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  1. 1
    188999

    [Toward a new international penal law: some general reflections at the end of the century] Vers un nouveau droit international pénal: quelques réflexions générales à la fin du siècle.

    Aznar Gomez MJ

    In: La protection des droits de l'Homme entre la législation interne et le droit international. Actes du colloque organisé par le Centre de Recherches sur la Coopération Internationale pour le Développement de la Faculté de Droit de Marrakech avec le concours de la Fondation Hanns-Seidel, les 21 et 22 janvier 2000. Rabat, Morocco, Revue Marocaine d'Administration Locale et de Developpement, 2001. 33-56. (Thèmes Actuels No. 26)

    In classic international law, since the individual is separated from the international sphere by the legal fiction of the State, while international law at the dawn of the twenty-first century no longer governs only co-existence among States or the pursuit of their common goals, but also collective interests proper to the international community as a whole, the protection of human rights today is no longer part of the domain reserved to States. At the present time, we find that the individual is the subject of rights and the State is the subject of new duty, namely the respect of human rights. It is possible to identify, through the practice of diplomacy and international jurisprudence, a few general rules, divided into those relating to substance and those relating to procedure. Among the rules relating to substance, it is possible to identify the principles of sovereignty and cooperation, the elementary rules of humaneness and the rule of individual criminal liability. In the area of international sanction mechanisms in international law, the first image we see is that of the courts of Nuremberg and Tokyo. The classic approach to the sanctioning of individuals has really changed only since the end of the 1980's. These sanctions had long been in the hands of the State. In all cases, at least on the normative level, they left in their hands the obligation to obey and to enforce international criminal law, which at the present time is conveyed, among other ways, through the action of international tribunals, bilateral cooperation through international criminal judiciary assistance and multilateral cooperation. Several humanitarian tragedies, such as those in the former Yugoslavia, Iraq and Rwanda, have called into question the effectiveness of these new enforcement and sanction procedures; however the participation of public opinion and non-governmental organizations (NGO's), the political and judicial action of the United Nations have reinforced it.
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  2. 2
    180424
    Peer Reviewed

    The postwar moment: lessons from Bosnia Herzegovina.

    Cockburn C

    Women and Environments International. 2003 Spring; (58-59):6-8.

    There are two main lessons that can be learned from the Bosnian experience. First, it is absolutely vital that a gender analysis from the very outset is placed at the heart of peacekeeping operations or postwar reconstruction. It should be main-streamed so that everyone, not just women, not just gender focal points, but everyone thinks about the gender realities of the war and of peace. Second, local women's NGOs must be consulted, befriended, made partners with the international community and have equal rights in the process. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    103636

    Comments from a Christian perspective on religion and population policy.

    Ruether RR

    IN / FIRE ETHICS 1994; 3(3-4):8-9.

    Religion was a problem at the Conference on Population and Development. Many people consider religion to be anti-modern or reactionary. The conference document describes a global population policy that assumes underlying ethical values but does not articulate these values. The document does not recognize conflicts between values. Secular rationality is a culture shared by an elite, not the masses. Yet the document is intended for them. It cannot empower women, especially poor or non-elite women, to regulate their fertility, if it cannot connect with their religious cultures. The cultural conflict is not just between religious discourse and secular discourse but a deep conflict within religion itself. This conflict is seething in Catholicism and other major religions and manifested itself at the conference. The opposition at the conference hid internal schisms. Christianity has a deep conflict between norms sacralizing the dominant patriarchal social order as the will of God and the order of creation and the prophetic faith that protests against oppressive social patterns. Christianity has had continual surges of renewal that rekindle the prophetic protest tradition on behalf of the poor and the marginalized. The world is in the midst of such a wave in the forms of liberation and feminist theologies. Deep symbols of justice and protests against injustice are being applied for the first time to women. To affirm women as images of God, one must image God as woman. Women are called into the community of equals. The rediscovery of the meaning of symbols of redemption and applying them to the poor and women is shaking traditional Christianity to its roots. The Vatican's refusal of the conference document is a refusal to discuss the challenge of renewal within its own community. The conflict with the Vatican should be put in the context of a conflict between patriarchy and prophetic faith (women's liberation). The document will fail if it ignores or neutralizes religion.
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  4. 4
    069810

    [Populations on the planet] Populations sur la planete.

    Levy ML

    Population et Societes. 1991 Dec; (263):1-3.

    This work contrasts 2 world population atlases published in 1991, 1 the work of a demographer and the other of a geographer. Both works synthesize the concepts of demography as it is currently practiced. The work by the geography, Daniel Noin, (Atlas of World Population) has a more detailed bibliography and glossary and concentrates on the contemporary population situation. The other work (The Population of the World. From Antiquity to 2050), by Jean-Claude Chesnais, takes a historic approach. The 2 works are complementary and neither raises ecological alarms. They stress different issues in their conclusions, Chesnais asking whether the nations of Europe can compensate for their loss of demographic and economic power by regrouping into an entity large enough to maintain influence, Noin identifying fertility decline in the poor countries as the major current demographic challenge. Both authors use the same analytical instrument and rely on UN statistics. The UN, since its origin, has been the site of a confrontation between 2 schools of demographic thought, the American which is preoccupied with rapid population growth in the poor countries, and the French, which stresses fertility decline and demographic aging in the developed countries. The analytical instrument in both cases is the theory of demographic transition, on which both authors have already written. The 2 authors classify the countries differently, 1 identifying 5 stages of transition and the other 3 stages and 8 types of countries. Agreement on the basic phenomenon of the transition is accompanied by some difference of interpretation.
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  5. 5
    272545
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization: school health initiatives.

    Gold RS

    JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1990 Sep; 60(7):370-8.

    The UN and its family of operational agencies have existed for almost 5 decades. For school health personnel, to understand how these agencies operate--in particular, the World Health Organization (WHO)--is worthwhile. To understand how WHO influenced the practice of health education for school aged youth, some critical events that have occurred during the past 5 decades are reviewed and several current and future activities are identified and described. Austria, England, Norway, and Finland designed and conducted the WHO Cross-National Survey: Health Behavior of School aged Children. A core survey was set up and each country could add optional questions according to its own needs. The 2nd round of survey was done during the 1985 school year with 11 countries taking part. In May, 1989, more than 17 European nations and Canada decided to take part in the 3rd round, conducted during the next academic year. WHO has been working on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)/Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS) education. In 1988, the WHO Division of Health Education and Health Promotion was established. WHO is working with the US Centers for Disease Control's Division of Adolescent and School Health to set up a collaborating center emphasizing school health education. Recently in 3rd world countries, there has been a dramatic drop in infant mortality through the expanded program of immunization, increases in breast feeding, improvement of weaning practices, and oral rehydration therapy. This is the Child Survival Revolution. These efforts should be continued beyond infancy. This is known as the Child Development Revolution. An Action- Oriented Prototype Curriculum has been developed. It is used in teacher training and contains material on diarrheal disease control, expanded immunization programs, breast feeding, AIDS, and family planning. The strategy is to learn by action and discovery. (author's modified)
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  6. 6
    272190

    AIDS and blood transfusions: ensuring safe blood supplies.

    Finger WR

    NETWORK. 1990 Apr; 11(2):5-7,20.

    Safe and adequate blood supplies are needed, especially in high Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence rate areas. Tests for HIV are available in most developing countries today. Much virus screening is taking place. The best way to control HIV's transmission is to establish a blood transfusion system (BTS). Proper storage, distribution, collection, and testing of blood must be done. Trained technicians and appropriate criteria for using transfusions should be included in any BTS. Establishing a central BTS requires much money and the national government must be committed to it. In 1988, WHO started the Global Blood Safety Initiative (GBSI) in conjunction with others. It's objective is to support integrated BTSs in all countries. 8 countries have been chosen for priorities, to develop BTSs. GBSI is also working in other countries to train technicians, get blood donors, and prevent HIV infections. A major problem in most developing countries is adequate blood supplies. In rural areas, many transfusions come from family members. Blood can be screened, and results given in 10-15 minutes. Large city hospitals can use ELISH HIV testing. It requires a 1-day wait for results but costs < the faster tests. Paid donors do not like blood screening, because it may lead to loss of income. Large countries need to use testing facilities in different regions. But smaller ones can use a centralized system, if they have good transportation. In November, 1989 a workshop was held in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, to set up appropriate blood transfusion guidelines. 45 physicians and blood bank managers took part. 9 of the 10 provinces were represented. The conference concluded that the number of transfusions should be reduced, and volunteer donors should be sought. In February, 1990 more than 700 Romanian children had been infected with HIV. This may have been caused by injecting adult blood into young babies who appear anemic. This is known as microtransfusion and health officials have banned it.
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  7. 7
    054973

    Bulgaria.

    Filipov G

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 27-8.

    The People's Republic of Bulgaria has successfully worked to combat social and economic problems. The results can be seen in the increase of the average life expectancy which is not 71.14 years and the decrease of the infant mortality rate from 145/1000 live births in 1943 to 16.8 in 1983. The government has dealt with the problem of employment; both men and women are equally employed in Bulgaria's highly productive society. Of greatest concern to the government of Bulgaria is the aging of its society. The government is working to improve the situation by implementing population programs which encourage and increasing birth rate. The government of Bulgaria believes that it is its duty to provide living conditions worth raising children in. The government also feels that a great deal of the misery experienced in underdeveloped countries can be alleviated if only a fraction of the resources used for armaments could be used for social and economic programs in these countries. In addition to this, the government of Bulgaria feels strongly that peaceful cooperation between nations and an end to the arms race is the one of the most important solutions in dealing with demographic changes worldwide.
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  8. 8
    271885

    International trends in reproductive rights.

    Huston P

    [Unpublished] 1990 Jun. Paper presented at the 5th Annual International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) Conference: A Decade of the Women's Convention: Where are we? What's next?, Roosevelt Hotel, New York City, Jan. 20-22, 1990. 5 p.

    The acceptance and guarantee of a person's basic human right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of one's children still remains an on-going challenge in legal and social institutions. Government's organized opposition to women's freedom in reproductive health care are illustrated in this paper by examples drawn from Romania, Singapore and the Soviet Union. In spite of the fact that the 1st mention of reproductive health care was paralleled to a basic human tight in the UN in 1966, such international guarantees are ignored by governments and powerful coalition groups thus denying the access and availability of services to millions of men and women. There are now around 300 million couples practicing responsible reproduction, an additional 300 million who are seeking such services and another 100-200 million who will join there 2 groups. Finding appropriate resources to meet the needs of education, information, counseling, and follow-up services are a few of the tasks facing administrators and policy-makers in the next decade. Strong political backing is a pre-requisite to assure success of such investments because of the existence of such groups as the anti-choice lobbyists in the US who have succeeded in denying US government funding to UNFPA and IPPF. Constant vigilance is a 2nd requirement to protect, defend and uphold women's right to reproductive choice. Providing women with legal mechanisms is essential if such practices as genital mutilation (female circumcision), child marriage, slavery and illegal prostitution are to be eradicated. The suggestion that 1994 be proclaimed "International Year of the Family" with the theme Family: Resources and Responsibilities in a Changing World, will allow NGO's to develop viable agendas to defend women's reproductive rights internationally. (author's modified)
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  9. 9
    055124

    Switzerland.

    Schlumpf L

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 189-90.

    Population problems should be of great concern to all. The Swiss government is pleased to see the progress that has been made in dealing with population dilemmas since the Bucharest Conference, 1974. However, the government, taking into consideration the diversity of different cultures, believes that it is up to each government to individually decide their own approach to dealing with population problems. In developing countries high population growth has made it difficult for governments to deal with the poverty created by these dilemmas. The results are poor or inadequate social facilities. However, in developed countries the governments have to deal with an aging society and damage done to non-renewable resources. The Swiss government will continue to give support to individual governments, in addition to international NGOs such as the UN.
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  10. 10
    055119

    Turkey.

    Ozal T

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 159.

    In the last past 30 years, the world has experienced an increase in its population, making the implementation of population programmes paramount concern worldwide. Population increase has had an alarming effect on the socioeconomic development of Turkey. The constitution of the Turkish government supports the principle of the rights of individuals to choose freely, the number and spacing of their children, as outlined in the World Plan of Action, 1974. Within the context of the constitution, the Turkish government looks to implement programmes designed to protest both mother and child and designed also, to reach the remotest parts of the country. The government hopes to maintain a population growth equal to its economic and social growth. However, the Turkish government feels that the implementation of population programmes should be on both an international and national scale. The government hopes that the Mexico Conference will be a success.
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  11. 11
    055080

    The Netherlands.

    Lubbers R

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 116.

    The government of the Netherlands feels that is the duty and concern of all nations to provide favorable social and economic conditions. The 1984 International Conference on Population in Mexico provides the chance for nations to meet and discuss present day population phenomena. The government of the Netherlands, recognizing the basic rights of couples and individuals concerning birth control, supports a non- intervention policy. However, the Dutch government does give its support to in-depth studies on population control and program implementation in developing countries. The United Nations supports and assists governments implementing population programmes. Central to the U.N. population and development efforts is improving the status of women. However, many member states of the United Nations support the freedom of choice concerning family planning.
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  12. 12
    055061

    Hungary.

    Lazar G

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 78-9.

    The Hungarian Government awards great importance to demographic issues. World population problems are inextricably linked to other vital issues such as peace, security, disarmament, protection of the natural environment, and energy resources. Each country must strive to achieve a demographic balance in harmony with social and economic progress. However, this goal can be achieved only under conditions of peace, disarmament and security, and cooperation among the world's nations. At the same time, the formulation and implementation of demographic policies is a sovereign right of each nation and there should be no outside interference in this process. Hungary, which seeks to adjust demographic measures to the constantly shifting demographic and socioeconomic situation, currently seeks to continue to moderate its population decline until it is curbed. Other goals are to improve and stabilize the age composition of the population, improve health conditions, and increase family stability.
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  13. 13
    055060

    Iceland.

    Hermannsson S

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 80.

    The 1974 World Population Conference created a new awareness of the need for national and international action on the interrelationships of population growth and the availability of resources such as food. This awareness was a precondition for action and spurred the development of an integrated approach to global overpopulation. It is hoped that the upcoming conference will underscore the ongoing urgency of the serious scarcity of resources. A better quality of life for all, regional peace, and political stability are but a few of the positive benefits that can be expected from the priority attention of all governments to rapid population growth. Iceland considers it essential that the population issue not be considered in isolation, but rather as 1 of several closely interacting important factors. The years ahead and the political actions chosen by governments will be critical to the future of the world's children.
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  14. 14
    047220

    The population problem in Turkey (as seen from the perspective of a foreign donor).

    Holzhausen W

    NUFUSBILIM DERGISI/TURKISH JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1987; 9:63-73.

    From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
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  15. 15
    267814

    Population, resources, environment and development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)

    Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
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  16. 16
    264034

    A selection of articles and speeches on the status of women and family planning in Yugoslavia

    Tomsic V

    Federal Council for Family Planning, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1975. 112 p.

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  17. 17
    773446

    Desexing birth control.

    STYCOS JM

    Family Planning Perspectives. November-December 1977; 9(6):286-292.

    When Margaret Sanger initiated the American birth control movement in the early twentieth century, she stressed female and sexual liberation. Victorian views on morality have since combined with the compromises necessitated to achieve legitimacy for the movement to lead to a desexualization of the birth control movement. The movement's communication now concentrates on reproduction and ignores sex; it emphasizes family planning and population control but does not mention sexual pleasure. Taboos against publicity concerning contraceptives are more powerful even than laws restricting the sale or distribution of contraceptives themselves in many countries. The movement must recover its earlier revolutionary stance.
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