrimination against Serbs by the Croatian government. The report concludes with a list of recommendations to the government of Croatia and the international community to deal with these persistent problems and finally make good on the promise of return. (author's)
IN / FIRE ETHICS 1994; 3(3-4):8-9.Religion was a problem at the Conference on Population and Development. Many people consider religion to be anti-modern or reactionary. The conference document describes a global population policy that assumes underlying ethical values but does not articulate these values. The document does not recognize conflicts between values. Secular rationality is a culture shared by an elite, not the masses. Yet the document is intended for them. It cannot empower women, especially poor or non-elite women, to regulate their fertility, if it cannot connect with their religious cultures. The cultural conflict is not just between religious discourse and secular discourse but a deep conflict within religion itself. This conflict is seething in Catholicism and other major religions and manifested itself at the conference. The opposition at the conference hid internal schisms. Christianity has a deep conflict between norms sacralizing the dominant patriarchal social order as the will of God and the order of creation and the prophetic faith that protests against oppressive social patterns. Christianity has had continual surges of renewal that rekindle the prophetic protest tradition on behalf of the poor and the marginalized. The world is in the midst of such a wave in the forms of liberation and feminist theologies. Deep symbols of justice and protests against injustice are being applied for the first time to women. To affirm women as images of God, one must image God as woman. Women are called into the community of equals. The rediscovery of the meaning of symbols of redemption and applying them to the poor and women is shaking traditional Christianity to its roots. The Vatican's refusal of the conference document is a refusal to discuss the challenge of renewal within its own community. The conflict with the Vatican should be put in the context of a conflict between patriarchy and prophetic faith (women's liberation). The document will fail if it ignores or neutralizes religion.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-8.Yugoslavia lies along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea opposite Italy. The South Slav groups and 17 minority groups joined in 1918 to form this nation with the greatest ethnic and religious diversity in Eastern Europe. In 1948, due to displeasure with Yugoslav leader's, Tito, insistence on independence, Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from Cominform. The US and its Western allies therefore contributed economic and military assistance to help Yugoslavia remain independent. The federal government consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Yugoslavia continues to follow a pragmatic Marxist policy, unlike other Marxist countries. For example, certain basic rights are recognized and protected, citizens may travel abroad freely, churches are open, and private property rights are respected, e.g. 84% of all farmland is privately owned. This moderated policy also guides the nation to establish friendly relations with most countries, regardless of sociopolitical systems. Even though only political party is allowed to operate, the League of Communists, it permits open expressions of differences on some major policy issues, unlike the Soviet style 1 party system of the recent past. In the 1950s, Yugoslavia switched from a highly centralized economic system to a decentralized, more market oriented system. In addition, during the mid 1960s, the federal government handed economic and political authority over to the 6 republics and 2 autonomous provinces. Rapid inflation, significant unemployment, and severe balance-of-payment and debt pressures plague the nation, however. Yugoslavia tries to maintain a balance in trade relations with Western nations, the socialist bloc, and with developing countries. The US is Yugoslavia's 4th leading trading partner. US policy on Yugoslavia is based on strong and continuing support for Yugoslavia's independence, unity, and territorial integrity and respect for Yugoslavia's nonalignment.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Oct; 1-8.Yugoslavia was formed on December 1, 1918 from the kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro plus parts of the Turkish and Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its population has the greatest ethnic and religious deversity of any in Eastern Europe. The main language is Serbo-Croatian. Yugoslavia has worked hard to maintain its independence despite pressure from the international Communist organization Cominform. Since the 1960s they have been identified as a leader of nonaligned nations. 6 republics comprise the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and each of these republics has its own government modeled on the federal structure. The federal government has executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The Constitutional Court rules on the constitutionality of all laws and regulations. The League of Communists is the only political party allowed to function; however, it does permit open expression of differences on some major policy issues. Since the end of World War 2, the Yugoslav economy has become an industrialized, midlevel technological economy and the standard of living has risen. Yugoslavia has tried to maintain a rough balance in trade relations with Western nations, with the socialist bloc, and with the developing world. Agricultural production has risen steadily over the years but its full poteential has not yet been realized. Yugoslavia has tried to establish friendly relations with most states, especially in Western Europe. The US has made an effort to support Yugoslavia in its attempt to maintain independence and through cultural, commercial, and political involvement has attempted to offer alternatives to being dependent on the Soviet Union. Relations have been further strengthened by continuing high-level visits by heads of state. While there are differences of view on many foreign policy issues, the US has respected Yugoslavia's position and has offered continued support.
[Society and procreation: the social factors that affect them] Societe et procreation: les facteurs sociaux qui l'influencent
Brussels, Belgium, Editions de l'Universite de Bruxelles, 1981. 291 p. (In series: Etudes sur la Famille)This volume contains a collection of papers by members of the Study Group for Family Roles, an organization of scholars which pursues studies on family roles from both historical and analytical perspectives. The theme of the present volume is the control imposed by the collectivity on individual fertility behavior through mores, laws, sterotypes, and other means, and which is apparent in widely varying historical situations. The 10 articles concern Malthusian problems in archaic societies; voluntary birth control in the Roman empire; aspects of birth limitation in traditional Jewish society; Islam and contraception; social pressure and material incentives in Chinese demographic policy; social aspects of procreation in the Soviet Union; social aspects of precreation in Rumania and Hungary; procreation and education; attitudes of family planning personnel toward contraception in Belgium; and the role of the UN in family planning.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.