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  1. 1
    091893
    Peer Reviewed

    Childhood blindness: a new form for recording causes of visual loss in children.

    Gilbert C; Foster A; Negrel AD; Thylefors B

    BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1993; 71(5):485-9.

    In London, the International Centre for Eye Health (ICEH), a WHO Collaborating Centre for Blindness Prevention, and WHO have developed a standardized protocol for reporting causes of blindness in children, primarily those in schools for the blind and those attending hospital clinics. There is a section for blind children identified during population-based prevalence surveys. A set of coding instructions and a database for analysis accompany the WHO/PBL Eye Examination Record for Children with Blindness and Low Vision. ICEH and WHO hope the new form will identify preventable and treatable causes of childhood blindness. It will also serve as a mechanism to monitor changing patterns of childhood blindness over time in response to changes in health care services, specific interventions, and socioeconomic development. Further, it will allow eye doctors to assess the requirements of individual children for medical and/or surgical treatment optical correction, and low vision services. Finally, it will give educators the opportunity to assess the educational needs of blind children. The contents of the form include census, personal details, visual assessment, general assessment, previous eye surgery, eye examination (site of abnormality leading to blindness and etiology of blindness), refraction/low vision aid assessment, action needed, prognosis for vision, education, full diagnosis, and names of the examiners. Both ICEH in London, and WHO in Geneva will maintain a centralized data blank. Local ophthalmologists with an interest in pediatric ophthalmology and those assigned to develop the form tested the form while examining about 1600 children in schools for the blind in 4 continents. Ophthalmologists can examine and complete the form on 5-8 children/hour in schools for the blind.
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  2. 2
    072758
    Peer Reviewed

    Accuracy of recall of use of an intrauterine device.

    Nischan P; Thomas DB; Ebeling K

    CONTRACEPTION. 1992 Apr; 45(4):363-8.

    Researchers analyzed interview and physician records' data on 45 women with breast cancer (cases) admitted to the Central Institute of Cancer Research in Berlin, East Germany between November 1982-June 1986 and born in 1983 or later and 194 women (controls) admitted to the Klinikum Berlin-Buch also in East Germany for conditions other than breast cancer to compare recall accuracy in women who had ever used an IUD. These women were drawn from case control study of the relationship between breast cancer and oral contraceptive use was part of the WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Agreement between patient recall and physician records was exceptional for duration of IUD use (p<.001), number of IUD episodes (kappa=0.79), time since 1st IUD and time since last IUD use (p<.001). Agreement rates did not differ between cases and controls. 75% of the women could not name the IUD brand used so the researcher could not examine agreement of brand name. Thus, other than brand name, this study showed that validity of information on IUD use obtained from interviews is significant. In fact, it also pointed out that case control studies probably yield sound relative risk estimates.
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