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International Studies. 2007; 44(1):23-37.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) exemplify the enduring commitment and potential of the United Nations to serve as a catalyst for collective action in the cause of equitable and all round development of all nations and peoples. Indeed, the restructuring of the development apparatus as an important element of the larger challenge of the UN reform has acquired greater urgency in view of the manifest need to push for timely implementation of MDGs. Strengthening the role of the Economic and Social Council is a tricky issue that apparently puts the industrially advanced countries and the developing countries in opposite camps. Among the issues on which both the European developed and the Asian developing countries have showed interest, the idea of air ticket levy for raising resources for development is worthy of being pursued vigorously as part of the UN reform negotiations. Likewise, there is more than sufficient potential for old European Union countries like Germany and fast developing countries like China to bridge gaps in their policy objectives and work as partners in strengthening the multilateral mechanism dedicated to development purposes. (author's)
WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy, September 28 - October 1, 2006: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 Oct 18. 26 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ACI-323)WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority ofwhom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which allowed RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. RPM Plus Senior Program Associate, Edgar Barillas, traveled to Sondalo from September 28 to October 1 to facilitate the TB pharmaceutical management session at the WHO course for TB Consultants in Sondalo, Italy. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002.  p. (UNICEF Fact Sheet)The world’s young people are threatened by HIV/AIDS. Of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS, more than a quarter are aged 15 to 24. Half of all new infections now occur in young people. Young people are a vital factor in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS, and many of them are playing a significant role in the fight against it. But they, and children on the brink of adolescence, urgently need the skills, knowledge and services to protect themselves against becoming infected with HIV. (excerpt)
Sex work and HIV / AIDS. UNAIDS technical update. [Prostitución y VIH/SIDA. Actualización técnica de ONUSIDA]
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 Jun. 19 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)This Technical Update focuses on the challenges involved in the protection of sex workers (and, subsequently, the general population) from HIV infection, and discusses the key elements of various effective interventions. Significantly higher rates of HIV infection have been documented among sex workers and their clients, compared with most other population groups. Though sex work is often a significant means of HIV infection entering the general population, studies indicate that sex workers are among those most likely to respond positively to HIV/STI prevention programmes—for example, by increasing their use of condoms with clients. This document explores the many issues involved in providing care and support for sex workers, preventing entry into sex work, and reducing risk and vulnerability through programmes at the individual, community and government levels. (author's)
[Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
[Sexually abusive behavior. IPPF's Daphne project] Comportamiento sexual abusivo. Proyecto Daphne de IPPF.
DIALOGOS. 2000 Jul-Sep; 44(24):21-4.A 1999 joint study by the Family Planning Associations of Italy, Estonia, and the Flemish region of Belgium in collaboration with the Department of Criminology of the University of Louvain to determine the prevalence and nature of sexually abusive behavior in youth residences and develop protective strategies is described. The Daphne Initiative was created in 1996 by the European Parliament to promote participation by nongovernmental organizations and private associations in prevention of sexual violence against children, adolescents, and women. In this context, the European Network of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1999 initiated a study of sexual abuse in residences for youth. Its objective was to explore the possibility of developing strategies oriented to educators and directors for prevention of sexually abusive behavior in residences. Several experimental studies in Europe have indicated that 15 to 20% of sexual aggressors had spent part of their youth in residential institutions. The report describes the activities and philosophy behind the joint study. The work began with an analysis of related legislation in each of the three countries and interviews with directors and educators at residences. The work ends by discussing several elements of secondary prevention that should be included in a plan of action: training in sexuality and sexually abusive behavior, selection of residents, selection of residence personnel, development of the plan of action by parents and institutional personnel as well as residents, sharing information, respect for the victim and the accused, identification of all the parties involved, team decision making, the juridical principle of reparation, and adequate contact with police and other authorities.
In: Catholic voices at one with the Cairo consensus. A dossier prepared for the five-year review of the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development, [compiled by] Catholics for a Free Choice. Washington, D.C., Catholics for a Free Choice, . 7 p..This paper presents a chronology of church action to block the Cairo implementation from December 1994 to August 1998. The Cairo Program of Action emphasizes the right of all couples and individuals to decide freely on the number, timing and spacing of their children and to exercise free and informed choices. Since then, religious groups have blocked efforts to implement the Cairo agreements which include sex education and the HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Although not comprehensive, this paper enumerates incidents that were publicly made by the religious group in obstructing the Cairo plan giving a citation of the relevant section from the Cairo Program of action at the end of each chronology entry. Despite agreement between Cairo delegates and the Catholic church during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, religious leaders continued to obstruct advancement of the Program of Action and making it harder for the Cairo vision to be realized.
WORLD HEALTH. 1998 Nov-Dec; 51(6):26-7.Young people must be given opportunities to participate in decision-making at all levels. Some UN organizations have acknowledged the importance of such participation in a wide range of activities, including caring for the environment, teaching each other about life skills, and encouraging peers to adopt healthy behaviors. A direct commitment to young people's participation is also clear in international conferences where young people have been asked to speak. However, youth participation in such conferences is far from enough, for young speakers are typically limited to only telling about their own experiences. Rather, young people need to be encouraged and allowed to make recommendations which will be given serious consideration. Especially to reduce new HIV infections and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS, young people need to be involved in planning, making decisions, and conducting and evaluating relevant policies and programs at the local, national, and international levels. Examples are presented of political, media, and sexual and reproductive health programs involving youth in Zambia, the UK, the US, Malawi, and Thailand.
[Forum: "Voice of European parliaments": to go beyond Cairo plus 5] Forum: "Voix de parlements en Europe": pour depasser le Caire plus 5.
EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 1998 Oct; (43):3.Representatives of the parliaments of nine European countries, six African, Asian, and Latin American countries, and members of the European parliament met in Brussels in September 1998 with members of nongovernmental organizations and international journalists to reaffirm their support of the Cairo Plan of Action and improve future collaboration. A UN evaluation of progress in meeting the goals of the 1994 Plan of Action after 5 years will be conducted in mid-1999. The parliamentarians in Brussels declared their shock and consternation that information and access to reproductive health services remain insufficient in a large part of the world. They called on parliamentarians of the industrialized world to prepare for the 10-year evaluation. The parliamentarians encouraged creation of study groups on population, sustainable development, and reproductive health, wherever they do not already exist, and called for organization of regional groups and creation of a world network of parliamentarians. They insisted on the need to continue efforts begun at the Cairo Conference, incorporating modifications ratified by the 1995 World Conference on Women. Participants felt that no part of the world should be excluded from the process. They demanded that reproductive health projects be included as essential components of all development projects.
Ukraine infectious disease program planning visit, a joint mission by USAID, BASICS, PATH, and CDC, April 14-26, 1997, Kiev, Ukraine.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. , 7,  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)This trip report concerns the joint visit during April 14-26, 1997, of consultants from USAID, BASICS, PATH, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Ukraine. The trip aimed to begin development of an assistance program for strengthening local health management information systems (HMIS) and to gain Mission support for a multi-year health information system reform program beyond 1997. The Mission suggested a program for strengthening the Ukraine's Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Oblast Sanitary and Epidemiologic Surveillance (SES) capacity to control infectious diseases. The MOH is in the process of health program and personnel reforms. SES operates at the oblast and rayon levels, which report infectious diseases to the national level. The state SES and the Center for Medical Services compile national health statistics. The new HMIS is based on BASICS HMIS reform activities in other countries of the former Soviet Union and the USAID/PATH experience with Ukraine diphtheria control data systems. The trip team met with the USAID Regional Mission, senior officials at the MOH and State SES, several national institutes involved with HMIS, a UNICEF representative, and an HMIS donor. The trip team visited one rayon in Kievskaya Oblast, and several consultants visited Zhitomyr Oblast SES. The trip team met with USAID in Kiev. Consultants met with MOH and vaccine donors, at which time it was reported that there were deficits in EPI and other vaccines for 1997. The Ukraine is facing a shortage of vaccines because the Canadian donor will no longer donate vaccines. Logistics on vaccines is difficult to obtain because supplies come directly from Russia and are not routinely reported in stock balances at the national level. The UNICEF consultant reported faulty cold storage facilities. The HMIS information flow is tedious, error-prone, and useless for planning or decision making.
HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL. 1996 Sep; 11(3):219-26.This paper reviews 10 years of experience in using health goals, targets, and objectives as a planning mechanism. The US was the first country to develop national health goals in 1980. In 1985, the World Health Organization (WHO) produced a defined set of "Targets for Health for All." This review includes the experiences in the US, Australia, New Zealand, England and Wales, and the WHO Regional Office for Europe. These countries used different approaches in defining targets and in achieving the defined targets. Each country's approaches are described. The WHO uses goals and targets in order to define differences in health status between populations and to reduce these differences. Better data are now available for improving the understanding of the personal, economic, environmental, social, and health service factors associated with health. Monitoring of defined targets in the US over a 10-year period has resulted in more improvements in targeted areas than nontargeted areas. In 1988 Australia established national targets. Targets in Australia influenced the formulation of its first national health policy. A stronger infrastructure for health promotion was developed. The evidence that links objective setting to health improvement is not readily available. It appears that target setting may result in a focus on a comprehensive health policy, changes in resource allocation, and methods and structures for improving population health. All countries were concerned about greater efficiency in health system investment. Wales is developing less emotional methods for decision making about health services. The US spent more time on data collection than on implementation. Australia was preoccupied with health issues where there were data. A balance between these two approaches is desirable. New Zealand's program priorities and resource allocation changed with changes in politics. Health goals should be used to guide and measure the results of health system investments.
POPULI. 1996 Mar; 23(1):9-10.Members of the European Commission on Women are concerned that the European Union (EU) is failing to play an adequate role in financing the implementation of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development's (ICPD) Program of Action. It was observed in a Commission report quoted in the World Population Foundation NGO Newsletter that two years after the ICPD, progress has been very disappointing, both globally and in terms of the efforts made to realize accepted goals. The commission is drafting a resolution calling for more joint financing of population and development programs and for nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to be given more direct access to EU initiatives and funding. The resolution will be voted upon in the commission and tentatively in June in the European Parliament. Adoption of the resolution by the European Parliament will affirm the following beliefs: that population policies must be an integral part of economic, social, and cultural development, with their main objective being to improve the quality of life for everyone and to preserve it for future generations; that freedom of choice regarding reproduction is a fundamental human right; and that women's access to health services, reproductive health, and family planning remains inadequate.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995.  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)A specialist of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) assisted in developing the agenda for and participated in a meeting in Geneva designed to develop plans for introducing VVMs on oral polio vaccine (OPV). Representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), UNICEF, and Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Support Project (BASICS)/ Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) participated in the discussions. The meeting served to update all agencies involved with OPV delivery about VVMs and to identify what actions are needed as well as the parties responsible for the global introduction of vaccines with VVMs. In the summer of 1995, Tanzania will be hosting a pilot project of introducing VVMs with OPVs. Other potential pilot sites include Swaziland and Vietnam. Discussion of pilot activities focused on their purpose, resources available for establishing and monitoring them, and the appropriate number of pilot countries. There were also discussions of a framework for global introduction of VVMs, potential costs associated with VVMs, the effect on vaccine forecasting, and training materials. There were sessions on the organization of the GPV, vaccine supply and quality, the view from Sudan and Indonesia, and human and financial resources. Meeting participants agreed on follow-up actions: continue to work with international OPV supplies, begin to approach national OPV producers to lay the groundwork for use beginning in 1996, limit pilot activities to 4-5 countries (1-2 countries only receiving a packet of information and no technical assistance), develop a package of introduction materials, and develop a briefing sheet on VVMs.
PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):26-8.Despite much time and effort, the Irish Family Planning Association (FPA) has had to abandon several of its projects under its 5-year plan, due to severe financial strains and political opposition. In 1990, the Irish FPA embarked on a new initiative, the Challenges Project of the IPPF. The FPA drafted a strategic plan, but factors outside the strategic planning process have frustrated the efforts to implement the plan. One such factor is the perilous state of finances of the FPA. The FPA has seen a decline in condom sales, and the government continues to refuse payment for indigent clients who receive free clinical services from FPA. In addition to a decline in income, FPA was prosecuted in May 1990 for selling a condom from its stand located in a large record store in Dublin -- a place frequented by young people. In February 1991, the government again prosecuted FPA for the same offense. This time, the FPA went on the political offensive and succeeded in winning an admission from Ireland's prime minister that the current laws on the distribution of condoms were outdated. The government's proposal for change, however, has been disappointing. Predictably, these financial and political obstacles have disrupted the implementation of the 5-year initiative. Having left the legal ordeal behind, the FPA's planning committee has begun to meet again to discuss the implementation of the program. Sadly, the committee has had to revise or completely discard many of its most ambitious projects, since most of the organization's resources are currently being used to prevent bankruptcy. Despite these problems, the organization looks towards the future with optimism.
International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.
[Unpublished] 1991. , 64 p.The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1986. [ix], 130 p.This publication is a practical guide to help those family planning, or planned parenthood, associations (FPAs) who wish to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. Published as part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Youth Year 1985, it is hoped this information will be relevant to FPAs and other organizations in both developed and developing countries. The introduction describes IPPF Europe's Regional Adolescent Services Project (RASP) (1982-1985) that attempted to provide family planning services closely tailored to the needs and expectations of adolescents. Section 2 looks at adolescent sexuality and contraception . Section 3 examines several actual contraceptive and counseling programs for adolescents. Section 4 summarizes service provision. Section 5 tells how to set up a contraceptive/counseling service for adolescents. Section 6 describes new projects. Section 7 discusses opposition. The appendices contain the project questionnaire, the IPPF policy on youth, and a statement on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
PEOPLE. 1987; 14(2):33.3 agencies in Turkey are placing family planning centers in factory settings: the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT), the Confederation of Trade Unions (TURK-IS), and the Family Health and Planning Foundation, a consortium of industrialists. The FPAT started with 27 factories 7 years ago, educating and serving 35,000 workers. The 1st work with management, then train health professionals in family planning, immunization, infant and child care, maternal health, education, motivation techniques, record-keeping and follow-up. Worker education is then begun in groups of 50. New sites are covered on a 1st-come-1st-served basis. This program is expected to be successful because newcomers to city jobs are beginning to see the need for smaller families, and accept family planning. TURK-IS has conducted seminars for trade union leaders and workers' representatives and provided contraceptives in 4 family planning clinics and in 20 hospitals run by Social Security, a workers' health organization. They have distributed condoms in factories and trained nurses to insert IUDs in factory units. The businessmen have opened family planning services in 15 factories, with support from the Pathfinder Fund, and hope to make the project self-supporting.
Reproductive science and contraceptive development: recommendations to international assistance agencies.
In: Rockefeller Foundation. Bellagio 4 population conference. A conference sponsored by The Rockefeller Foundation, Ulvshale, Denmark, June 7-9, 1977. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, November 1977. p. 63-77Focus is on the findings of a 2-year study of reproduction science and contraceptive development that are of particular relevance to the work of international asssitance agencies. The first 3 of 20 recommendations made in the Report's Summary of Findings and Recommendations are especially important. The recommendations are: 1) a variety of safe and effective methods of fertility regulation beyond those now available is urgently needed, and there must be increased efforts ranging from fundamental research on the reproductive processes to targeted activities in contraceptive development; 2) more attention must be given to studies of intermediate and long-term safety of methods yet to be developed; and 3) by 1980, allocations for research in the reproductive sciences related to contraceptive development and evaluation by governmental agencies should comprise substantially higher proportions of total expenditures for medical research and development assistance than is now the case. Worldwide expenditures for the reproductive sciences and contraceptive development reached a peak in 1974 and have since decreased in 1975 and 1976. Clearly, the amount of relevant research being supported throughout the world has declined at a time when the promise of major new developments is extremely high and when bringing new products to market calls for large expenditures of funds to assure their efficacy and safety. Additional focus is given to institutional and human resources, contraceptive development in the public sector, regulation and ethics of human experimentation, the special conference on contraceptive development in the public sector that was held April 27-29, 1977, rationale for support of reproductive science and contraceptive research, institutional arrangements for research in reproduction and contraceptive development, financial requirements, and new funding mechanisms.