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HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1996 Apr; 6(1):101-3.The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action mainly focuses upon empowering women so that they can make their own reproductive decisions using contraception and health care provided by health systems. However, male reproductive health also should be considered, thereby requiring attention to urology and infertility, as well as gynecology in the reproductive health services. The program of action, however, fails to consider men except for when they are asked to support women. Men are asked to support and not interfere with women, consistent with the North American feminist demand that women have total control. The authors consider the truth about the prevailing generalities about men's and women's roles and relationships. Their positions are based upon ethnographic field research among working-class people in Istanbul during 1994 and 1995. The narratives assembled through their research warn against presuming knowledge of whether the man or the woman controls fertility. One cannot say that the use of male methods of contraception means that men have absolute power over fertility control.
PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1991 May; 20(1):27-8.The Tbilisi Declaration of 13 October 1990 approved by participants at an international conference supported by UNFPA, WHO/Europe, PPF/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute is printed in its entirety. The original conference document was altered inspite of IPPF Europe Regions' protestations and final approval that the conference document remain intact. In dispute was the last sentence in the "contraception reduces abortion" section, which originally left out the modifiers and stated that with appropriate backup, simple safe inexpensive ... procedures exist for use in PHC settings. ILPPF urged government agencies to change participant's views; a position expressed and agreed with in Tbilisi. The document itself is concerned with the right to reproductive health, a major public health problem, contraception reduces abortion, and the impact of legislation. The UNFPA formal position on abortion is stated as "not a means of family planning;" government support does not imply endorsement of national policy. UNFPA is concerned with increases in the availability of family planning. Participants agreed that couples and individuals have the right to decide freely, responsibly and without coercion the number and spacing of children, the right to reproductive health, self-determination, and that every child should be a wanted child. Recognition was given to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion as major public health and social problems. Also, it was recognized that abortion rates are highest in countries with weak education in FP and sexuality and constraints on women. Criminal sanctions have no impact on the abortion or birth rates, but are associated with unsafe abortion. Abortion can be reduced through family planning. There is need for 1) high quality reproductive health services that respect women's autonomy and dignity; 2) early sex education; 3) lifestyle changes to place responsibility also on men for contraception, family formation, and rearing; 4) increased government funding for service and training. Central and East Europe are in greatest need. The goal of the document was to insure life which contributes to one which is rich and joyful.