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New York, New York, UNFPA, . , 33 p.A United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) mission to Albania in 1989 attempted to identify the country's priority population issues and goals. Albania, a socialist country, has made many accomplishments, including an administrative structure that extends down to the village level, no foreign debt, universal literacy, a low death rate (5.4/1000), and involvement of women in development. At the same time, the country has the highest birth rate in Europe (25.5/1000), a high incidence of illegal abortion, lack of access to modern methods of contraception, and inadequate technology in areas such as medical equipment and data collection. Albania's population policy is aimed at maintaining the birth rate at its current level, reducing morality, and lowering the abortion rate by 50% by 1995. Goals for the health sector include increasing life expectancy, reducing infant and maternal mortality, improving the quality of health services, and decreasing the gap between the standard of living in rural and urban areas. Family planning is not allowed except for health reasons. Depending on trends in the total fertility rate, Albania's population in the year 2025 could be as low as 4.6 million or as high as 5.4 million. Albania has expressed an interest in collaborating with UN agencies in technical cooperation projects. The UNFPA mission recommended that support should be provided for the creation of a population database and analysis system for the Government's 1991-95 development plan. Also recommended was support to the Enver Hoxha University's program of strengthening the teaching of population dynamics and demographic research. Other recommendations included activities to strengthen maternal care/child spacing activities, IEC projects, and to raise the status of women.
In: The Pope and population policy, [compiled by] Catholics for a Free Choice. Washington, D.C., Catholics for a Free Choice, .  p.The pope is trying to control the language of a draft Program of Action for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The ICPD document, a blueprint for a 20-year campaign to stabilize world population, differs from its predecessors in that it links population growth with reproductive rights and urges family planning and the advancement of women's health and equality. These efforts are directly contrary to the Vatican's extremely conservative policies on population and the role of women, and explain why the Vatican has given such unprecedented attention to the Cairo conference in recent months. However, Vatican intervention in population policies is not new. This paper documents Vatican efforts to control population debate from 1961 to 1994.
PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):26-8.Despite much time and effort, the Irish Family Planning Association (FPA) has had to abandon several of its projects under its 5-year plan, due to severe financial strains and political opposition. In 1990, the Irish FPA embarked on a new initiative, the Challenges Project of the IPPF. The FPA drafted a strategic plan, but factors outside the strategic planning process have frustrated the efforts to implement the plan. One such factor is the perilous state of finances of the FPA. The FPA has seen a decline in condom sales, and the government continues to refuse payment for indigent clients who receive free clinical services from FPA. In addition to a decline in income, FPA was prosecuted in May 1990 for selling a condom from its stand located in a large record store in Dublin -- a place frequented by young people. In February 1991, the government again prosecuted FPA for the same offense. This time, the FPA went on the political offensive and succeeded in winning an admission from Ireland's prime minister that the current laws on the distribution of condoms were outdated. The government's proposal for change, however, has been disappointing. Predictably, these financial and political obstacles have disrupted the implementation of the 5-year initiative. Having left the legal ordeal behind, the FPA's planning committee has begun to meet again to discuss the implementation of the program. Sadly, the committee has had to revise or completely discard many of its most ambitious projects, since most of the organization's resources are currently being used to prevent bankruptcy. Despite these problems, the organization looks towards the future with optimism.
PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE: REGIONAL INFORMATION BULLETIN. 1986 Autumn; 15(2):3-13.This paper, prepared for European planned parenthood associations, reviews the range of political and ethical reactions to new reproductive technologies. Planned parenthood federations are committed to ensure that women and human living material are protected both from unethical scientific manipulation and exploitation for profit and that candidates for infertility treatment are given appropriate counseling. Within these limits, research into the causes and treatment of infertility has been encouraged. On the other hand, so-called pro-life forces challenge research in this area on the grounds that the sanctity of human life may be violated. A more recent development has been the emergence of feminist opposition to reproductive research on the grounds that it threatens to lead to the expropriation of women as childbearers. The potential removal of reproduction from people is viewed as a further devaluation of women's status and concern is voiced that pre-embryo screening may take the form of benign eugenics. Feminists further argue that in vitro fertilization services are disproportionately available to white, middle-class women. Finally, it is feared that the incorporation of sex preselection into the population programs of Third World countries will become possible as a logical extension of current importation to developing countries of chemical contraceptives (eg Depo-Provera) regarded as unsuitable for use in the US. In the face of such arguments, both from pro-life and feminist forces, planned parenthood federations are urged to be clear about potential uses and abuses of the new reproductive technologies.
London, England, Bodley Head, 1984. 286 p.This biography of the British family planning pioneer Helena Wright, who lived from 1887-1981, is based on her books, letters, and papers and on a series of personal interviews, as well as on the recollections and writings of her friends, colleagues, and critics. Considerable attention was given to her background and early life because of their strong influence on her later works and attitudes. Wright was the only physician among the small group of women who founded the British Family Planning Association, and was a founder and officeholder of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. She helped gain acceptance of the principle of contraception from the Anglican clergy and the medical establishment, and was an early worker in the field of sex education and sex therapy. Among Wright's books were works on sexual function in marriage, sex education for young people, contraceptive methods for lay persons and for medical practitioners, and sexual behavior and social mores. This biography also contains extensive material on the history of contraception and of the birth control movement, including the development of the British Family Planning Association and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, as well as important early figures in the movement.