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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Are the health Millennium Development Goals appropriate for Eastern Europe and Central Asia?

    Rechel B; Shapo L; McKee M

    Health Policy. 2005 Sep; 73(3):339-351.

    This article argues that the health-related Millennium Development Goals do not appropriately address the challenges faced by the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. By ignoring adult mortality, their achievement would result in relatively small gains in life expectancy. To achieve greater impact, policies in this region must supplement the classical Millennium Development Goals with indicators of adult health, in particular cardiovascular diseases and external causes of death. In addition, countries, with support from the international community, must improve the quality of vital registration data to enable more accurate estimation of the disease burden. (author's)
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  2. 2

    The intricacy of demography and politics: the case of population projections.

    Martinot-Lagarde P

    [Unpublished] 2001. Presented at the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, IUSSP, 24th General Conference, Salvador, Brazil, August 18-24, 2001. 17 p.

    The purpose of this paper is to sketch the common lines of development of both the scientific elaboration of world population projections and the international political debate that prepared the ground for such projections and encouraged their development. A partial history of the elaboration of world population projections has already been written. International population debates from the XIX° and XX° centuries are also under scrutiny. But the link between these two developments has not been fully established. The link between projections and politics work both ways. In one direction, projections can contribute to a rationalization of government in the area of economic development, urban planning and so on. They provide societies with a partial view of their future. In the other direction, population projections cannot be undertaken without the help and support of governments and major international organizations. They rely on accurate and detailed censuses. They are costly and time consuming. At both end of the spectrum, there is a need for a global consensus not only within the scientific community and political arenas for population projections to be computed, received and considered as legitimate. More than many other instruments of demographic analysis, the history of world population projections demonstrate these linkages. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Report. European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population: Integrated Strategies, February 12-13, 1986, the Hague, Netherlands.

    European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population

    [The Hague, Netherlands, European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population, 1986.] 109 p.

    This report summarizes the consensus of the European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women, and Population. They have had the opportunity to examine integrated approaches to several of the world's most crucial issues of social development. Their co-sponsors, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the UN Population FUND, have been active in promoting integrated strategies to provide health for all, survival and well-being of mothers and children, family planning, and full and equal participation of men and women in the development process. But a great deal more remains to be done. The parliamentarians subscribe to the view that the effectiveness of the UN system will increase considerably in pursuit of commonly defined goals and objectives and action programs as defined in various conferences and meetings. Common action plans are available; the challenge now is to engage in a combined and concerted effort to implement these plans. Their role as parliamentarians is to implement the recommendations of today and to build up support, both within the governmental and the private sectors. Public perception tends to overlook the significant contributions the UN and related bodies are making to improve conditions of life and well-being the world over. The main tasks all have agreed on are 1) encouraging UN agencies and organizations concerned with social development to work together closely and to and enhance the effectiveness of their programs; 2) focusing public attention on the interrelatedness of issues relating to health, mother and child survival and care, the role and status of women, and freedom of choice for both men and women in family matters; 3) seeking greater support for social development programs of the UN, which ultimately strengthens the UN as a whole, through increased governmental contributions and better public understanding; and 4) maintaining and strengthening their own commitment through dialogues among themselves as parliamentarians.
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  4. 4

    [Population and development: the principal stakes five years after the Cairo Conference] Population et developpement: les principaux enjeux cinq ans apres la Conference du Caire.

    Lery A; Vimard P

    Paris, France, Centre Francais sur la Population et Developpement [CEPED], Laboratoire Population-Environnement, 2001 Jun. [6], 220 p. (Documents et Manuels du CEPED No. 12)

    The UN General Assembly has evaluated the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development’s program of action adopted in Cairo. This document pulls together some of the papers drafted during that evaluation conducted during June 30-July 2, 1999. It is comprised of the following 16 chapters: population, environment, and development; rural settlement, agricultural change, and property administration; urban growth and city management; international migration; fertility decline, human development, and population policies; young child mortality; reproductive health and AIDS; the spread of AIDS and its impact upon population growth; education policies in developing countries; recent employment trends and perspectives; the current context and policies to reduce poverty and inequity; gender, population, and development; the French perspective upon the environment; the stakes and politics of demographic aging in France; international migration dynamics in France; and poverty and exclusion in modern society. A different author wrote each chapter.
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  5. 5

    Final report of the NGO Forum on ICPD Plus 5.

    NGO Forum on ICPD Plus 5 (1999: The Hague)

    [Unpublished] 1999 [35] i.

    This paper reports on the national and regional consultations and the 2-day debate at The Hague. This nongovernmental organization (NGO) Forum final report was presented at the Hague Forum to the Commission on Population and Development in March, and to the UN General Assembly Special Session in New York. The report related clearly what NGOs believe should be included in their own agendas, and those of others, for future action. The debate at the NGO Forum was divided into five substantive areas. These included the discussions on the current situation, examples of good practice, obstacles to resource mobilization, obstacles to effective advocacy, and recommendations for future actions.
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  6. 6

    You are the vanguard of Cairo. NGO / Youth Fora.

    Clinton HR

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):6-7.

    Everyone has a role to play in realizing the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action. The concerns of young people presented at the Youth Forum will hopefully be kept at the forefront of Cairo+5 deliberations. Innumerable women around the world in every country struggle daily to care for and education their children, to gain greater control over their lives, and to contribute to the progress being made in their communities and countries. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) and youth fora of the Cairo+5 proceedings demonstrate that the discussions about global challenges and their solutions are no longer being held and decided upon solely by government officials and policy-makers behind closed doors. Rather, NGOs have finally taken their proper place in the debate, to help ordinary citizens be heard on the critical issues which affect their lives. Efforts must also continue to be made to reach out to young people, as well as fathers, sons, and husbands.
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  7. 7

    A wake-up call. NGO / Youth Fora.

    Inayatullah A

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):8.

    The client first, informed choice, and quality of care approach to reproductive health is being applied around the world, energized by individuals, communities, and organizations. There has been unprecedented support during the Cairo+5 global review process of the centrality of youth in the process, for by 2000, approximately 1 billion people aged 15-24 years will either be in or entering their reproductive years, the largest generation ever in this age cohort. These young people face considerable reproductive health risks and poor access to information and services. In addition, 25% of children are assaulted or abused, and 20% live in poverty. The Youth Forum recommendations will help to ensure that the reproductive health and social development needs of the world's youth are properly met. However, to fully implement the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action, donor governments need to meet their funding commitments.
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  8. 8

    The next step. Youth Forum.

    Youth Forum, ICPD Plus 5 (1999: The Hague)

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):9-10.

    Almost 20% of the world's population is aged 15-24 years. Since young people's needs are different from those of adults, they should play a key role in population and development issues. In an attempt to ensure that young people are involved in all stages of the implementation of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action, the Youth Forum was held in The Hague, Netherlands, during February 6-7, 1999, just before the Hague Forum. Bringing together 132 young people from youth and other organizations from 111 countries, the Youth Forum provided young people with the opportunity to review achievements made since the ICPD, express their views and concerns, and offer recommendations to governments, the UN system, other intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and other young people. Key themes and issues considered during the forum were education, individual development, sexual and reproductive health, violence, human rights, gender, governments and democracy, and youth participation. Young people have been sharing their experiences and innovative ideas to strengthen their ability to contribute to the implementation of the ICPD program of action at the grassroots level.
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  9. 9

    Setting the standard.

    Van Nieumenhoven J

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):12.

    The high rate of population growth is one of the major challenges for the international community and politicians in all countries of the world, with demographic studies indicating that the world population continues to grow and will double before the mid-21st century. Population growth, environmental problems, and poverty are strongly interconnected. High population growth has negative consequences for sustainable development. Without sustainable human development, the rate of population growth will not slow down. Sustained economic growth and poverty alleviation are considered the best ways of reducing the rate of population growth, while women's status must also be improved. Members of Parliament help to implement the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)'s program of action in their home countries, comprising a pressure group which also informs the public of the urgency of population and development problems.
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  10. 10

    Adopting a direction. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    Sakurai S

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):11-2.

    National security, poverty alleviation, and refugees are global issues which all urgently need to be addressed. However, no major issue will be resolved until the population problem is solved. Humankind needs to find a way to live in harmony with the earth and its natural environment. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a program of action outlining practical measures to be taken with regard to population and development. The concepts of reproductive health and women's empowerment were also adopted. The ICPD was in many ways an historic conference which set the future direction for the issues of population and development. The conference program of action must be fully implemented to ensure a healthy future for humankind and the earth. Elected officials must do their best to ensure that the ICPD program of action is successfully implemented.
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  11. 11

    Strengthening of EU policies. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    Sandbaek U

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):13-4.

    Collaborating closely with nongovernmental organizations, the author has been involved in social and human sustainable development since 1989. Since 1994, she has also been a member of the bureau of the European Parliament Working Group on Population, Sustainable Development and Reproductive Health. Established in 1991, the Working Group represents a cross-section of the European Unions' 15 member states and political groups. Membership is open to all interested members of Parliament. With 89 members, the group currently represents almost 14% of the European Parliament. The group is assisted by the UK nongovernmental organizational Marie Stopes International, which has provided the secretariat to the group since its inception. The author describes how the European parliamentary group has contributed to the implementation of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action.
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  12. 12

    A prioritized implementation plan. Malawi. The Hague Forum.

    Thomson HI

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):24.

    Malawi adopted a comprehensive national population policy in March 1994. Following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), that policy was reviewed and found to be consistent with the provisions of the conference program of action. No policy revisions were therefore needed. Despite the lack of trained personnel, weak institutional capacity, and limited funds frustrating the implementation of the national population program, great progress has been made in the area of reproductive health. Malawi believes that the implementation of the national population policy and the ICPD program of action will be facilitated through the involvement of various governmental and nongovernmental institutions in planning and implementing various population sectoral services. Both coordination and the assignment of various responsibilities are needed. More financial and human resources are needed to implement the national population policy and the ICPD program of action.
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  13. 13

    Available, accessible and affordable. Malaysia. The Hague Forum.

    Ismail PZ

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):25.

    While Malaysia already had policies for a balanced, equitable, and sustainable development before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the conference gave Malaysia the chance to pursue specific and more complex issues. Reproductive health services including family planning have been integrated and are available, accessible, and affordable within the existing health care system, both public and private. Since Malaysia's government needs help implementing Cairo's goals, regular consultations are held with advocacy groups, the private sector, and community groups on program design and implementation. Annual grants to nongovernmental organizations are made to ensure that programs and services ultimately reach the various target groups. While Malaysia has made progress implementing the ICPD program of action, it has more to accomplish. Economic conditions leading to a 20% across-the-board budget cut in July 1998 have not adversely affected the country's population and reproductive health programs.
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  14. 14

    Redefining our priorities. Nigeria. The Hague Forum.

    Ali-Gombe A

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):27.

    The recent years of Nigeria's transition to democracy and civil governance led to the imposition of international sanctions against the country. Those sanctions deprived Nigeria of much needed international support and technical assistance to development efforts. Therefore since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Nigeria has not been as successful as it would like to have been in implementing the ICPD program of action. The abrupt withdrawal of donor support adversely affected the country's National Population Program, although the impact would have been worse without the ongoing support of the UNFPA. However, despite these obstacles, some progress has been made in implementing the ICPD program of action in Nigeria, while nongovernmental organizations are being encouraged by donor agencies to develop and implement programs to improve access to reproductive health care services at all levels. The government is working to maintain an available supply of contraceptives. Social goals, women's empowerment, primary health care, HIV/AIDS, funding, and the need to lower fertility levels are discussed.
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  15. 15

    Bringing its results and benefits. Mozambique. The Hague Forum.

    Martins Z

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):26.

    In the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and given the country's high rate of population growth, Mozambique developed a national population policy to facilitate the implementation of the ICPD program of action at the national level, and to contribute to a smoother economic growth and better human development in the country. A fresh approach was used to create this population policy, although introducing a reproductive health perspective was a major challenge. The policy is already yielding some positive results, such as an increase in the level of school enrollment. Moreover, since 1994, the government has continually and gradually increased the percentage of financial resources allocated to social sectors; the percentage of expenditures upon health and education sectors increased from 14% in 1994 to 28% in 1999. The implementation of many of the country's related programs and efforts is the fruit of the partnership developed by various governmental institutions, civil society, the international community, and donors. UNFPA was a key donor for population-related programs in Mozambique.
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  16. 16

    Addressing women concerns. Philippines. The Hague Forum.

    Medalla FM

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):28.

    Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Philippine government has worked closely with nongovernmental and peoples' organizations to push reforms which promote development which is broad-based, sustainable, and focused upon human resources. These initiatives recognized the important role of population and human development, and try to achieve rapid economic growth while protecting the environment. The government worked closely with civil society to draft a medium-term development plan for 1993-98 to improve the quality of life for all Filipinos. Reproductive health will be an important component of the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan for 1999-2004. However, the necessary resources must be mobilized to carry out all elements of the program of action. Since the ICPD, total funding for reproductive health and family planning reached Philippine P 1 billion, of which 58% was provided by the foreign donor community. So far, the Philippine government has been blocked by the Catholic Church from allocating more public funds for contraception. Local government units need to take a more direct and active role in implementing rural health programs in general and reproductive health programs in particular.
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  17. 17

    A reduction of abortions. Russian Federation. The Hague Forum.

    Karelova GN

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):29.

    Largely due to the country's prevailing socioeconomic conditions, the Russian Federation is experiencing complex problems developing its population policies. Since the mid-1990s, Russia's population has decreased, working-age men suffer high rates of mortality, there is below replacement-level fertility, the health of Russian citizens has deteriorated, and STDs are spreading fast. Falling life expectancy and the marked aging of the population and labor force are causing considerable concern. However, despite these challenging conditions, the Russian Federation has been working toward achieving the consensus reached at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Implementation since 1994 of Presidential Program activities has led to a 33% reduction in the number of abortions in Russia and a 20% decrease in maternal mortality caused by abortions. Some educational programs for adolescents and youth are also under way. The government of the Russian Federation considers international cooperation in population issues to be an important activity which complements domestic policies and actions. International support needs to be mobilized in support of Russian reforms related to social and population issues.
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  18. 18

    Some significant achievements. South Africa. The Hague Forum.

    Fraser-Moleketi G

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):30.

    In South Africa, 1 in every 6 people is classified as poor, of whom 95% are African. Poverty is rural-based and concentrated among female-headed households. South Africa has made some progress since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in satisfying the reproductive health needs of youth and women. The country will now continue mobilizing technical and financial resources, strengthening coordination mechanisms and monitoring systems, consolidating and harmonizing national information systems, and building capacity to implement the ICPD program of action and the population policy. Focus will be given to alleviating poverty; addressing the needs of women, the disabled, youth, children, and the elderly; encouraging men to take greater responsibility as heads of households; modifying production and consumption patterns to be environmentally sustainable; and integrating reproductive health and rights into the activities of the country's social, economic, and environmental sectors.
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  19. 19

    Demanding strategic leadership. Sudan. The Hague Forum.

    Garang GD

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):31.

    The establishment of the Sudan National Population Council in the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) showed strong political commitment to implementing the ICPD's program of action at the national level. Sudan has also participated in a number of regional and international meetings which recommended various ways of accelerating the implementation of the program of action. The successful implementation of Sudan's national population policy demands strategic leadership at various levels to ensure that the government, with the active participation of the civil society, work together to design, implement, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate population and development programs. However, the country's longstanding civil war and other manmade and natural disasters have caused ongoing population displacement and resettlement processes, impeding development efforts. Sudan's government is concentrating mainly upon ending the war and addressing its negative consequences upon population development before addressing any development plans and programs. The ICPD quantitative targets will be hard to reach in Sudan given current conditions.
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  20. 20

    Increasing its allocations for development cooperation. Sweden. The Hague Forum.

    Edstrom LO

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):32.

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women, and ICPD+5 are but markers along a more long-term path and process of cooperation and dialogue between the world's governments and civil society organizations. Some groups are involved in implementing action, while others focus upon advocacy or act as watchdogs and pathfinders. Civil society organizations need space and financial resources to work upon their issues. In some areas, the ICPD program of action has not achieved what was expected. In particular, almost all countries have considerable work to do on gender equality, the needs of young people, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and maternal mortality. These issues are discussed. More resources must be allocated to the social services in order to achieve the goals of the Cairo program of action. To that end, the government of Sweden is planning to increase its allocations for development cooperation over the next few years, moving upward from the 0.7 level adopted by the UN.
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  21. 21

    Mindful of the various constraints. Trinidad and Tobago. The Hague Forum.

    Ramsaran M

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):33.

    Recognizing the linkages between population and development, and the need for an integrated approach to development, the government of Trinidad and Tobago in 1989 reformulated the Population Council of Trinidad and Tobago with the mandate to design and implement an explicit population-influencing policy for the country. The draft population policy, developed before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), was revised following the ICPD to accommodate the recommendations of the Cairo Plan of Action. Efforts were made to sensitize government planners from sector ministries to the need to incorporate population into the planning process. Procedures are now being adopted which will enable the Population Council to review the government's medium-term plan before it is finalized to ensure that the programs of sector ministries pay enough attention to population. Population growth, teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, return migration, and population aging are among the issues discussed.
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  22. 22

    Cairo is working. USA. The Hague Forum.

    Taft JV

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):34.

    In the interest of improving the quality of life for all people, the US remains committed to working in a global partnership to achieve the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The ICPD's goals will be promoted through the spread of ideas and knowledge, beginning with education, especially for women and girls. It also involves the leadership of public officials at every level, the work of community-based nongovernmental organizations and religious institutions, the mass media, and neighbor-to-neighbor communication. The Cairo plan recommends the kinds of services all women and families need, through both the public and private sectors, to help ensure that children are born wanted and that they survive and thrive. Although progress is uneven in achieving the goals of the ICPD, and threatened by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and economic crises, the program of action is working. Progress made in the US is reviewed.
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  23. 23

    Empowering women. The solution to a global crisis.

    Brundtland GH

    ENVIRONMENT. 1994 Dec; 36(10):16-20.

    Norway's Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland holds a medical degree from the University of Oslo and a Master's degree in Public Health from Harvard University. She served as Norway's Minister of the Environment during 1974-79, and was elected to the Norwegian parliament in 1977. Brundtland is currently chairperson of the World Commission on Environment and Development with ten years of experience as a physician and twenty years as a politician. An edited version of her keynote address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development is presented. The Minister's experience has taught her that improved life conditions, a greater range of choices, access to unbiased information, and true international solidarity are the signs of human progress. She stresses the need to empower people, educate them, care for their health, and provide them with equal opportunity to achieve economically. Available combined resources need to be used more efficiently through a reformed and better coordinated UN system, policies must be changed, the role and status of women strengthened, safe, comprehensive reproductive health services provided, and measures taken to achieve a balance between population size and sustainable development in keeping with available global resources.
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  24. 24

    Environmental deterioration and population.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume II, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 105-9. (Population Studies No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    In 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, romania, WHO discusses degradation of the environment and population. In developing countries, poor sanitary conditions and communicable diseases are responsible for most illnesses and deaths. Physical, chemical, and psychosocial factors, as well as pathogenic organisms, cause disease and death in developing countries. Variations in individuals and between individuals present problems in determining universally valid norms relating to environment and health. Researchers must use epidemiological and toxicological methods to identify sensitive indicators of environmental deterioration among vulnerable groups, e.g., children and the aged. Changes in demographics and psychosocial, climatic, geographical, geological, and hydrologic factors may influence the health and welfare of entire populations. Air pollution appears to adversely affect the respiratory tract. In fact, 3 striking events (Meuse valley in France [1930], Donora valley in Pennsylvania [US], and London [1952] show that air pollution can directly cause morbidity, especially bronchitis and heart disease, and mortality. Exposure to lead causes irreparable brain damage. Water pollution has risen with industrialization. Use of agricultural chemicals also contribute to water pollution. Repeated exposure to high noise levels can result in deafness. Occupational diseases occur among people exposed to physical, chemical, or biological pollutants at work which tend to be at higher levels than in the environment. Migrant workers from developing countries in Europe live in unsafe and unhygienic conditions. Further, they do not have access to adequate health services. Nevertheless, life expectancy has increased greatly along with urbanization and industrialization. A longer life span and environmental changes are linked with increased chronic diseases and diseases of the aged.
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  25. 25

    The 1992 Earth Summit: background and prospects.

    Strong MF

    INTEGRATION. 1992 Mar; (31):26-31.

    In 1989, the UN General Assembly agreed to sponsor a conference on environment and development and that the Heads of State would attend this 1st ever Earth Summit in June 1992. The planned agenda included making concrete changes to the basis of our economic life, relations between and among nations, and the outlook for the future. This would result in restructuring world priorities. Despite the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the human Environment acknowledging the basic link between environment and development, the environment has deteriorated even further, especially ozone depletion. Yet some governments did set up environmental agencies or ministries, like the US Environmental Protection Agency, but they were not allowed to influence economic policy or the policies and/or practices of major sectoral agencies. These environmental organizations relied too heavily on regulation. The 1992 conference needs to result in a political commitment to place reduction of poverty worldwide as the 1st priority since poverty and underdevelopment are strongly related to destruction of the environment. It is particularly important that developing countries improve their strengths by developing their human resources and institutional capacities (science, technology, management and professional skills) and reduce their vulnerabilities, such as dependence on foreign experts. This can best be achieved if they have access to technology. Moreover they must reduce population growth and reach population stability quickly. The 1992 conference in Brazil should also result in a global partnership based on common interest, mutual need, and shared responsibility. The world ecoindustrial revolution has already begun in some countries, such as Japan which has reduced energy use 40% since 1975. In fact, Japan has proven that environmental improvement can be accomplished with high rates of economic growth.
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