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Consultation on strategic information and HIV prevention among most-at-risk adolescents. 2-4 September 2009, Geneva. Consultation report.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2010. 65 p.The Consultation on Strategic Information and HIV Prevention among Most-at-Risk Adolescents (MARA) focused on experiences in countries where HIV infection is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), and those who sell sex. The meeting facilitated the exchange of information across regions on country-level data collection regarding MARA; identified ways to use strategic information to improve HIV prevention among MARA; and suggested ways to build support for MARA programming among decision-makers.
Report of the High-level consultation on improvement of sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people in Europe. Report on a WHO meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11-12 December 2006.
Copenhagen, Denmark, WHO, Regional Office for Europe, 2007. 27 p. (EUR/07/5063690)Representatives nominated by the Ministries of Health from 23 Member States of the WHO European Region, the European Commission, the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF-EN) and Lund University attended a two day high-level consultation meeting to evaluate the midterm results of the project "The way forward: a European partnership to promote the sexual and reproductive health and rights of youth" (2004-2007). The situation on the trends in sexual and reproductive health status of young people in the European Union countries was analysed and tools developed by the WHO, IPPF EN and Lund University were presented. Country representatives discussed the draft policy framework on sexual and reproductive health and rights that will be presented in the final meeting of the project in October 2007 and many recommendations were received to prepare the document that would be an important tool for developing national policies and programs in the area of sexual and reproductive health of young people. (author's)
Fighting AIDS: HIV / STI prevention and care activities in a military and peacekeeping setting in Ukraine. Country report.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2004 Feb. 43 p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against AIDS. Case Study 2.)Ukraine has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Eastern Europe. It was first in the region to face an aggressive epidemic among injecting drug users in 1995, and the epidemic now appears to have entered a more generalized phase. The Government of Ukraine responded to HIV at an early stage. Several Presidential Decrees urged the Government to initiate and enhance activities against the epidemics, and mobilize various ministries including the Ministry of Defence. In June 1999 the heads of the Educational Branch in the Preventive Medicine Department of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) met with UNAIDS officials and discussed HIV/AIDS issues in the Ukrainian army. The meeting resulted in an agreement to launch a project on prevention of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ukraine's armed forces. Funds and technical support were provided by UNAIDS, and the Main Educational Department started implementation of the project with the assistance of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The project focused on the development of training and educational materials, integration of education about HIV/STI prevention in the curricula of the Humanitarian Institute of the National Academy of Defence and the Kharkiv Tank Forces Institute, and on cascade training (cascading information down to all levels of rank and file) of the officers and soldiers in five field garrisons. Around 20,000 servicemen were trained in the first phase. The second phase of the project will run to early 2004 and the army headquarters are applying for resources from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and AIDS in order to strengthen these activities. During the second phase of the project 350,000 servicemen are to be targeted with comprehensive information and education relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs. (excerpt)
Comparative performances, under laboratory conditions, of seven pyrethroid insecticides used for impregnation of mosquito nets. [Performances comparées, dans des conditions de laboratoire, de sept insecticides à base de pyréthroïde utilisés pour l'imprégnation des moustiquaires]
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 May; 81(5):324-333.Objective: To compare the efficacy of seven pyrethroid insecticides for impregnation of mosquito nets, six currently recommended by WHO and one candidate (bifenthrin), under laboratory conditions. Methods: Tests were conducted using pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Knock-down effect, irritancy and mortality were measured using standard WHO cone tests. Mortality and bloodfeeding inhibition were also measured using a baited tunnel device. Findings: For susceptible A. gambiae, alpha-cypermethrin had the fastest knock-down effect. For resistant A. gambiae, the knockdown effect was slightly slower with alpha-cypermethrin and much reduced following exposure to the other insecticides, particularly bifenthrin and permethrin. For susceptible C. quinquefasciatus, the knock-down effect was significantly slower than in A. gambiae, particularly with bifenthrin, and no knock-down effect was observed with any of the pyrethroids against the resistant strain. Bifenthrin was significantly less irritant than the other pyrethroids to susceptible and resistant A. gambiaebut there was no clear ranking of pyrethroid irritancy against C. quinquefasciatus. In tunnels, all insecticides were less toxic against C. quinquefasciatusthan against A. gambiaefor susceptible strains. For resistant strains, mortality was significant with all the pyrethroids with A. gambiaebut not with C. quinquefasciatus. Inhibition of blood-feeding was also high for susceptible strains of both species and for resistant A. gambiaebut lower for resistant C. quinquefasciatus; bifenthrin had the greatest impact. Conclusions: Efficacy for impregnation of mosquito nets against A. gambiae was greatest with alpha-cypermethrin. Bifenthrin is likely to have a significant comparative advantage over other pyrethroids in areas with pyrethroid resistance because of its much stronger impact on the nuisance mosquito, C. quinquefasciatus, despite its slower knock-down effect and irritancy. Selection of pyrethroids for mosquito vector control and personal protection should take into account the different effects of these insecticides, the status of pyrethroid resistance in the target area, and the importance of nuisance mosquitoes, such as C. quinquefasciatus. (author's)
Paper presented at the Nineteenth Session of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy, Geneva, February 1-2, 1972. 40 pFamily planning is an integral part of the health care of the family and has a striking impact of the health of the mother and children. Many aspects of family planning care require the personnel, skills, techniques, and facilities of health services and is thus of concern to UNICEF and WHO. Once individual governments have determined basic matters of family planning policy and methods, UNICEF and WHO can respond to requests for assistance on a wide range of activities, with the primary goal being the promotion of health care of the family. Emphasis will be placed on achieving this by strengthening the basic health services that already have a solid foundation in the community. The past experience of UNICEF and WHO should provide valuable guidance for assistance to the health aspects of family planning, particularly as they relate to the planning and evaluation of programs; organization and administration; public education; the education and training of all medical personnel; and the coordination of family health activities both inside and outside the health sector. The review recommends that UNICEF and WHO first regard the capacity of the host country to absorb aid and maintain projects, and that specific family planning activities, such as the provision of supplies, equipment, and transport, be introduced only when the infrastructure is actually being expanded. Capital investment should be viewed in relation to the government's ability to meet budgetary and staff requirements the new facilities demand.
The four global women's conferences 1975-1995: historical perspective. [Los cuatro congresos mundiales de la mujer 1975-1995: perspectiva histórica]
New York, New York, United Nations, Dept. of Public Information, 2000 May. 5 p.This paper presents the historical perspective of the four global women's conferences conducted between 1975 and 1995. The conferences aimed to unite the international community in elevating the cause of gender equality to the very center of the global agenda. The efforts undertaken have gone through several phases and transformations, from exclusive attention to developmental needs to the recognition of essential contributions to the entire development process. The conference held in Mexico City (1975) highlighted the development of goals, effective strategies and plan of action for the advancement of women. The Copenhagen Conference (1980) reviewed and appraised the 1975 World Plan of Action. Equal access to education, employment opportunities, and adequate health care services were pinpointed where specific, highly focused action was essential. The birth of global feminism was recognized during the Nairobi Conference (1985). Lastly, the Beijing Conference (1995) discussed the fundamental transformation achieved by the other conferences and explored other problems and their possible solutions recognizing the essence of women's empowerment and advancement of women in the 21st century. A special session to review the progress since the Beijing Conference was convened in New York, 5-9 June 2000, under the theme "Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century."
Development in Practice. 1999 Feb; 9(1-2):175-8.This paper considers the results of a gender review of Oxfam/Great Britain's work in Uganda that sought to determine what gender approaches had been adopted (theoretically and actually) and how they could be improved. After a desk review in the UK, a team conducted a field visit to Uganda where an initial conventional approach that "targeted" women had given way to efforts to conduct an in-depth gender analysis of programs. The team noted that the post of Gender and Development Program Officer in Uganda had been eliminated so that the entire staff would be responsible for addressing gender concerns. The review revealed that the staff exhibited a poor understanding of key concepts, was unwilling to challenge traditional roles and attitudes, deployed ad hoc initiatives, and failed to interact with appropriate local organizations. This situation occurred because of a lack of systematic procedures for planning and evaluation. Also, the fact that there was no extra compensation for staff living in harsh and insecure conditions discouraged female staff from seeking or maintaining positions in the field. Oxfam needs to develop a clear and binding strategy that will spell out the type of social change the Uganda program is seeking, integrate gender concerns, and implement monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. There is also a need to adopt a more political approach to gender concerns by taking advantage of opportunities and confronting attendant risks.
[Effectiveness of the expanded programme on immunization] Efficacite du programme elargi de vaccination
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1986; 39(2):161-70.The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) aims at the reduction of morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases through the provision of immunization to women and children. Program effectiveness is measured by immunization coverage and by incidence of the target diseases. Information on these 2 indicators is provided by national programs to WHO Regional Offices and forwarded to EPI, Geneva. Although considerable progress has been made in delivering vaccines to the children of the world, the potential impact of immunization remains unfulfilled. In the developing world (excluding China) less than 40% of infants receive a 3rd dose of DPT or polio vaccines, and coverage with measles vaccine remains at only 1/2 of that level. Over 3 million children still die each year from measles, neonatal tetanus and pertussis, while over a 1/4 of a million children are crippled by poliomyelitis. In the European Region the coverage goal of the EPI has been largely achieved. In the American Region dramatic progress has been made since the beginning of EPI. The South-East Asia Region has made steady progress since the start of the EPI. The Western Pacific Region is the most heterogenous within WHO, with countries ranging in size from the smallest to the largest in the world. Levels of socioeconomic development and immunization coverage also differ widely. Nevertheless, satisfactory progress is observed in the majority of countries. In the African Region, the problems of drought, famine and civil unrest are extensive. Despite these problems, progress has been satisfactory and exemplary in a few countries. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region, progress in increasing immunization coverage has been remarkably good. It will be difficult, however, to improve immunization services for the remainder of the decade in a number of countries currently ravaged by drought, famine and civil unrest.
Evaluation report to UNFPA on UNFPA-supported United Nations Demographic Training and Research Centre.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, Oct. 1977. 159 p.UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) gives support to 6 UN Domographic Training and Research Centres (IIPS, CELADE, CDC, RIPS, IFORD, AND CEDOR). An evaluation of these centers addressed these points: 1) description and analysis of the objectives for each center as well as of the strategy for the total program and of the interrelationship between these objectives and the overall strategy; 2) description and problem oriented analysis of the center's programs including legal arrangements, institutional framework, planned and actual activities, resources, and funding; 3) description and analysis of the achievements by each center of its objectives; 4) description and analysis of the present and future role of each center for the achievement of the overall strategy. The International Institute for Population Studies (IIPS) gives adequate training to its personnel, but it needs to require minimum standards of knowledge of mathematics and statistics; a standard English test should be applied before admission. There is also a lack of opportunity for field work. At Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), training should provide more opportunities in studying interrelationships between population and socioeconomic variables, and put less emphasis on technical subjects, such as mathematics and statistics. The Cairo Demographic Centre (CDC) should continue to recruit the majority of its students from the Arab countries. The Centre should be more demanding in this recruitment and admission policies and procedures should be standardized. CDC should develop a specific policy on grades and on the conditions under which a candidate may not receive a diploma or degeee. The Mission recommends that the Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS) strengthen its field work program, coordinate its curriculum to avoid overlap of coursework, and that the UN contribute funds for all activities forming part of the agreement. At both Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques (IFORD) and Centre D'Etudes Demographiques ONU-Roumanie (CEDOR), the mission concludes that both centers are too small to be viable, and feels that under ideal conditions it would have been preferable to have both population development and technical demography taught in one and the same institution. Closer collaboration between the 2 centers is recommended. There is a dire need for training and research in French speaking developing countries.
[Unpublished] 1979. Paper prepared for the Technical Workshop on the Four Country Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Projects, New York, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 1979. (Workshop Paper No. 2) 10 p.An integrated health care system which combined the maternal/child health with other services was undertaken in the Yozgat Province of Turkey from 1972-77. The objective was to train midwives in MCH/FP and orient their activities to socialization. The first 2 years of the program was financed by UNFPA. 52 health stations were completed and 18 more are under construction. The personnel shortage stands at 33 physicians, 21 health technicians, 30 nurses, and 67 midwives. Yozgat Province is 75% rural and has about a 50% shortage of roads. The project was evaluated initially in 1975 and entailed preproject information studies, baseline health practices and contraceptive use survey, dual record system, and service statistics reporting. The number of midwives, who are crucial to the program, have increased from an average 115 in 1975 to 160 in 1979. Supervisory nurses are the link between the field and the project managers. Their number has decreased from 17 to 6. Until 1977 family planning service delivery depended on a handful of physicians who distributed condoms and pills. The Ministry of Health trained women physicians in IUD insertions. The crude death rate in 1976 was 13.2/1000; the crude birth rate was 42.7/1000. The crude death rate in 1977 was 14.8/1000; birth rate, 39.9/1000. Common child diseases were measles, enteritis, bronchopneumonia, otitis, and parasitis.
In: Connor E, Mullan F, ed. Community oriented primary care: new directions for health services delivery. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1983. 250-7.Education of doctors for community oriented primary care (COPC) in the Netherlands is described. A basic doctor has 6 years of training and is prepared for further specialty training in general practice (currently only 1 year), clinical specialty (4-6 years), and social medicine (4 years). After high school, a weighted lottery is performed. Out of 6000 interested graduates, 1950 are placed in medical faculties. Only straight A students have a double chance. In 1970, the Dutch government started a new medical faculty that was community oriented and emphasized primary health care. For this, the educational system of this facility had to be different. A problem-oriented system was adopted. In 1974, an integrated innovative curriculum was started. The basic philosophy emphasizes a preference for orienting medical education to primary care. By the 5th and 6th year, students must acquire: 1) practical experience in solving primary care problems; and 2) the ability to recognize unusual problems and develop appropriate referral. During the 1st 4 years the problem-solving process is encountered; the problems must be increasingly complex; and the teaching program progresses from the general to the specific. The teaching program should begin with health problems and proceed to consider normal and abnormal functioning. The original arrangement for hospital internships is not yet feasible. It seems that hospital organization is too rigid to combine with a less department-linked program. Evaluation is mandatory. A theoretical final M.D. exam was designed. The World Health Organization (WHO) held a meeting at which key figures from 18 selected schools were brought together. From this meeting, it was agreed that a network would be developed linking schools. The network members met again and formulated objectives.