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  1. 1
    101400

    Country statement submitted by the government of Slovakia.

    Slovakia

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 311-6.

    The population of Slovakia was 5,268,935 in 1991, of which 25.3% were aged under 14 years, 59.9% aged 15-59 years, and 14.8% aged 60 years and older (retirement). Demographic changes include population aging and urbanization. Marriage is declining, and 4% of the population is divorced. The time span for first marriages has narrowed to 18-22 years for women and 21-25 years for men. The number of premarital pregnancies has risen. Marriages among pregnant women have doubled (44% of all marriages). Single-parent families with children account for 10.4% of all households, of which 80% are headed by women. Between 1955 and 1990, the population increased by 41%, the birth rate declined by 43.2%, and the death rate increased by 17%. The aging of the population is expected to be more intense after 2005. Slovakia is aware of UN conventions and protocols on migration and expects migrants to stay only temporarily. Humanitarian centers and private homes are used for housing refugees. Illegal immigration involves primarily Turkish citizens of Kurdish origins. Life expectancy is 67 years for men and 75 years for women. Mortality is high among the working age population. Mortality distributed by age is as follows: 53.6% among persons 70 years and older, 22.3% among persons aged 60-69 years, 21.8% among people aged 15-60 years, and 1.8% for those aged under one year.
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  2. 2
    101402

    Country statement submitted by the government of Sweden.

    Sweden

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 325-30.

    Population growth in Sweden has been unregulated. The total fertility rate of 2.1 is at replacement level and satisfactory. The aging of the population is expected to occur around 2010. Immigration in 1991 was 44,000 persons, with 18% from other Nordic countries, 61% claiming relatives in Sweden, and 35% claiming refugee status. During 1992, 60,000 refugees from the former Yugoslavia requested asylum. The large numbers of asylum-seekers has resulted in a policy shift that restricts entrants to those fulfilling the UN definitions. The immigration policy has been in effect since 1968 and was formulated without any connection to population policy. Sweden has ratified UN conventions on migrant workers and has been part of the free Nordic labor market, which allows freedom of labor migration between Scandinavian countries. 85% of Swedish mothers have worked outside the home. Family policy is supportive of the dual roles of working and child care. There is a parental insurance system which compensates for lost income for both parents while caring for a newborn child at home. Day care facilities meet demand, and there is financial support for families with children, particularly single-parent families. Consensual unions are common. Contraceptives and family planning services are readily available. Life expectancy is 74.8 years for males and 80.4 years for females. Health inequalities linked to socioeconomic groups have been addressed by the 1992 establishment of a National Institute of Public Health. Sweden has played a dominant role in international development since the 1960s. 7.0% ($165-170 million) of Sweden's total foreign aid program was directed to population issues in 1992. Strategies focus on human rights, socioeconomic factors, and unbalanced development. Many countries in Africa have received support. Women are viewed as key to development and population issues for health, ethical, social, and human rights reasons. Sweden is also concerned about the relationship between environmental degradation, natural resource depletion, and population issues.
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  3. 3
    101395

    Country statement submitted by the government of Poland.

    Poland

    In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 261-71.

    Economic changes in Poland have restricted social welfare development and services. Population has been below replacement level since 1989, and life expectancy has declined with a relatively high infant mortality. There is considerable emigration of the young and skilled, and 2.5 million were unemployed in 1992. There will be an increase in the population aged 45-64 years and among pensioners. Although there is no formal population policy, the government has aimed to reach replacement level fertility, to improve the quality of life, to balance the distribution of the population, and to formulate better international agreements on economic migration into and out of Poland. There is public concern about uncontrolled immigration from countries of the former Soviet Union, since Poland is a transit stop for refugees on their way to Germany or Scandinavia. Preferential treatment is been given to Polish migrants in the former Soviet Union. Illegal foreign labor has increased, and crime is a problem. There are plans for policy reform and for the establishment of an Immigration Office. Marriage is declining, and cohabitation is increasing. The birth rate declined from 19.7/1000 in 1983 to 14.3 in 1991. 8% of total births were to juveniles, 6% were born out of wedlock, and 8% were low birth weight. Contraception is available through pharmacies; sterilization is not performed, and abortion regulations are under debate. Unfavorable lifestyles and health behaviors contribute to a poor health situation and an increase in male mortality in all age groups. Circulatory system diseases are a primary cause of death, followed by cancers, injuries, and poisoning. Infant mortality was 15.0/1000 live births in 1991, mostly due to perinatal complications (50%) and developmental defects (27%). Hepatitis B infection is high in Poland, with 30 cases/1000; tuberculosis is declining, but was still high at 42.3/100,000 in 1990 and accounted for 40% of all infectious disease mortality. HIV infections numbered 1996 cases by 1991. Life expectancy is 66.1 years for males and 75.3 years for females. The Polish health strategy conforms to WHO directives and emphasizes general health promotion and at-risk populations. Poland is particularly concerned about population problems in the Eastern and Central European region and in countries of the former Soviet Republic.
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