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Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, . 15 p.Ukraine is at a critical point in its response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country has the highest rate of HIV infection prevalence in Europe and the CIS, about one per cent of the adult population. At the heart of generating an effective national response on HIV/AIDS are committed, mobilized leaders who are speaking out and taking action in their respective spheres of influence. Analysis of successful responses around the globe has highlighted leadership as a key ingredient for overcoming stigma and effective action in both prevention and care. Leaders for an effective national response must come from all levels of society -- national, regional and local Government; NGOs; media; schools; youth organizations; and the household. In modern, democratic Ukraine, citizens enjoy unprecedented freedoms and choices. Each leads his or her own life in a very personal way. Faced with the present onslaught of HIV/AIDS such individuals need basic information and support for their safe behaviour choices to avoid infection, for their compassion for those living with the virus and for their inclusion in the nationwide response. (excerpt)
[Kyiv], Ukraine, UNDP, . 11 p.HIV/AIDS presents the greatest challenge to human development the world has ever seen. With nearly 42 million people living with HIV/ AIDS, 20 million already dead and 15,000 new infections daily, its devastating scale and impact constitute a global emergency that is undermining social and economic development throughout the world and affecting individuals, families, communities and nations. HIV/AIDS reverses gains in human development and denies people the basic opportunities for living long, healthy, creative and productive lives. It impoverishes people and places burdens on households and communities to care for the sick and dying, while claiming the lives of people in their most productive years. HIV/AIDS also results in social exclusion and violations of human dignity and rights affecting people's psychological well-being. While the long-term consequences may not yet be visible here, Ukraine is glimpsing the enormity of the problem in its newly independent country. The number of reported cases of HIV infection in the country has increased 20 times in the past five years yielding estimates of 300,000 to 400,000 people already infected, which is approximately 1% of the adult population. The Declaration of Commitment of the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS notes "the potential exists for a rapid escalation of the epidemic". The dynamics of the spread of the epidemic can be indicative of the potential magnitude of future human development impacts, deepening over time and affecting future generations. (excerpt)
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1995. 83 p.The introduction to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Communication for Development Branch's report of activities for 1994 and 1995 notes that restructuring has occurred, which places the branch in the Research, Extension, and Training Division of a newly created Sustainable Development Department. Because the other divisions in the department are concerned with rural development, agrarian reform, women and people's participation, and the environment, this restructuring will allow such problems as food security, conservation of natural resources, and income generation to be approached in a coordinated, holistic manner. The restructuring also represents formal recognition of the technical nature of activities that fall under the heading "communication for development." This report records the Communication for Development Branch's activities for 1994 and 1995 by highlighting some of the innovative communication techniques that are being pioneered in various projects. Important goals of the branch have been to emphasize radio and traditional communication, to establish electronic information systems that can be managed by their users, to help governments create national communication for development policies, to help national rural development communications institutions to become financially self-sufficient, and to further the integration of communication into the FAO's technical activities. The various projects are presented by country for the regions of Africa, Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and the Near East. Multimedia materials and publications produced during this period are listed as are other recent productions of the branch.
London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1994; 15(3):298-9.A World Health Organization annual award was established in 1985 for outstanding contributions by any person(s), institution(s), or nongovernmental organization(s) towards strengthening health education in primary health care. The award for 1992, consisting of a cash prize of US$ 5000 to be used for continuing health education activities, was conferred on Sezione Sanitaria, Dipartimento delle Opere Sociali, Bellinzona, Switzerland, for work on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Since 1984 extensive health education activities have been carried out in the Swiss Canton of Ticino (Tessin) to increase people's awareness of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and to encourage them to modify their behavior. Personal contacts were made with families; the press, radio, television, and cinema carried informative messages; promotional material was widely available, and brochures were distributed to each household. A multidisciplinary approach with the close collaboration of professional organizations, commercial firms and nongovernmental organizations was successful in convincing people to change their lifestyles. 12 of the 15 risk factors showed an improvement over the control zone, and a decline of 26% in cardiovascular mortality was recorded for the canton as a whole.
REVISTA PAULISTA DE MEDICINA. 1989 Jan-Feb; 107(1):47-52.In the fight against maternal mortality, the WHO recommended that developing countries adopt effective measures to reduce its high prevalence. One measure is the improvement of data about maternal deaths and major risk factors during pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium. Official figures are underreported by 50% or more, and the cause of death tends to be attributed to an immediate preceding complication. In the US, maternal mortality declined from 37/100,000 live births in 1960 to 8/100,000 in 1984; in Chile from 299 in 1960 to 45 in 1984; in Ecuador from 270 in 1960 to 189 in 1984; and in Paraguay from 327 in 1960 to 283 in 1984, a barely noticeable reduction. Strategies that improve knowledge include the keeping of statistics; epidemiological investigations (case control studies); and the formation of committees on maternal death, which are composed of highly regarded professionals (the UK, Chile, and Cuba obtained good results with them). The education of the populace by radio, television, and print media to utilize prenatal assistance is another measure. The human resources, location, and minimum instrumentation of these health centers are basic requirements. Most maternal deaths occur in hospitals of inadequate staff and material resources. The traditional birth assistant training program of Ceara state, Brazil, is a model for others. Caesareans save many lives in complicated deliveries, but in Sao Paulo state, more than 80% of some groups choose it without justification. Assistance Needs to be extended into the puerperium to monitor normal involution of the genital organs, to confirm normal lactation, and observe any pathology present during pregnancy. Cardiopathy, renal insufficiency, chronic hypertension, grand multiparity, and advanced maternal age are high risk factors for pregnancy. Postabortion deaths account for more than half of mortality in some Latin American countries. In the UK, mortality dropped from 35 in 1969, after the legalization of abortion in 1968 to 8 in 1975. The reverse was observed in Romania when abortion became outlawed. Nonetheless, abortion is a touchy issue and education about contraceptives should be stressed.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992 Jun 22. 4 p.After reviewing 15 HIV prevention projects in 13 countries, the WHO Global Programme on AIDS has concluded that several approaches are effective in changing sexual behavior. The various projects centered around condom marketing programs, mass media campaigns, and friends and co-workers. Mass media campaigns and commercial marketing techniques in Zaire (attractively packaged condoms with appealing names) have resulted in a dramatic increase in condom sales, from <100,000->18 million between 1987-91. The government in Thailand has been able to gain the support of brothel owners and the prostitutes in 66 of 73 provinces to work toward achieving 100% condom use. For example, it penalizes brothel owners who do not comply. In Samut Sakhon, client condom use has reached almost 100%. Mass media campaigns in Switzerland have encouraged people to increase condom use from 8% to 52% between 1987-90, and condom sales have increased almost 2-fold (7.6-13.8 million between 1986-91. The community-based program in Zimbabwe uses prostitutes, actors, and musicians to tell their peers about HIV transmission and infection and encourage them to use condoms. In Tanzania, truck drivers, their assistants, and prostitutes along the trans-African Tanduma highway inform others about AIDS and condoms. In <1 year, condom use among prostitutes along the highway increased from 50% to 91%. Other successful projects include a community-based project in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico where prostitutes serve as peer educators (>85% condom use) and a mass media campaign in the Philippines (96% of youth remembered the campaign). Political will and adequate resources in these efforts will save millions of lives.
[Unpublished] 1989 May. , 79 p. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.4)In February 1987, WHO established the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) to direct and coordinate global AIDS prevention, control, research, and education. GPA is under the Office of the Director with 2 administrative divisions (management, administration, and information and national program support) and 5 scientific and technical divisions (Epidemiological support and research, health promotion, social and behavioral research, biomedical research, and surveillance, forecasting and impact assessment). It coordinates worldwide AIDS surveillance and receives statistics from WHO collaborating Centres on AIDS, Member Countries ministries of health, and WHO Regional offices. From 1985- 1989, the total number of AIDS cases worldwide rose >15 times. As of March 1, 1989, 145 countries reported a total of 141,894 cases with the Americas reporting the highest number of cases (99, 752). This total is, however, an underestimate since AIDS cases are often not recognized or reported to national health authorities. GPA cosponsors international conferences and policy related meetings, such as the annual International Conference on AIDS. Further, GPA collaborates with other UN organizations and other WHO activities, e.g. UNFPA and Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme, regarding the effect of HIV infection on their programs. Some initiatives that GPA spearheaded and coordinates include protecting the global blood supply from HIV, developing a strategy for distribution of condoms and viricides in national AIDS programs, and strengthening research capability. This report also lists regional and intercountry activities, e.g. WHO joined a French organization in producing a film about AIDS in Africa.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-4.Rome surrounds the State of the Vatican City which provides the territorial base of the Holy See, i.e. the central government of the Roman Catholic Church. The population consists of 1000 people mostly of Italian or Swiss nationality, while the work force includes 4000 individuals. Even though Italian is commonly used, official acts of the Holy See are written in Latin. When Italy unified in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy ruled over most of the Papal States, except Rome and its environs, until 1870 at which time Rome was forced to join the Kingdom. On February 11, 1929, the Italian Government and the Holy See signed an agreement recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City, fixing relations between the church and the government, and providing the Holy See compensation for its financial losses. Pope John Paul II, the first nonItalian Pope in almost 5 centuries and a Pole, is the present leader of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Holy See and the State. The Roman Curia and its staff, the Papal Civil Service, assists the Pope in ruling the Holy See. The Curia, directed by the Secretariat of State, includes 9 Congregations, 3 Tribunals, 12 Pontifical Councils, and offices that handle church affairs at the highest level. Since the 4th century, the Holy See has had diplomatic relations with other sovereign states and continues so today. Presently, it has nearly 80 permanent diplomatic missions in other countries and carries on diplomatic relations with 119 nations. In addition, the HOly See participates in diplomatic activities with international organizations which include the UN in New York and Geneva, UNESCO, the European Economic Community, and other related organizations. The United States has had relations with the Papal States form 1797-1870. The US and the Holy See reestablished diplomatic relations on January 10, 1984.
JORDEMODERN. 1987 Jun; 100(6):172-3.As long as breast-feeding in the developing and developed countries is threatened by bottle-feeding and too early introduction of supplementary diets, the discussion about how breast-feeding is best protected must be kept alive within the organizations and the mass media. Representatives of the Swedish private organizations' foreign assistance programs participated in a seminar on April 3, 1987 in Stockholm, arranged by the Nordic Work Group for International Breast-Feeding Questions in cooperation with International Child Health (ICH). Breast-feeding increased strongly in Sweden during the 1970s, but bottle-feeding is still the norm in large parts of Europe and continues to increase in the developing countries. 6 years have passed since the international code for marketing of breast milk substitutes (even called the child food code) was approved by WHO, in 1981. It contains rules that limit companies' marketing efforts and establish responsibilities and duties that apply to health personnel. The application of these rules is slow and differences between company policies and practice exist. In a larger perspective, we are dealing with the position and significance of woman and children within the family and society. During a WHO meeting in 1986, a resolution was adopted that reinforces the content of the code, e.g., it stops the distribution of free breast milk substitutes to the hospital, where free samples are often given to leaving mothers. The WHO countries also expressed negative feeling toward marketing child food during a period where breast-feeding may be affected negatively. How the resolution is going to be implemented in Sweden is not yet known. There are signs that even in Sweden the existence of the code is being forgotten. The seminar participants recommended that the Social Board issue a simplified and easily read reminder about the code for wider distribution in Sweden.
A world of difference: the international distribution of information: the media and developing countries.
Paris, France, Unesco, . 114 p. (Communication and Society 15; COM-85/WS-7)Describing the international debate on information and communication, this document deals with the debate on Freedom of Information, pursued at the UN in the years following World War II, considers the theme of Unesco's work in the field, mostly in the 1970s in the context of the emerging discussion of a new world information and communication order; and traces the development of the International Program for the Development of Communication (IPDC) from its origins to the present day. The survey and analysis ofthe debate which has taken place in the UN system from 1946 to the present concerning freedom of the press and distribution of information suggests an inevitable conclusion. 30-40 years ago the governments of Western countries and the most influential representatives for the press in those same countries were much more willing to emphasize the societal responsibilities of the media on an international level than they are today. At that time, all the Western nations supported the proposal for a Convention on the International Right of Correction. Widespread agreement existed in support of establishing an international committee which would be able to issue identification cards to journalists on dangerous assignments on the condition that they pledged to conduct themselves in accordance with the principles of journalistic integrity. The Western countries supported a recommended draft for an international code of ethics for information personnel. 1 of the reassons for the change in attitudes on these issues is that influential media organizations in the US decided that as far as international press issues were concerned they would be better served if governments were not involved. The attitude of rejecting all international negotiations on global mass communication cannot be maintained in the long run. No government can avoid influencing media activities by means of laws, fiscal policies, and government regulations. And, the flow of information continues to transcend national boundaries. The need for international action is increasing, not only as far as allocating frequency bands and satellite capacity is concerned, but also to narrow the gap between South and North and to promote the contribution of the media towards solving the common problems facing humankind. In the 3rd world, it is essential to adopt a long-term perspective on media development. Measures which appear to benefit authoritarian rulers in the short run may prove to promote freedom of the press in a longer perspective. When individuals in a position of power see that people do not trust media which lie about reality in their country, they may recognize the value in freeing the media from political monitoring.
Family Planning Perspectives. November-December 1977; 9(6):286-292.When Margaret Sanger initiated the American birth control movement in the early twentieth century, she stressed female and sexual liberation. Victorian views on morality have since combined with the compromises necessitated to achieve legitimacy for the movement to lead to a desexualization of the birth control movement. The movement's communication now concentrates on reproduction and ignores sex; it emphasizes family planning and population control but does not mention sexual pleasure. Taboos against publicity concerning contraceptives are more powerful even than laws restricting the sale or distribution of contraceptives themselves in many countries. The movement must recover its earlier revolutionary stance.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
In: Draper, E. Birth control in the modern world. Harmondsworth, England, Penguin, 1965. p. 247-279The history of the fight for public support of contraception is given beginning with Malthus and continuing through Francis Place and Jeremy Bentham. The pulbications of Marie Stopes and the gradual liberalization of court attitudes toward contraception are given. Since 1 of the most widely used methods to disseminate birth control information had been the advertisements of manufacturers, the Birth Control Investigation Committeee, a group of researchers, started an approved products list. This has gradually grown into the research and testing division of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The Family Planning Association of Great Britain found that contraception was not freely available through commercial and medical sources, so in 1931 it began setting up clinics and selling contraceptives by mail. The growth of IPPF and the international distribution of contraceptive information and the contraceptives themselves is detailed. Unfortunately magazines and newspapers of general family interest often have bans against contraceptive advertising, although they are beginning to cover population and birth-control issues.
London, IPPF, 1975. 47 p.Family planning has been increasingly oriented towards young people. In 1975 the Family Planning Associations will have to deal with 2 problems: 1) as a result of rapid and increased expansion of youth projects, workers have difficulty in keeping current with news and developments; and 2) as there have been many changes in the approaches, concepts, and attitudes toward youth, the ideas need to be put into context. The objective of "Where next?" is to resolve these problems. It is directed particularly to the information and education officers in family planning associations but will generally be of interest to those working in the area of youth and development. The function of the bulletin is twofold - to provide information on activities of interest involving the International Planned Parenthood Federation and Family Planning Associations and to stimulate new thoughts and ideas. The publication is divided into 5 sections. The 1st section presents information on activities in international youth nongovernmental organizations and family planning associations along with a summary of the different types of youth involvement and youth oriented activities. This is followed by a history of International Planned Parenthood Federation activities and a summary of policy. In the 3rd section attention is given to youth representation and how it works along with the issue of target groups and problems encountered in the effort to reach them. The 4th section concentrates on ideas for action and is followed by a discussion of available resources which include films and audio visuals, source books, educational materials, and information packages.
Infant and young child nutrition, including the nutritional value and safety of products specifically intended for infant and young child feeding and the status of compliance with and implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: report by the Director-General.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, March 1983. 39 p.This report to the Health Assembly is presented in 3 parts: Part I--a summary of the present global nutritional situation with particular reference to infants and young children--is based on an initial reading of the results of national surveillance and monitoring activities in over 50 countries. Part II has been prepared in accordance with resolution WHA34.23 which requested the Director-General to report to the Assembly on steps taken to assess the changes that occur with time and under various climatic conditions in the quality, nutritional value and safety of products specifically intended for infant and young child feeding. Part III, in accordance with resolution WHA34.22, summarizes information provided by Member States on action being taken to give effect to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. It should be read in conjunction with section VI of the Director-General's progress report which informed the 35th World Health Assembly of action taken by WHO and its Member States in the field of infant and young child feeding. In light of the information on the implementation of the Code contained in these 2 reports, and in the absence of any suggestions from Member States for change, the Director-General considers that it would be premature, at this time, to propose any revision of the text of the Code, either its form or content. The Health Assembly's attention will be drawn, in future biennial progress reports on infant and young child feeding, to any development which may have a bearing on the International Code, in accordance with its Article 11.7 and resolution WHA33.32.
Universitas. 1983 Dec; 25(4):253-63.Unescos reports on the gap existing in mass media between the developed and the developing countries shows that in 1978 the 3rd world countries accounted for 70% of the world population, but only 22% of the published book titles, 9% of newsprint consumption, 18% of the radio receivers, and 12% of the television receivers. The contrast is more noticeable with the extremely marked urban rural gap in Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. Although illiteracy is "overleaped" by radio and television, in vast regions of the world participation in the "information-based society" does not go beyond a transistor radio of limited range. The progress in technological development might result in widening further the development gap between North and South in the field of information and communicaton. Research and development are possible almost only in the industrial countries and a few "threshold countries" such as India or Brazil. Satellites, cable networks, or networks of television transmitters confront most developing countries with unsolvable financing problems and human resources needs. While technology can make communications easier in many respects, nearly all developing countries areunable to establish the link to the information-based society with their own resources. Some theorists in North and South either negatethe need for such a link or question it. The international debate in recent years shows that the developing countries recognize both the apparent dangers and the great opportunities of the modern information and communication media: "drop out of the system" has changed to better participation, both in its products and in its control. The essence of the "media declaration" passed by the Unesco general conference in 1978 is a double commitment on the part of the member countries to the goal of a "free flow and a wider and better balanced dissemination of information" and to cooperation in the expedited building up of the inadequate structures in the developing countries. How this commitment is to be realized remains the most important issue for the future. In nearly all developing countries much needs to be done before a functioning media system which reaches all citizens and can be used by everyone is achieved. The Federal Republic of Germany, as a donor country and through government channels, political foundations, and nongovernment organizations, has given 1 billion deutsch marks for media aid to developing countries. The main emphasis is on the supply of equipment and material and on training and consultative assistance. For several years cooperation in the building of new agencies has been a priority, and it is hoped that this will continue so that the media declaration of 1978 can be kept.