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  1. 1
    294425
    Peer Reviewed

    International Organization for Migration: experience on the need for medical evacuation of refugees during the Kosovo crisis in 1999.

    Szilard I; Cserti A; Hoxha R; Gorbacheva O; O'Rourke T

    Croatian Medical Journal. 2002; 43(2):195-198.

    The International Organization for Migration (IOM) developed and implemented a three-month project entitled Priority Medical Screening of Kosovar Refugees in Macedonia, within the Humanitarian Evacuation Program (HEP) for Kosovar refugees from FR Yugoslavia, which was adopted in May 1999. The project was based on an agreement with the office of United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and comprised the entry of registration data of refugees with medical condition (Priority Medical Database), and classification (Priority Medical Screening) and medical evacuation of refugees (Priority Medical Evacuation) in Macedonia. To realize the Priority Medical Screening project plan, IOM developed and set up a Medical Database linked to IOM/UNHCR HEP database, recruited and trained a four-member data entry team, worked out and set up a referral system for medical cases from the refugee camps, and established and staffed medical contact office for refugees in Skopje and Tetovo. Furthermore, it organized and staffed a mobile medical screening team, developed and implemented the system and criteria for the classification of referred medical cases, continuously registered and classified the incoming medical reports, contacted regularly the national delegates and referred to them the medically prioritized cases asking for acceptance and evacuation, and co-operated and continuously exchanged the information with UNHCR Medical Co-ordination and HEP team. Within the timeframe of the project, 1,032 medical cases were successfully evacuated for medical treatment to 25 host countries throughout the world. IOM found that those refugees suffering from health problems, who at the time of the termination of the program were still in Macedonia and had not been assisted by the project, were not likely to have been priority one cases, whose health problems could be solved only in a third country. The majority of these vulnerable people needed social rather than medical care and assistance - a challenge that international aid agencies needed to address in Macedonia and will need to address elsewhere. (author's)
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  2. 2
    289740
    Peer Reviewed

    The migration of nurses: trends and policies.

    Buchan J; Sochalski J

    Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2005; 353.

    When the Bulletin of the World Health Organization dedicates an entire issue to health worker migration, it is a clear indication that the topic has global health significance. Buchan and Sochalski, recognized leading authorities on the subject of nurse migration, provide a descriptive overview of nurse migration patterns and core issues. They offer a detailed profile for 5 nursing workforce “destination” countries: Australia, Ireland, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States. By performing a comparative analysis, made possible by each country’s high-quality health system infrastructure and valid nursing workforce data, the authors have seized the opportunity to further examine this timely issue. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    177157

    Human smugglers and social networks: transit migration through the states of former Yugoslavia.

    Mavris L

    Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR], Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, 2002 Dec. 14 p. (New Issues in Refugee Research Working Paper No. 72)

    In recent years, the reluctance of western governments to admit asylum seekers and the introduction of restrictive migration policies has caused many people to turn to their last resort - human smugglers. This paper attempts to analyse the role of smugglers in the movement of asylum seekers into Western Europe through the region of former Yugoslavia. Although all of the five newly formed states of former Yugoslavia are affected by the phenomenon of human smuggling, Bosnia and Herzegovina is most often used as a stepping stone for migrants who are moving north and west. Bosnia is consequently the central focus of this paper. The paper explains why the former Yugoslavia is used as a transit region, by whom it is used, where the smuggled people come from and where they are going to. In addition, the paper provides a description of the experiences that asylum seekers must endure during their journey through the region. As a clandestine and uncontrolled movement, there is a lack of information and statistics on migrant smuggling. The evidence on which this work is based upon is mainly gathered from UNHCR files, media and government sources and existing studies. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    080195

    Patterns of fertility in low-fertility settings.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. viii, 134 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/131)

    The most recent UN analysis of fertility levels and trends over the period 1965-89 in selected countries which have achieved fertility transition from high to low fertility is presented. The study is both descriptive and analytical. All low fertility countries analyzed, with the exceptions of Romania, Ireland, and the former USSR, had total fertility of 2.1 or less in 1988-89 and include the following: Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, Singapore, most European countries, Canada, the US, Australia, and New Zealand. Low fertility countries from other geographical regions were omitted due to the lack of countries with similar sociocultural contexts available for comparison purposes. Low-fertility countries with population under 300,000 were also not considered. Data coverage, quality, and availability; the measurement of fertility; and comparability problems both across countries and through time are discussed in the first chapter. Patterns of fertility decline are then presented with consideration given to period, cohort, overall, and adolescent fertility; population reproduction; age at child-bearing; number of births; birth order, and births by legitimacy status. A scenario of societal process is then hypothesized which may have favored or conditioned changes in reproductive values and modified the proximate determinants of fertility. Specifically, attention is given to demographic conditions, technological progress and economic development, the role and status of women, effects on couples and families, changing reproductive norms, marriage, divorce, contraception, abortion, diversity of conditions, and fertility policies. Analysis reveals a sharp fertility decline from 1965 to the mid-1980s followed by a stabilization of period fertility in some countries and upward fluctuations in several. This decline has affected in all groups, with greatest reductions at age 35 and over, and has been led by the greater practice of contraception and changing societal attitudes on marriage and reproduction. UN medium-variant projections foresee the population of more developed regions increasing by 12% over 1990-2025 versus 75% in less developed regions. Population aging should also be expected. Social and immigration policy are finally discussed in the context of these population trends.
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  5. 5
    142043

    EU -- statement.

    European Union

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [3] p.

    This document presents the reactions of the European Union (EU) delegation to the 1999 World Population Monitoring Report. According to the EU delegation, the Monitoring Report contains valuable information on past and present trends of demographic change. It presents major demographic trends covering the period from the World Population Conference 1974 in Bucharest to the present and through the year 2050. Furthermore, the report offers some comments on the determinants of fertility and mortality changes, highlights the issue of urbanization, and discusses the socioeconomic implications and challenges of population aging. The EU believes that population aging and intergenerational solidarity are essential issues in the review of progress made toward the Cairo Program of Action for 2004. The report commends the quality of work of the Population Division and hopes that concerns about population growth, poverty, food provision and the environment will be addressed consistently over coming years. Concerning the future work program of the Population Division, the EU hopes that the 2000 monitoring report addresses issues of education, male identity and responsible fatherhood. In addition, they agree with the recommendations regarding topics for the years 2001-04. Lastly, the EU suggests that a thorough discussion of the quinquennial review and appraisal presented by the Population Division should be conducted.
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  6. 6
    082184

    Europe and Central Asia Region, Middle East and North Africa Region, population projections, 1992-93 edition.

    Vu MT; Bos E; Levin A

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population and Human Resources Dept., 1992 Nov. xcv, 203 p. (Policy Research Working Papers WPS 1016)

    Statistical information and a summary introduction were provided for Eastern Europe and Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East, and North African regions for selected demographic and economic measures. Measures included income, birth and death rates, fertility rates, rate of natural increase, net migration rate, growth rate, infant mortality rate, dependency ratio, and population projections to 2150. Detailed age and sex distributions were also provided. Both World Bank and nonborrower countries were included. The figures were updated from the 1990-91 Edition. The summary described and discussed recent demographic trends and future projections, and reviewed countries and regions by income level. Noteworthy changes by country were indicated. World Bank borrower countries were divided into the following regions: sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia, Europe and Central Asia, Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean, which were regrouped into 4-6 country departments and into 4 income groups. The largest population was in East Asia and the Pacific with 30% of world population. Other large regions included South Asia with 21%, Africa with 10%, Europe and Central Asia with 9%, Latin America and the Caribbean with 8%, and the Middle East and North Africa with 5%. Country departments reflected the regions as a whole, with the exception of sub-Saharan Africa with growth rates of 32.% to 2.8%. East Africa had the highest rates and Sahelian and South African countries the lowest rates. The Middle Eastern countries had rates of 3.0% in contrast to North African countries rates of 2.7%. Diversity was greatest in Asian departments. Rates were 2.0-2.6% in South Asia and 1.9-1.4% in East Asian and Pacific departments. The lowest rates were in European and Central Asian departments. In 1992, less developed countries comprised 77% of the world population. The projections indicated that by 2150 the population would reach 12.2 billion, of which 88% would live in developing countries. The 1992 projections differed from 1990-91's in that the projections were revised downward due to AIDS mortality. World fertility was projected to decline from 3.2 now to 2.9 by 2000 and 2.4 by 2025. Life expectancy was expected to reach 70 years in about 2010. The proportion aged would rise in more developed countries.
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  7. 7
    084889

    International migration in North America, Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa: research and research-related activities.

    Russell SS

    Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, 1993. v, 83 p.

    As a joint effort of the World Bank and the Economic Commission for Europe, the aim of this report was to identify international migration research and research-related activities in major political and institutional context, general overviews, and data sources, migration is discussed in terms of demography, international policies, economic and labor market aspects, highly skilled workers, development, integration, migration networks, ethnic relations, refugees and asylum seekers. East-west migration is also treated in a political and institutional context, with general overviews and data sources cited. The development and labor markets as well as ethnicity and return migration are considered. South-north migration is examined in a broad manner, with special emphasis on migration in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. The review is meant to serve as a useful resource and as a stimulus for dialogue. Basic data are missing on east-west migration and labor, migration patterns within the Middle-East, and north-south movements other than from North Africa. Basic institutional sources for data and research on international migration are available from the Council of Europe; the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the International Labor Organization; the International Organization for Migration; the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees; the Intergovernmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies in Europe, North America, and Australia; and the European Community. 13 major publications are primary sources of data, of which the most extensive is OECD's SOPEMI Report. 9 sources of data pertain to demographic aspects of migration. The 1986 SOPEMI report and updates document national policies and practices of entry control in OECD member countries; the UN Population Division also published a survey of population policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities policies, including migration policies. The Commission of European Communities also publishes a document on noncommunity citizens. Researchers who have analyzed recent trends are identified, and research papers are cited for labor aspects of migration, highly skilled workers and migration, migration and development, integration and ethnic relations, migrant networks, refugees and asylum seekers, security, return migration, clandestine migration and ethical issues.
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  8. 8
    070823

    Romania.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. v, 36 p. (Report)

    The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
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  9. 9
    071962

    Norway.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 222-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Norway's 1985 population of 4,142,000 is projected to grow to 4,261,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 20.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 21.1% were over the age of 60. 16.9% and 27.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 1.8 to -0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.7 to 12.2, while,e infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 11.4. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 71.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.0 years. Urban population will increase from 72.8% in 1985 to 79.9% overall by the year 2025. All of these levels and trends are considered acceptable by the government. Norway does not have an explicit population policy. A population committee was, however, created in 1981 to consider population and development, especially in the face of ongoing demographic aging. The government works to provide health for the population, maintain the level of immigration, and improve women's status. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  10. 10
    071957

    Netherlands.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 202-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Netherlands' 1985 population of 14,500,000 is projected to grow to 14,691,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 16.5% were over the age of 60. 15.1% and 30.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.8 to -2.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.0 to 78.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.7 to 13.0, while infant mortality will decline from 8.3 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.6 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.5 to 10.4. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 72.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.2 years. Urban population will increase from 88.4% in 1985 to 89.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high immigration and low emigration are not. The Netherlands has an explicit population policy. Fertility should be 15-30% below replacement level over several years in order to stop population growth, the level of immigration should be restricted, and a stationary population should ultimately be smaller than that presently realized. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  11. 11
    071947

    Malta.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Malta's 1985 population of 383,000 is projected to grow to 459,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 23.9% of the population was ages 0-14 years, while 13.8% were over the age of 60. 19.5% and 23.7% are projected to be in these prospective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 7.3 to 1.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase fROm 71.7 to 76.9 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.1 to 11.2, while infant mortality will decline from 12.9 to 6.6. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 2.0 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 17.4 to 13.0. Urban population will increase from 85.3% in 1985 to 92.4% overall by the year 2025. All levels and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. In turn, Malta does not have an explicit population policy. Despite the lack of governmental intervention to influence the birth rate, the government recognizes the need keep rates low. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  12. 12
    071890

    Germany, Federal Republic of.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 14-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The Federal Republic of Germany's 1985 population of 60,877,000 is projected to shrink to 53,490,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 15.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 20.0% were over the age of 60. 16.0% and 31.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from -0.2 to -0.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.7 to 77.33 years, the crude death rate will increase from 12.3 to 15.4, while infant mortality will decline from 10.6 to 5.5. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.4 to 2.0, with a corresponding increase in the crude birth rate from 10.1 to 11.1. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 77.9, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.6 years. Urban population will increase from 85.5% in 1985 to 88.6% overall by they year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. The Republic does not have an explicit population policy. A pro-natalist program launched, however, in 1984 to encourage an additional 200,000 births/year. The government hopes to realize steady population growth, improve the situation of families, provide for individuals' health, and improve spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  13. 13
    071889

    German Democratic Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 10-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    The German Democratic Republic's 1985 population of 16,766,000 is projected to grow to 17,570,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 18.1% were over the age of 60. 19.0% and 25.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to 0.11 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 72.1 to 77.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.1 to 12.5, while infant mortality will decline from 11.1 to 5.4. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.4 to 12.6. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage from 21.5 years. Urban population will increase from 77.0% in 1985 to 84.0% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth and fertility are not. The Republic has an explicit population policy. The government encourages families to have at least 2 or 3 children to effect population replacement. Promoting the family and maternal-child care, supporting large families and newly-wed couples, lowering mortality, and reducing differentials in living and working conditions are stressed. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  14. 14
    071886

    France.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 218-21. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    France's 1985 population of 54,621,000 is projected to grow to 58,431,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 21.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.7% were over the age of 60. 17.8% and 25.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to 0.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.5 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.2 to 11.8, while infant mortality will decline from 9.2 to 5.2. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.5 to 12.1. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 79.0, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.3 years. Urban population will increase from 73.4% in 1985 to 77.3% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and immigration are not. France has an explicit population policy. Concerned over the low growth rate of the native-born population, policy aims to increase fertility an population growth by improving the socioeconomic status of families, lowering the mortality rate, and restricting most types of immigration. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  15. 15
    071885

    Finland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 214-7. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Finland's 1985 population of 4,891,000 is projected to grow to 4,994,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.2% were over the age of 60. 16.5% and 28.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.4 to -2.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.8 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.9 to 13.3, while infant mortality will decline from 6.2 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 10.9. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 80.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.6 years. Urban population will increase from 64.0% in 1985 to 83.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Comparatively high morbidity and mortality among males, however, is of concern. Causes for such excess mortality include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents, and suicide. Finland does not have an explicit population policy. Attention is presently directed toward morbidity and mortality, promoting and supporting the family, and adjusting spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  16. 16
    071852

    Bulgaria.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 82-5. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Bulgaria's 1985 population of 9.071,000 is projected to grow to 10,070,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 22.3% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.33% were over the age of 60. 20.0% and 22.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 4.7 to 1.9 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 71.6 to 76.8 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.0 to 11.6, while infant mortality will decline from 17.6 to 7.2. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.2 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.7 to 13.5. The 1976 contraceptive prevalence rate was 76.0, while the 19890 female mean age at 1st marriage was 221.6 years. Urban population will increase from 66.5% in 1985 to 83.4% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while too low population growth and fertility are not. Bulgaria has an explicit population policy. Demographic policy aims to maintain moderate and stable population growth, provide for individual health, increase job opportunities, and improve living conditions and spatial distribution. Higher fertility and subsequent population growth are encouraged. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discusses, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  17. 17
    071906

    Ireland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 78-81. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Ireland's 1985 population of 3,608,000 is projected to grow to 5,326,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 29.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 14.4% were over the age of 60. 21.0% and 17.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 11.8 to 6.5 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.0 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 9.5 to 7.7, while infant mortality will decline from 10.2 to 5.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.1 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 21.3 to 14.2. The 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.4 years. Urban population will increase from 57.0% in 1985 to 76.4% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while emigration is not. Ireland does not have an explicit population policy. The government does, however, aim to hold present fertility and population growth rates, adjust spatial distribution, and stem emigration. A committee has been charged with the responsibility of advising for emigration welfare services. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  18. 18
    071901

    Iceland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 58-61. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Iceland's 1985 population of 243,000 is projected to grow to 304, 000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 26.6% of the population was aged 0.14 years, while 13.8% were over the age of 60. 18.0% and 23.7% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 12.3 to 2.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.8 to 78.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 7.2 to 9.6, while infant mortality will decline from 6.4 to 5.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.4 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 19.5 to 11.9. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.8 years. Urban population will increase from 89.4% in 1985 to 93.3% overall by the year 2025. All levels and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. Iceland does not have an explicit population policy. Concern is instead focused upon improving rural health services. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  19. 19
    071900

    Hungary.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 54-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Hungary's 1985 population of 10,697,000 is projected to shrink to 10,598,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 21.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 18.2% were over the age of 60. 71.8% and 24.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from-0.3 to -0.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 70.3 to 76.4 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 13.1 to 12.9, while infant mortality will decline from 20.1 to 7.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.9 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 12.9 to 12.3. The 1986 contraceptive prevalence rate was 73.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.0 years. Urban population will increase from 56.2% in 1985 to 67.5% overall by the year 2025. Immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, and fertility are not. Hungary has an explicit population policy. It hopes to increase population growth by increasing fertility and improving living conditions. Additionally, changes are sought in population age structure, mortality, and overall health status of the population. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  20. 20
    071892

    Greece.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 22-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Greece's 1985 population of 9,878,000 is projected to grow to 10,789,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 21.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.8% were over the age of 60. 18.6% and 23.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 4.8 to 0.9 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.0 to 77.7 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.1 to 11.6, while infant mortality will decline from 16.2 to 8.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.2 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.9 to 12.5. Urban population will increase from 60.1% in 1985 to 79.1% overall by the year 2025. Spatial distribution, in part, and insignificant emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and immigration are not. Greece has an explicit population policy. The government hopes to increase fertility, population growth, and improve the quality of health care. Specifically, policy aims to remove disincentives to procreation through the betterment of social services and the quality of life. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  21. 21
    071875

    Denmark.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 174-7. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Denmark's 1985 population of 5,122,000 is projected to shrink to 4,690,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 18.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 20.1% were over the age of 60. 14.1% and 29.7% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from -0.6 to -5.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.5 to 77.5 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.3 to 14.4, while infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise of the period from 1.5 to 1.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 10.7 to 9.1. The 1975 contraceptive prevalence rate was 63.0, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 26.1 years. Urban population will increase form 85.9% in 1985 to 91.8% overall by the year 2025. All of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Denmark does not have an explicit population policy. The government aims to affect neither birth rate nor population growth. Health policy is in place to improve the quality of life, while other measures are being adopted to develop rural areas. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  22. 22
    071871

    Czechoslovakia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 158-61. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Czechoslovakia's 1985 population of 15,579,000 is projected to grow to 18,157,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 24.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 16.3% were over the age of 60. 19.9% and 21.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 3.5 to 2.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 71.0 to 76.7 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 12.0 to 11.0, while infant mortality will decline from 15.9 to 6.5. The fertility rate will remain static over the period of 2.1, and the crude birth rate will drop from 15.4 to 13.8. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 95.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.6 years. Urban population will increase from 65.3% in 1985 to 76.3% overall by the year 2025. All of these trends and indicators are considered to be good by the government. Czechoslovakia has an explicit population policy. The government of Czechoslovakia finds social and economic development to be centrally important in solving population-related problems. Policy therefore shies away from attempting to directly affect population size, and aims instead to improve the age structure, state of health, level of education, and socio-professional composition of the population. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  23. 23
    071951

    Monaco.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 178-81. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Monaco's 1985 population of 27,000 is projected to grow to 35,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 29.0% of the population was over the age of 60, and the crude birth and death rates were 20.0. The growth rate was 0.8, with no rate of natural increase over the period 1980-85. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth and fertility are not. Monaco does not have an explicit population policy. The government does, however, hope to stem future immigration and realize higher rates of fertility. Social welfare, family allowances, and assistance to young married couples are provided to meet this letter objective. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  24. 24
    070170

    Romania.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 46-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Romania's 1985 population of 22,725,000 is projected to grow to 25,745,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 24.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 14.4% were over the age of 60. 18.4% and 20.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.6 to 1.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.6 to 77.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.2 to 10.4, while infant mortality will decline from 26.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.2 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.8 to 12.2. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.0, while the 1977 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.1 years. Urban population will increase from 49.0% in 1985 to 60.9% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, mortality, international migration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while too low fertility is not. Romania has an explicit population policy. Fully-integrated in socioeconomic policy, it aims to increase population growth rates to achieve a target total population of 30 million by the year 2000. The government will encourage higher fertility, lower mortality, a consolidated family, an adjusted age structure, and affirm the role of women as active participants in social development. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  25. 25
    070167

    Portugal.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 34-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Portugal's 1985 population of 10,157,000 is projected to grow to 10,935,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 23.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.0% were over the age of 60. 17.1% and 24.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.1 to 0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 72.2 to 78.8 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.6 to 10.6, while infant mortality will decline from 20.0 to 6.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.0 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.7 to 11.4. The 1979/80 contraceptive prevalence rate was 66.3, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.1 years. Urban population will increase from 31.2% in 1985 to 57.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality and spatial distribution are not. Portugal does not have an explicit population policy. Socioeconomic measures are, however, in place to address spatial distribution, and support emigration and the return of emigrants, education, social security, health, and family planning. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data system are also explored.
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