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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Pyrethroids in human breast milk: Occurrence and nursing daily intake estimation.

    Corcellas C; Feo ML; Torres JP; Malm O; Ocampo-Duque W; Eljarrat E; Barcelo D

    Environment International. 2012 Oct 15; 47:17-22.

    There is an assumption that pyrethroid pesticides are converted to non-toxic metabolites by hydrolysis in mammals. However, some recent works have shown their bioaccumulation in human breast milk collected in areas where pyrethroids have been widely used for agriculture or malaria control. In this work, thirteen pyrethroids have been studied in human breast milk samples coming from areas without pyrethroid use for malaria control, such as Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The concentrations of pyrethroids ranged from 1.45 to 24.2 ng g- 1 lw. Cypermethrin, -cyhalothrin, permethrin and esfenvalerate/fenvalerate were present in all the studied samples. The composition of pyrethroid mixture depended on the country of origin of the samples, bifenthrin being the most abundant in Brazilian samples, -cyhalothrin in Colombian and permethrin in Spanish ones. When the pyrethroid concentrations were confronted against the number of gestations, an exponential decay was observed. Moreover, a time trend study was carried out in Brazil, where additional archived pool samples were analyzed, corresponding to years when pyrethroids were applied for dengue epidemic control. In these cases, total pyrethroid levels reached up to 128 ng g- 1 lw, and concentrations decreased when massive use was not allowed. Finally, daily intake estimation of nursing infants was calculated in each country and compared to acceptable WHO levels. The estimated daily intakes for nursing infants were always below the acceptable daily intake levels, nevertheless in certain samples the detected concentrations were very close to the maximum acceptable levels.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Comparative performances, under laboratory conditions, of seven pyrethroid insecticides used for impregnation of mosquito nets. [Performances comparées, dans des conditions de laboratoire, de sept insecticides à base de pyréthroïde utilisés pour l'imprégnation des moustiquaires]

    Hougard JM; Duchon S; Darriet F; Zaim M; Rogier C

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 May; 81(5):324-333.

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of seven pyrethroid insecticides for impregnation of mosquito nets, six currently recommended by WHO and one candidate (bifenthrin), under laboratory conditions. Methods: Tests were conducted using pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Knock-down effect, irritancy and mortality were measured using standard WHO cone tests. Mortality and bloodfeeding inhibition were also measured using a baited tunnel device. Findings: For susceptible A. gambiae, alpha-cypermethrin had the fastest knock-down effect. For resistant A. gambiae, the knockdown effect was slightly slower with alpha-cypermethrin and much reduced following exposure to the other insecticides, particularly bifenthrin and permethrin. For susceptible C. quinquefasciatus, the knock-down effect was significantly slower than in A. gambiae, particularly with bifenthrin, and no knock-down effect was observed with any of the pyrethroids against the resistant strain. Bifenthrin was significantly less irritant than the other pyrethroids to susceptible and resistant A. gambiaebut there was no clear ranking of pyrethroid irritancy against C. quinquefasciatus. In tunnels, all insecticides were less toxic against C. quinquefasciatusthan against A. gambiaefor susceptible strains. For resistant strains, mortality was significant with all the pyrethroids with A. gambiaebut not with C. quinquefasciatus. Inhibition of blood-feeding was also high for susceptible strains of both species and for resistant A. gambiaebut lower for resistant C. quinquefasciatus; bifenthrin had the greatest impact. Conclusions: Efficacy for impregnation of mosquito nets against A. gambiae was greatest with alpha-cypermethrin. Bifenthrin is likely to have a significant comparative advantage over other pyrethroids in areas with pyrethroid resistance because of its much stronger impact on the nuisance mosquito, C. quinquefasciatus, despite its slower knock-down effect and irritancy. Selection of pyrethroids for mosquito vector control and personal protection should take into account the different effects of these insecticides, the status of pyrethroid resistance in the target area, and the importance of nuisance mosquitoes, such as C. quinquefasciatus. (author's)
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