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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Importation and circulation of poliovirus in Bulgaria in 2001. [Importation et circulation du poliovirus en Bulgarie en 2001]

    Kojouharova M; Zuber PL; Gyurova S; Fiore L; Buttinelli G

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jul; 81(7):476-481.

    Objective: To characterize the circumstances in which poliomyelitis occurred among three children in Bulgaria during 2001 and to describe the public health response. Methods: Bulgarian authorities investigated the three cases of polio and their contacts, conducted faecal and serological screening of children from high-risk groups, implemented enhanced surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis, and conducted supplemental immunization activities. Findings: The three cases of polio studied had not been vaccinated and lived in socioeconomically deprived areas of two cities. Four Roma children from the Bourgas district had antibody titres to serotype 1 poliovirus only, and wild type 1 virus was isolated from the faeces of two asymptomatic Roma children in the Bourgas and Sofia districts. Poliovirus isolates were related genetically and represented a single evolutionary lineage; genomic sequences were less than 90% identical to poliovirus strains isolated previously in Europe, but 98.3% similar to a strain isolated in India in 2000. No cases or wild virus isolates were found after supplemental immunization activities were launched in May 2001. Conclusions: In Bulgaria, an imported poliovirus was able to circulate for two to five months among minority populations. Surveillance data strongly suggest that wild poliovirus circulation ceased shortly after supplemental immunization activities with oral poliovirus vaccine were conducted. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Conclusions and recommendations.

    Colledge M; Svensson PG

    In: Migration and health: towards an understanding of the health care needs of ethnic minorities. Proceedings of a Consultative Group on Ethnic Minorities, The Hague, Netherlands, 28-30 November 1983, edited by M. Colledge, H.A. van Geuns and P.-G. Svensson. Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1986. 197-200.

    The World Health Organization's conclusions and recommendations for health care for migrant ethnic minorities in Europe address policies on research for ethnic groups, health care delivery, and the international issues of migrant health care. Results of a 1983 meeting of experts include recommendations for action at international, national, and local levels. The World Health Organization (WHO) assisted by governments should encourage cooperative studies of migrants' health in relation to mortality and morbidity. WHO should assist in the exchange of programs and information between countries through printed and other media and encourage discussions in meetings and symposiums. Ethnic minorities should get extra attention in who's alcohol and drug programs. Folk medicine should be considered when appropriate. Information on ethnic minority health problems should be gathered for training programs and the importance of bicultural experience and bilingualism must be recognized within the health services.
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