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[Effectiveness of the expanded programme on immunization] Efficacite du programme elargi de vaccination
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1986; 39(2):161-70.The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) aims at the reduction of morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases through the provision of immunization to women and children. Program effectiveness is measured by immunization coverage and by incidence of the target diseases. Information on these 2 indicators is provided by national programs to WHO Regional Offices and forwarded to EPI, Geneva. Although considerable progress has been made in delivering vaccines to the children of the world, the potential impact of immunization remains unfulfilled. In the developing world (excluding China) less than 40% of infants receive a 3rd dose of DPT or polio vaccines, and coverage with measles vaccine remains at only 1/2 of that level. Over 3 million children still die each year from measles, neonatal tetanus and pertussis, while over a 1/4 of a million children are crippled by poliomyelitis. In the European Region the coverage goal of the EPI has been largely achieved. In the American Region dramatic progress has been made since the beginning of EPI. The South-East Asia Region has made steady progress since the start of the EPI. The Western Pacific Region is the most heterogenous within WHO, with countries ranging in size from the smallest to the largest in the world. Levels of socioeconomic development and immunization coverage also differ widely. Nevertheless, satisfactory progress is observed in the majority of countries. In the African Region, the problems of drought, famine and civil unrest are extensive. Despite these problems, progress has been satisfactory and exemplary in a few countries. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region, progress in increasing immunization coverage has been remarkably good. It will be difficult, however, to improve immunization services for the remainder of the decade in a number of countries currently ravaged by drought, famine and civil unrest.
The World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization: a global overview. Le Programme Elargi de Vaccination de L'Organization Mondiale de la Sante: apercu mondial.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(2):232-52.In recognition that immunization is an essential element of primary health care, the World Health Organization (WHO), with other agencies, is sponsoring the Global Program on Immunization whose goal is to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases by providing immunization for all children of the world by 1990. A global advisory group of experts meets yearly to review the program. This paper summarizes the most salient features of the 1984 meeting. The major event for the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1984 was the Bellagio Conference on protecting the world's children. Activities undertaken as a result of this conference are discussed. 1 outcome was the formation of the Task Force for Child Survival whose main objective is to promote the reduction of childhood morbidity and mortality through acceleration of key primary health care activities. Focus is on supporting Colombia, India and Senegal in accelerating the expansion of their immunization programs and strengthening other elements of primary health care, such as diarrheal diseases control, family planning and improved nutrition. The 5-point action program consists of the following components: promoting EPI within the context of primary health care; investing adequate human resources in EPI; ensuring that programs are continuously evaluated and adapted so as to achieve high immunization coverage and maximum reduction in target-disease deaths and cases; and pursuing research efforts as part of program operations. EPI has continued to collaborate with other programs to help assure that immunization services are provided to support delivery of other services. Integration of EPI in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Europe, the South-East Asia Region, and the Western Pacific Region is examined.