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Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 2014 Jun; 40(6):924-941.This article investigates the complex relationship between the practices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in the field of refugee protection and the more recent political rationality of 'migration management' by drawing from governmentality studies. It is argued that the dissemination of UNHCR's own refugee protection discourse creates certain 'figures of migration' allowing for justifying the build-up and perfection of border controls, which in turn enable any attempt to 'manage' migration in the first place. Conversely, the problematisation of population movements as 'mixed migration flows' allows UNHCR to enlarge its field of activitiy despite its narrow mandate by actively participating in the promotion, planning and implementation of migration management systems. Based on ethnographic research in Turkey and Morocco, this article demonstrates, furthermore, that UNHCR's refugee protection discourse and the emerging migration management paradigm are both based on a methodological nationalism, share an authoritarian potential and yield de-politicising effects. What UNHCR's recent embracing of the migration management paradigm together with its active involvement in respective practices then brings to the fore is that UNHCR is part of a global police of populations.
Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2010; 13:2.BACKGROUND: Back in 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) concluded that the screening of international travellers was an ineffective way to prevent the spread of HIV. However, some countries still restrict the entrance and/or residency of foreigners with an HIV infection. HIV-related travel restrictions have serious implications for individual and public health, and violate internationally recognized human rights. In this study, we reviewed the current situation regarding HIV-related travel restrictions in the 53 countries of the WHO European Region. METHODS: We retrieved the country-specific information chiefly from the Global Database on HIV Related Travel Restrictions at hivtravel.org. We simplified and standardized the database information to enable us to create an overview and compare countries. Where data was outdated, unclear or contradictory, we contacted WHO HIV focal points in the countries or appropriate non-governmental organizations. The United States Bureau of Consular Affairs website was also used to confirm and complement these data. RESULTS: Our review revealed that there are no entry restrictions for people living with HIV in 51 countries in the WHO European Region. In 11 countries, foreigners living with HIV applying for long-term stays will not be granted a visa. These countries are: Andorra, Armenia, Cyprus (denies access for non-European Union citizens), Hungary, Kazakhstan, Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan, an HIV-positive foreigner cannot even enter the country, and in Georgia, we were not able to determine whether there were any HIV-related travel restrictions due to a lack of information. CONCLUSIONS: In 32% of the countries in the European Region, either there are some kind of HIV-related travel restrictions or we were unable to determine if such restrictions are in force. Most of these countries defend restrictions as being justified by public health concerns. However, there is no evidence that denying HIV-positive foreigners access to a country is effective in protecting public health. Governments should revise legislation on HIV-related travel restrictions. In the meantime, a joint effort is needed to draw attention to the continuing discrimination and stigmatization of people living with HIV that takes place in those European Region countries where such laws and policies are still in force.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, International Migration and Multicultural Policies Section, 2004 Jun 1. 16 p. (UNESCO Series of Country Reports on the Ratification of the UN Convention on Migrants; SHS/2004/MC/3)With the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families having entered into force on July 1, 2003, the UNESCO Central and East European Network on Migration Research (CEENOM) has got both a new focus on migrant workers and a new instrument for policy recommendations to national governments. The aim of the present research and analysis is therefore to identify, which obstacles impede the accession of Eastern European and Central Asian countries to the convention and how these could be overcome. Additionally, debate on the provisions of the convention highlights the need for protection of migrant workers and stimulates the search for feasible solutions to labour migration related problems. Finally, it strengthens the link between Central and Eastern European research institutes and policy-makers involved by concentrating on the role and consequences of this distinct legal instrument. (excerpt)
European Union. Managing migration means potential EU complicity in neighboring states' abuse of migrants and refugees.
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2006 Oct. 22 p. (Human Rights Watch No. 2)Irregular migration into the European Union (EU) poses clear challenges for European governments. Few would question the urgent need for policies to address these challenges. However, the common EU policy in this area is primarily focussed on keeping migrants and asylum seekers out of and away from Europe. The rights of migrants and refugee protection are marginalized. This briefing paper summarizes recent trends in the EU's approach. Through case studies of conditions in, and EU policies toward, Ukraine and Libya, it critiques current EU "externalization" practices. After noting some hopeful signs toward enhanced protection for asylum seekers and migrants, it concludes with recommendations to the EU and its member states. (excerpt)
International Migration Review. 1973 Summer; 7(2):189-190.A fact emerged from the 35th session of the Council of the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) is the importance of the Refugee Migration, although a slight increase in the National Migration Programme is foreseen for 1973. As of November 30, 1972, 56, 368 Refugees had already been moved by ICEM to countries of resettlement and this number was close to 58,000 by the end of the year. A similar number of Refugee Migration movements is estimated for 1973. The ICEM Refugee Programme for 1972 and 1973 comprises: the Jews emigrating to Israel; they will be at least 36,000 in 1972 (32,000 from the USSR and 4,000 from other countries) and it is estimated that another 36,000 will migrate in 1973; the other Eastern European refugees emigrating to other countries; some 4,600 have departed or are being processed for resettlement in Austria and 3,300 in Italy. Movements in 1973 are estimated at about the same level as in 1972, but could be higher because of an increase in newly arriving refugees during the last quarter of 1972; the Cuban refugees from Spain; also more than 6,000 have migrated in 1972 (mainly to USA), another 25,000 are still awaiting resettlement overseas and some 1,000 new refugees continue to arrive each month in Spain. This influx represents a problem since it is foreseen that only 6,000 will depart to immigration countries in 1973; the refugees emigrating from the Middle East, mainly Armenians, whose number is about 1,000 per year for 1972 and 1973; the non-Europeans from the Far-East concern yearly about 3,000 refugees from countries in South East Asia, many emigrating to the USA. (excerpt)
Population Index. 1948 Apr; 14(2):97-104.Research in migration has been peculiarly susceptible to the changing problems of the areas and the periods in which demographers work. American studies of international movements diminished after the passage of Exclusion Acts, and virtually ceased as immigration dwindled during the depression years. On the other hand, surveys of internal migration proliferated as the facts of mass unemployment and the social approaches of the New Deal focused governmental attention on the relation of people to resources and to economic opportunity. Geographers and historians took over the field the demographers had vacated. The studies of pioneer settlement directed by Isaiah Bowman and those of Marcus Hansen dealing with the Atlantic crossing are outstanding illustrations of this non-demographic research on essentially demographic problems. Even when demographers investigated international movements they served principally as quantitative analysts of historical exchanges. This is not to disparage such studies as that of Truesdell on the Canadian in the United States, or of Coates on the United States immigrant in Canada, but merely to emphasize the point that Americans regarded international migration as an issue of the past. (excerpt)
London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, 2001 Jan 29. 3 p. (BCR No. 213)Bosnia has become a key hub for migrants who attempt to illegally enter Western Europe. A mixture of nationalities from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa arrive in Sarajevo, pass customs control, and connect with traffickers to smuggle them to Europe. The country's porous borders, obscure visa system, weak administrative and legislative institutions, and ineffective local police force provide conditions conducive to this trade. Foreigners arriving in Bosnia are categorized as either legal migrants seeking political asylum or economic migrants. The latter are usually smuggled to Western Europe. As with so many other things in Bosnia, the solution to the migrant smuggling problem is mainly in the hands of international organizations, since Bosnian institutions have neither the money nor the expertise to handle the problem themselves.
[From Cairo to Beijing: reflections about a problem for the whole planet] De El Cairo a Pekin: reflexiones en torno a un problema de todo el planeta.
MEDICINA CLINICA. 1996 Jun 1; 107(1):26-8.The controversies and disagreements that marked discussion of the documents of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo are examined. Three preparatory sessions in New York preceded the Cairo conference. The only points that were to be debated were those for which consensus could not be established in advance. The document was intended to guide demographic policy related to development for the next 20 years, but its recommendations depended on legislation in each nation. Delegates of 184 countries deliberated over the 114-page Plan of Action, only seven pages of which concerned development. The question of abortion occupied around two-thirds of the conference time. Some 85 delegations objected to the preliminary formulation. Objections were raised about classifying abortion as a family planning method and about the veracity of abortion statistics. A section on "practices relative to matrimony, other unions, and the family" prompted objections to "other unions," and the phrase "diverse forms and functions of the family" raised objections to possible inclusion of same-sex marriages. Much time was spent throughout the conference in attempting to clarify the meaning of the language used. Several Muslim countries expressed reservations about reproductive rights of individuals. Whether or not family reunification should be a right of migrants was another question causing tension. Obtaining General Assembly consensus for the Plan of Action was an arduous process, partly because of problems of terminology and translation. The Conference did not adequately consider development, and concentrated almost exclusively on controlling population growth in its deliberations on population. Many of the inadequately addressed topics will be taken up at the International Conference on Women in Peking.
[Contemporary international migrations and migration policy] Wspolczesne migracje miedzynarodowe i polityka migracyjna.
BIULETYN IGS. 1995; 38(1-2):51-67.With a focus on Poland, the author examines the following aspects and questions regarding international migration: "The intensification of spatial mobility in Poland as well as in other countries; the necessity for modernisation of migratory policy; socio-economic implications of out-migration and migratory policy; Poland--a country of transit, political asylum or immigration?; the phenomenon of transit migration in Poland; stability or flexibility of migratory policy? [and] migration as a focus of world population conferences." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) (EXCERPT)
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 187-93.Hungary has both below replacement fertility and high mortality. There has been a deterioration in the stability of families, with a high divorce rate. Population policy is aimed toward reducing the population decline and providing a more favorable age structure. The objective is to reduce mortality, increase fertility, and strengthen material and social conditions of families. Due to resource limitations, the government will rely on the moral renewal of society. An Office of Refugee Affairs was established in 1989. In 1991, there were 75,000 refugees or displaced persons, including ethnic Hungarians. Many new arrivals are from the former Yugoslavia. Marriage and remarriage have declined since the mid-1970s. There is postponement of marriage and first and second births. 87% of children are born to married women. Family policy, since 1992, provides for free prenatal care and pregnancy allowances, at the same time regulating abortion. Social allowances are given to families with children for child raising. Male mortality is particularly high among those aged 30-59 years. High mortality was attributed to life style risk factors and mental hygiene, level of health care, and the role of environmental factors. Hungary is very interested in international cooperation within the European Community and gives support to population activities.
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 147-52.In the 20 years following World War II, Finland's population growth declined markedly. Recent increases confirm fertility at 1.79 for 1991, which is higher than it has been since 1970. Fertility is expected to increase until 2010. The country is very homogenous: the largest minority are Swedes, who comprised 6% of the population in 1991, and Lappish people. There are integrated labor markets between Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark. Migrants with Finnish origins from the former Soviet Union have increased. Refugees numbered 6000 in 1993. Finnish family policy strives to secure close and firm human relationships for children and family members, to improve economic conditions for families, and to secure the preconditions for balanced population development. Family type does not determine the nature of family support. Parental leave amounts to 263 week days and is 66% of annual income. Child home care for children under 3 years of age and municipal day care are provided. Men's life expectancy was 71.4 years in 1991; women's was 79.3 years. Infant mortality was low at 6/1000 in 1991. Cardiovascular diseases are a primary cause of death; declines have occurred in this disease group since 1970. Accidents and suicide are very high in Finland compared to other Nordic countries. Lower social classes have a higher mortality rate. Future emphasis will be on outpatient treatment, promotion of health prevention, and a balance between health care and illness treatment. Finland's position is that rapid population growth is related to poverty and slow socioeconomic development. Increased levels of education and gender equality are viewed as necessary for poverty alleviation. Improvements in basic health care also contribute to social development and thus slower growth. International funding has increased and was 85 million in 1991. Development and population related aid will be reduced in 1993 to 0.4% of the gross national product.
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 123-32.Since the Czech Republic was newly created in January 1993 there has not been any attempt to stipulate desirable population levels. Population policy has been discussed, but the concern, if any, is for the aging of the population. Migration has been primarily from Slovakia; the numbers have declined since the 1950s to about 1000 from Slovakia and about 3000 from the rest of the world. The estimated illegal immigration is around 5000/year. There were an estimated 90,000 illegal immigrants in the Czech Republic in 1993. The German policy to return illegal emigrants to the nearest safe country from which the emigrants came could make the Czech Republic a dumping ground. The typical pattern is marriage, and out of wedlock births stood at 9.8% in 1991, mostly to single women. The divorce rate has increased to 40.8/100 new marriages in 1991; the highest rates were among women aged 20-29 years and men aged 25-35 years. The typical age at marriage is 19 years. Fertility is not likely to exceed 2 children/woman. The abortion rate is very high and almost equal to the birth rate (92.0/100 births). There is limited contraceptive awareness and usage. Legislation is being drafted with some restrictions on abortion and withdrawal of free abortions. The life expectancy is 67-68 years for men and 76 years for women. Decree no. 273 provides for government promotion of healthy life styles through prevention and primary health care. Regular health examinations are required for all children. The goals in 1993 were to implement intergovernmental health agreements and to draw laws on public health protection, chemical substances, health services, provision of health care, mandatory employment injury insurance, abortion, and legal protection of health resorts. International cooperation in development was considered beneficial.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 132.The government of Portugal, which has undergone various political transformations, has committed itself to improving the socioeconomic conditions of its country. Population problems, however diverse and numerous, still have an effect on the political, social and economic structure of various world societies. It is of utmost importance that population problems be attacked on a global scale, bearing in mind each nation's sovereign right to deal with their problems, individually. Of special attention to each nation and Portugal, in particular, is the status of women, and internal and external migration. The government of Portugal supports the establishment of an organization that protects the rights of emigrants. It is the hope of the government of Portugal that these problems are addressed at the 1984, World Population Conference.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1989 Fall; 23(3):579-98.This article examines the evolution of the current international system for responding to refugee problems and the climate within which the legal and institutional framework has developed. It reviews the background and handling of some of the key refugee movements since World War II and traces the legal and institutional adjustments that have been made to deal with new refugee movements that have occurred predominantly, but not exclusively, in the developing world. Finally, it assesses the adequacy of the present system to meet the challenges ahead. (author's)
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 18 p.The implications for Canada of the migration recommendations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are discussed. OECD has 24 member countries in Europe, as well as Japan, U.S.A., Canada, Australia and New Zealand. OECD organized a set of recommendations on migration and foreign manpower in the 1960s, which was updated in 1979 under the title "Migration, growth and development," commonly known as the "Kindleberger report," and focusing on migration of workers from less-developed to developed European OECD member countries. The OECD Kindleberger report deals with subjects such as social implications of migration, trend of South-to-North flows of illegal foreign workers, challenges to sovereignty of nations, macro-economic effects of migration, long-term demographic role of migration, increasing pluralism of societies, responsibility of the sending countries to solve their development problems. The OECD subsequently held a Working Party on Migration Conference on the Future of Migration in May 1986. The Canadian responses to the Conference are listed in a 7-point policy framework. Topics included policy convergence, sovereignty, economic role of migration, demographic impact, and control of immigration as regards tourism, illegal migrants, economic refugees, organized networks for border crossing, penalties on employers, and the effect of regularizing illegal migrants on future flows.
[Unpublished] 1987. 15,  p.Asylum-seekers from Third World countries are an important subgroup of international migrants; their increasing number has led to reevaluations of asylum policies in Western Europe and Canada. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for the study of how asylum-seekers manipulate international migration channels and national asylum policies. The framework is applied to the case of the Tamil "boat people". Although the US is an ocean away from Europe's asylum troubles, the arrival of the Tamil boat people on Canada's shores highlights the point that physical barriers are not enough to deter asylum seekers. If the influx of asylum seekers into Western Europe remains high while European governments restrict the numbers given asylum, more asylum seekers will attempt to follow the Tamils to North America. On a more global scale, restrictive asylum policies in Europe could be used--particularly by Turkey, Thailand, Pakistan, and the Sudan--to justify refoulement (forced repatriation) of asylum seekers and even UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) registered refugees. The 2 models presented in this paper, one on the migration process experienced by asylum seekers and the other on the consequences of a "beggar thy neighbor" approach to asylum policies, illustrate the complex interaction between international migration and immigration laws. The international migration channels used by asylum seekers and the asylum laws and policies they try to manipulate are products of a fundamental conflict between an increasingly interdependent global economy and national government attempts to control territorial sovereignty.
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1986 Mar; 24(1):77-93.Return migration and its consequences has attracted increasing attention since Western European countries adopted policies in the mid 1970s to stop the inflow of foreign workers and to promote reintegration of emigrants. This paper explores the definition of return migration, discusses the different contexts in which return migration arises, and points out the many gaps that exist in understanding return migration and its consequences. The report concludes that there is no consensus on the definition of return migration; future advances in its analysis and measurement depend on the availability of specific criteria to distinguish return movements from other migration taking place in the world today. Also, relatively little attention has been devoted to return flows of migrants in developing countries due to paucity of information and fluidity of some of the movements involved. Yet another area for concern is the lack of information pertaining to female emigrants. Some recommendations that may lead to the eventual satisfaction of these needs include: 1) defining returnees as persons who, having the nationality of the country that they are entering, have spent at least one year abroad and have returned with the intention of staying at least one year in the country of their nationality; 2) having coontries with important emigration flows monitor return migration by gathering and publishing information on returning migrants; 3) giving particular attention to the problems faced by female returnees and adopting measures to ensure equal aid to males and females; 4) studying and monitoring the consequences of return migration on whole families instead of on only certain members of the family; 5) monitoring the consequences of sizeable repatriation flows, giving particular attention to the success of reintegration programs; 6) developing novel methods to monitor and study the impact of return flows of emigrants whose situation in the receiving state was irregular.
[Introduction to the Second Latin American Seminar on the Migrant Woman] Introduccion al Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano sobre la Mujer Migrante.
In: La Mujer Migrante, Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano, organizado por la Oficina Regional del Servicio Social Internacional y la Oficina Argentina de S.S.I., Buenos Aires, 9-12 de Septiembre de 1.985. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 7-12.Social Service International (SSI) is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization which aids individuals who require assistance because of voluntary or forced expatriation or who require help for other social problems of an international character. Each national office is completely autonomous in its country and can adapt its programs to local needs. The General Secretariat in Geneva strives to assure that high quality services are maintained in each country. SSI has 17 national offices as well as volunteer correspondents in over 100 countries. SSI assists an average of 150,000 refugees and migrants in over 160 countries each year. In recent years Latin America has seen a massive increase in international migration because of political and economic problems. The consequences for families have been disastrous, but no adequate infrastructure has yet been developed to assist migrants and their families or to take preventive measures. Programs for training specialized personnel such as social workers and psychologists are also lacking. Private social agencies to aid recently arrived migrants have existed for many years in countries with histories of significant immigration, but they have tended to be limited to persons of a single nationality or religion and to have few specialized professional workers. SSI's 2nd major objective is to study the conditions and consequences of migration for individuals and families. Latin American women live in patriarchal societies whose norms still marginalize them or limit their participation. Women who migrate face discrimination in employment and education in addition to their other problems. The conclusions and recommendations of the seminar on migrant women are intended to improve understanding of the situation of such women at the regional and local level and to alert governmental and nongovernmental international organizations of the need for programs to improve the circumstances of migrant women.
Migrant workers: summary of reports on conventions nos. 97 and 143 and recommendations nos. 86 and 151 (Article 19 of the Constitution). (International Labour Conference, 66th Session, 1980) Report III, part 2.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1980. 151 p.Article 19 of the Constitution of the International Labor Organization (ILO) provides that Members shall report to the Director General at appropriate intervals on the position of their law and practice in regard to the matters dealt with in unratified Conventions and Recommendations. The reports summarized in this volume concern the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised) (No. 97) and Recommendation (Revised) (No. 86), 1949, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143) and Migrant Workers Recommendation, 1975 (No. 151). The governments of member States were asked to send their reports to the ILO Office by July 1, 1979, and this summary covers country reports received by the Office up to November 1, 1979. Reports are included for the following countries: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, German Democratic Republic, Guyana, Hungary, India, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, USSR, UK, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zambia.
Paris, France, Unesco Press, 1981. 342 p.This work is the outcome of an international symposium held in Cuernavaca, Mexico, September 18-21, 1978. The symposium, organized jointly by Unesco and the Latin American Social Sciences Council's Committee on Population and Development, was concerned with the relationship between migration and development. The causes and consequences of rural migration are first explored, and case studies on the relationship between internal migration and development are presented for Italy, Argentina, Turkey, Chile, and Poland. Next, some behavioral aspects of internal migration and development are examined for Mexico and the Republic of Korea. Finally, some policy aspects and alternatives to rural-urban migration are considered, with examples from Peru, Brazil, Argentina, and Tropical Africa.
New York, UN, 1981 Jan 26. 41 p. (ESA/P/WP.72)The attempt is made to present on a systematic basis a brief summary of governments' current perceptions and policies in relation to population growth, fertility, international migration, and spatial distribution. The assessment, which covers 35 Member States and Non-Member States of the United Nations considered to be developed, is of September 1980. The information included in this document is based on the replies to the 3rd and 4th Population Inquiry Among Governments, material contained in the Population Policy Data Bank of the Population Division, and national development plans and publications of various organizations. The 35 countries assesed are the following: Albania; Australia; Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic; Canada; Czechoslovakia; Denmark; Finland; France; German Democratic Republic; Federal Republic of Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Luxembourg; Malta; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; United Kingdom; United States of America; and Yugoslavia.